डा. कवितारामको जीवनी, व्यक्तित्व र कृतित्व (एम ए नेपाली शोधको किताबीकरण )


 डा. कवितारामको जीवनी, व्यक्तित्व  र कृतित्व
(
lqljlj, एम ए  नेपाली शोधkqको किताबीकरण )
- गोपालप्रसाद खतिवडाद्वारा

k|sfzs sf}lzsL k|lti7fg, sf7df8f}F .
 


-lqe''jg ljZjljBfno :gftsf]Q/ txsf] zf]wkqdf cfwfl/t_

uf]kfnk|;fb vltj8f

k"jf{Woog ls e"ldsf Û

–  k|f= /fh]Gb| ;'j]bL, k|d'v g]kfnL ljefu, lqlj

:gftsf]Q/ txsf] zf]wkq tof/ ug]{ qmddf ul/g] cWoogn] klg g]kfnL efiff, ;flxTo / nf]s;flxTosf] Oltxf;, ljj]rgf, cGj]if0f nufotsf sfo{x¿ ck|ToIf ¿kdf kl/k"lt{ ePsf 5g\ . o;} l;nl;nfdf tof/ ePsf] æ;flxTosf/ sljtf/fd, JolQmTTj / s[ltTjÆ zLif{ssf] s[ltsf n]vs >L uf]kfnk|;fb vltj8faf6 tof/ ePsf] s[lt cfkm}Fdf lgs} dxTTjsf] ;fdu|L ag]sf] 5 .

k|:t't s[ltsf] tof/Ldf sljtf/fd >]i7sf] hLjgLsf JolQmTj, kfl/jfl/s hLjgj[Q, lzIfflbIff, ;+:yfut ;ª\nUgtfsf ;"rgfx¿ oxfF ;dfj]z ePsf 5g\ . afXo / ;fj{hlgs JolQmTjsf b[li6n], g]kfnL ;dfhsf] ;fdflhs hLjgnfO{ ;fy{s agfpg] b[li6n], g]kfnL ;flxTosf dfWodaf6 ;fdflhs hfu/0f, :jf:Yout ;~r]tgf, ;f+:s[lts pTyfg / cfly{s clej4{gsf lglDt ul/g] k|of;df gofF / l;h{gfTds b[li6 lj:tf/ ug]{ sfo{df >]i7sf] hLjgrof{ ;fy{s /x]sf] 5 . >]i7 g]kfn / cd]l/sf b'a} b]zdf a/fa/ cfjthfjt / a;f]af; ug]{ x}l;ot k|fKt JolQmTj ag]sf] b]lvG5 .

o; s[ltnfO{ vltj8fn] hDdf !) v08df ljeQm x'g] u/L Joj:yf u/]sf 5g\ . o;df hLjgLsf ;du| cfofd / cfotgsf] ;d'lrt j0f{g ul/Psf] 5, >L >]i7sf] JolQmTjsf] cfofd ;d]6\g k|oTg ul/Psf] 5 . o; cltl/St >]i7sf] n]vg ofqfsf l;h{gf, ;dLIf0f, lrGtg / ;dfhzf:qLo cWoogsf ljifox¿sf] ;d'k:yfkg ul/Psf] 5 . …g]kfnL afnpkGof;sf] ljsf;qmd / sljtf/fdsf] pkGof; ;flxTosf] cWoogÚ zLif{ssf] kfFrf}F] cWofosf] ljlgof]hgdf Jojl:yt cWoog ePsf] 5 . cf7f}F cWofodf …sljtf/fdsf sljtf, lgaGw / ;xn]vg ul/Psf s[ltx¿sf] cWoogÚ ul/Psf] 5 . hDdfhDdL bzj6f v08df Joj:yfkg ul/Psf s[ltx¿ hLjgL, JolQmTj / s[ltTjsf] ;ª\nUgtf ;d]tsf] cWoogsf] ;Gbe{af6 k|:t't s[lt sljtf/fd >]i7nfO{ Ps} ;Gbe{df ;d]6]/ cWoog ug{ rfxg] kf7ssf lglDt dxTTjk"0f{ / pkof]uL ;fdu|Lsf ¿kdf tof/ ePsf] 5 .

o; lsl;dsf] cWoog, cg';Gwfg / ;dLIf0f sfo{ ug]{ >L uf]kfnk|;fb vltj8f cfkmF}df awfOsf kfq ag]sf 5g\ . cWoogsf] ljifo If]q ag]sf sljtf/fd >]i7 klg o; s[ltsf dfWodaf6 kf7s hutdf Ps} kl/lwleq ;d]l6P/ ;xh u|fXo ag]sf 5g\ . o; u|fXotfn] pgnfO{ klg ;Ddfg / cg';Gwfgsf] kfq agfPsf] 5 . o; lsl;dsf] dxTTjk"0f{ u|Gy k|sfzg ug]{ k|sfzs / o; s[ltsf] ul/dfnfO{ kf/v ug]{ ;a} kIfx¿ ;fy{s l;4 ePsf 5g\ .

lgisif{ s] xf] eg] ;flxTosf o:tf Joli6–Joli6 cWoogn] ;du| ;flxTosf] cWoognfO{ kf]if0ftTTj k|bfg ug{;Sg] kl/0ffdk|lt ljZj:t aGg ;lsG5 . o:tf] cWoog :gftsf]Q/ txsf cg';Gwftf, ljwfjfl/lw txsf cg';Gwftf / casf] ;Gbe{df Pd=lkmn= txsf cWotfx¿n] u/]sf cWoog / cg';Gwfgn] g]kfnL ;flxTo n]vgsf lglDt ;fdu|Lsf] ;Íng, cfofdsf] lj:tf/ / gjgj d"No, k|j[lQ, lrGtg / z}nL, lzNk ;d]tsf] cfljisl[t k"0f{ åf/ pb\3f6g ug{;S5 eGg] s'/f klg ljZjf; ug{ ;lsG5 .

cGtdf o:tf] ;Tsfo{sf] ;DkGgtfsf lglDt tg, dg, jrg, wg ;a}lt/af6 h'6\g]x¿k|lt ;fb/ clegGbg Û


–  k|f= /fh]Gb| ;'j]bL, k|d'v g]kfnL ljefu, lqlj

 


8f= sljtf/fd >]i7sf] hLjgL JolQmTj / s[ltTj

-lqe''jg ljZjljBfno :gftsf]Q/ txsf] zf]wkqdf cfwfl/t_

uf]kfnk|;fb vltj8f


kl/R5]b– Ps


hGd / hGd:yfg

;flxTosf/ sljtf/fd >]i7sf] hGd lj=;+= @))$ ;fn df3 !! ut]sf lbg cf]vn9'Ëfsf] /fdahf/df ePsf] xf] . logL lktf gGb/fd >]i7 / cfdf dgdfof >]i7sf Ho]i7 ;'k'q x'g\ . logsf] Gjf/gsf] gfd ?b|axfb'/ >]i7 xf], h;cg';f/ logsf] /flz t'nf x'g cfpF5 .1

sljtf/fdsf b'O{{j6L alxgLx¿ / tLghgf efOx¿ 5g\ . h]7L alxgL afns'df/L xfn sf7df8f}Fd} a;f]af; u5{g\ . sfG5L alxgL d~h' a]nfotdf a:5g\ . dfOnf efO s'Gbg >]i7 w/fgdf a:5g\ . ;fOFnf a]0f' >]i7 xfn cd]l/sL gful/s eO{ pt} a;f]af; u5{g\ eg] sfG5f o0f' -/f]zg_ rflxF a]nfotsf] gful/s eO{ pt} a;f]af; ub{5g\ . hGd:yfg cf]vn9'Ëf eP tfklg lktfsf] a;fO;/fOsf sf/0fn] sljtf/fd w/fg cfP . xfn pgL sf7df8f}F, cgfdgu/df a;f]af; u5{g\ . cfˆgf] k'Vof}{nL:yn cf]vn9'Ëf;Fu klg logsf] ;DaGw /lx/x]s} 5 .

k'vf{

sljtf/fd >]i7n] ;'g]sf] lsDabGtLsf cg';f/ pgsf k'vf{x¿ eQmk'/ tn]h' ejfgL dlGb/sf k'hf/L ;xfos lyP . logLx¿sf] y/ b]pa~hf/ kmf/k'msL xf] . sljtf/fdsf] k'Vof}{nLsf] syf crDdsf] 5 . lsDabGtL cg';f/ b]pa~hf/ kmf/k'msL g]jf/x¿ eQmk'/ tn]h' ejfgL dlGb/sf k'hf/L ;xfos eO{ logsf] k"hfcfhfdf ;+nUg x'g] uy]{ / tflGqs klg lyP . Ps hgf k'vf{ t cfk"mv'zL cg]s ¿k lnO{ ljr/0f ug]{ uy]{ / cledlGqt cIftf 5l/lbPkl5 k'gM dfG5]sf ¿kdf g} kmj{mGy] . Ps k6s oL k'hf/L gfu eP/ lzsf/sf] vf]hLdf /flt aflx/ lg:s]5g\ / /ftsf] rf}yf] k|x/df 3/ kmj]{m5g\ t/ pgnfO{ gfu¿kaf6 dg'io ¿kdf ¿kfGtl/t ug]{ cIftf 5g{ 3/sf dfG5] tl;{Psf sf/0fn] lal;{Pkl5 pgL gfu ¿kdf g} /xg k'u]5g\ / glhs}sf] kf]v/Ldf a;]5g\ . lxhf]cfh klg To; kf]v/Ldf tL gfu cfˆgf] rf]nf abNg s;}n] cIftf 5l/lbG5g\ ls eGg] cfzf u/L 3/tkm{ kms]{/ cfˆgf] lz/ p7fpF5g\ /] . Tolt dfq xf]Og, pgsf j+zsf w]/} ;b:ox¿sf] ;kgfdf rf8kj{ tyf z'e lbgx¿df ;k{x¿n] bz{g lbg] k|;Ë w]/} ;'lgG5 /] . tyf ;k{ b]Vg] kl/jf/n] ef]lnkN6} gfu k"hf ug]{ k|rng o; j+zdf 5Fb}5 /] . pgLx¿ cfk"mnfO{ /fFuf], e}F;L gvfg] gfuj+zLo 7s'/L dfG5g\ .

sljtf/fd >]i7nfO{ cfˆgf k'vf{dWo] nIdL ljnf;eGbf dflysfx¿sf] gfd yfxf 5}g . nIdL ljnf;sf 5f]/f /Tg axfb'/ sljtf/fdsf a/fh' lyP . lktfvfn]x¿af6 ;'g]cg';f/ pgsf a/fh' /Tgaxfb'/sL >LdtL afns'df/L lyO{g\ . To; avt pgLx¿ eQmk'/ zx/sf] a+zuf]kfn, t]vfFrf]6f]n6f]nsf] jf/fxLyfgsf] 3/df s/ lt/]/ a:by] . !()& ;fndf pgLx¿nfO{ ToxfFaf6 u'7Ln] lgsfNof] / cfˆgf v]tL 3/ u'G8"df cfO{ a;] . pg} /Tgaxfb'/af6 afh] hLtaxfb'/sf] !(!& ;fndf u'G8"df hGd eof] . hLtaxfb'/sf e}/aaxfb'/ gfdsf Ps bfh' lyP . pgL !(#@ ;fndf :ju]{ eP . pg}sf ;Gtfg b/;Gtfg xfn u'08'df a;f]af; ub}{ 5g\ ;fy} u'08'af6 5'6]/ uPsf Psy/L ;Gtfg af}4df a;f]af; ub}{ 5g\ . afh] hLtaxfb'/sL lbbL x]ndfof / alxgL >Ls'df/L klg lYfP . pgLx¿sf] lax] qmdzM sf7df8f}F gS;fn / eLdkm]bLdf eof] . o; k':tf;Dd sljtf/fdsf k'vf{sf] dft[efiff eQmk'/] g]kfnefiff -g]jf/L_ lyof] . g]kfnL v;efiff pgLx¿ hfGb}gy] . kl5 afh] hLtaxfb'/ cf]vn9'Ëfdf x'nfsLsf] hflu/] eP/ cfP / otfsf g]jf/x¿n] g]kfnefiff af]Ng 5fl8;s]sfn] pgn] klg To;} ug'{kg]{ eof] . cem otfs} sGofx¿;Fu ljjfx u/L zfvf;Gtfg ePkl5 efjL ;Gtfgx¿ ;d]tsf] nflu v;efiff g} dft[efiff aGg k'Uof] . hLtaxfb'/s} kfnfb]lv cf]vn9'Ëf k;]sf k'vf{x¿n] …b]pa~hf/ kmf/k'msLÚ af6 …>]i7Ú y/ n]vfpg nfu] . cf]vn9'Ëfdf of] y/ k"/} ckl/lrt lyof] . ctM otf k|rlnt o;}sf] dfpy/ …>]i7Ú pkof]udf Nofpg'k/]sf] lyof] . cf]vn9'Ëfdf To;avt df:s], jlhdo, /fhe08f/L, cflb cfh k|rlnt b]lvg] g]jf/L y/x¿sf] ;§f …>]i7Ú y/ g} pkof]u ul/GYof] . ptf u'G8'sfx¿n] eg] k'vf{x¿s} rng cg';f/ …kmf/km'sLÚ 5f]8]/ …b]pa~hf/Ú y/nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbP . pgLx¿n] klg klxn]b]lv g} lnvtdf kl5Nnf] c+z …kmf/km'sLÚ nfO{ :yfg lbPsf lyPgg\ . 2

afh] hLtaxfb'/n] cf]vn9'Ëfdf tTsfnLg a8fxflsd / ldlnl;ofsf] P]6g -;}lgs ;]jfdf nK6geGbf d'lgsf] clws[t_ ;Fu ;fem]bf/Ldf ;'g / c;kmL{sf] bf]sfg klg rnfPsf lyP . pgsf] cf]vn9'Ëfdf dflyNnf] tnfdf rkL{;d]t ePsf] d'08f3/ lyof] . cf]vn9'Ëfdf d'08f3/ Tof] g} klxnf] / clGtd klg lyof] . o:tf] 3/ ToxfF Pp6f k|lti7fsf] k|tLs lyof] . cf]vn9'Ëf /fdahf/df cfkm\gf] d'G8f 3/ afx]s 3/ cufl8 / bfofFafofF xfn 5 ^ j6f 3/x¿n] cf]u6]sf 38]/Lx¿ klg pgn] hdfPsf lyP . hflu/ / ;Dkltn] pgL cf]vn9'Ëfdf k|Voft lyP . pgsf >LdtL g} & j6L lyP . $ j6Laf6 pgnfO{ ;Gtfg eP . h]7Laf6 !(%( df wgaxfb'/, gGbs'df/L, afns'df/L / kbd axfb'/sf] hGd eof] . gGbs'df/LnfO{|{ sf7df8f}F, 6]axfnsf] 6S;f/ ghLs lax] ul/lbP . pgLaf6 xL/fsfhL k'q eP . sfG5f kbd axfb'/ rflxF !$ jif{sf] pd]/df v;]] . afh] hLtaxfb'/sL dfOnL >LdtL 9':s] ufpFsL lyOg\ . ltgLaf6 k'8\sL / ;fË] eGg] bnaxfb'/sf] hGd eof] . log} ;fË] hGd]sf] a]nf ;'Ts]/L lbbL :ofxfg{ cfPsL cGbfhL !& jif]{ ;fnLnfO{ %% jif{sf hLtaxfb'/n] /flvlbP / k]6 a:g uO{ sljtf/fdsf lktf gGb/fd >]i7sf] !(&# df hGd eof] . aRrfsf] hGd g} dfOt 9':s]d} eof] . o;/L aRrf hGdfpg] ;fnLnfO{ hLtaxfb'/n] NofOt] ;Ddsf] bhf{ t lbP t/ 3/ eg] leq\ofPgg\ . lbbLrflxFaf6 hGd]sL Pp6L 5f]/L k'8\sLsf] lax] ef]hk'/sf hflu/] d'lvof /Tgaxfb'/;Fu cf]vn9'Ëfd} eof] / csL{ 5f]/L bf]nvfsf] k"0f{axfb'/;Fu eof] . ;fFË]] !(($ ;fndf @@ jif{sf] pd]/df :ju]{ eP . kl5 %^ jif]{ hLtaxfb'/n] csL{ p:t} ;fgL pd]/sL sfG5L >LdtL klg leq\ØfP / ltgLaf6 !(&% df sfG5f] efO ;"o{axfb'/sf] hGd eof] . c¿ tLgj6L >LdtL rflxF klxn]–klxn] afn–aRrf x'g gkfpFb} h;/L cfP, To;/L g} uP . sljtf/fdnfO{ To;af/] s;}n] s]xL geg]sfn] yfxf 5}g .

kl5 hLtaxfb'/sf] x'nfsL hflu/ r}gk'/df ;?jf eof] . r}gk'/ ;?jf eP klg 3/ eg] pgn] cf]vn9'Ëfd} sfod /fv] . hLtaxfb'/ r}gk'/ ;?jf x'Fbf h]7L >LdtLnfO{ ;Fu} nu]sf lyP t/ ltgL pt} Pp6f w/fg] Jofkf/L;Fu kf]On uOg\ . pgLaf6 w/fgdf klg ;Gtfg eP . tL ;Gtfg lxhf]cfh w/fg k'/fgf] ahf/df a;f]af; u5{g\ . hLtaxfb'/ r}gk'/ hfg k/]s} sf/0fn] gGb/fdsL cfdf NofOt]sf] NofOt] g} /lxg\ / ;f}tfx¿n] ltgnfO{ 3/df l9Dsg} lbPgg\ / gGb/fdsf] hGd / kfng klg dfjnLd} x'g uof] .

sljtf/fdsf afh] hLtaxfb'/ Jofkf/sf] l;nl;nfdf ef/tlt/ hfFbf cf}nf] nfu]/ !(*! df cf]vn9'Ëfd} :ju]{ eP . o; avt pgsf] pd]/ ^$ jif{ ePsf] lyof] . pgL :ju]{ x'Fbf h]7fbfO wgaxfb'/ / ;fË] s'g} sf/0fjz cf]vn9'Ëfdf lyPgg\ . ca ;flxFnf] gGb/fd ePsf] / efO ;"o{axfb'/ klg ;fg} ePsf] x'Fbf hLtaxfb'/sf] ;t\ut ug{ cf]vn9'Ë]x¿n] sljtf/fdsf lktf gGb/fdsf] cfjZostf 7fg] . To;jvt gGb/fd ( jif{sf afns lyP / 9':s]ufpF dfjnLsf] z/0fdf lyP . cGttM gGb/fd >]i7nfO{ cf]vn9'Ëf NofOof] . 3f6 nfgnfO{ laxfg;Dd s'g}{kg]{ ljjztf lyof] / Tof] gf} jif{sf] afnsnfO{ /fte/ ghLs}sf] rf}tf/Ldf sfqf]n] a]l/Psf] nfz ?Fu]/ a:g'k/]sf] lyof] . of] rf}]tf/Ldf xfn dflxnf;fx' hutaxfb'/n] agfPsf] kf6L / s[i0f dlGb/ cjl:yt 5 . xfjfn] sfqf] km/km/ xNnfpFbf pgsf] ;ftf] g} hfg] u/]sf] s'/f lktf gGb/fdaf6 sljtf/fdn] ;'g]sf lyP . lktfn] sljtf/fdnfO{ s] eg]sf lyP eg] pgL s[ofk'qL a;]sf] a]nfdf pgsf b'\O{ ;f}t]gL cfdf lktf hLtaxfb'/sf] /]8Lsf] vf:6f] / cf}F7Lsf] nflu df/fdf/ ub}{{ lyP . a"9f] d/]sf] xf] ls xf]Og 6'Ëf] nfUg'cl3 g} pgLx¿n] Tof] vf:6f] / cf}+7L a"9f]sf] hLpaf6 y't]sf lyP c/] . hLtaxfb'/sf] d[To' ePsf] s'/f yfxf kfpgf ;fy bf]sfgsf ;fem]bf/ a8fxflsd / P]6g cfP/ bf]sfgdf rfaL nufP5g\ / !# lbg] sfhs[of ;lsPkl5 efO{ ;"o{axfb'/sf] dfdf hDbf/ aL/axfb'/ >]i7sf] /f]xa/df pgLx¿sf] efusf] ;'g nuL hLtaxfb'/sf] efusf] ;'g rflxF ;"o{axfb'/sL cfdfnfO{ ;'Dk]5g\ . kl5 tL sfG5L ;f}t]gL cfdf ^ jif]{ efO ;"o{axfb'/;fy} ;Dklt ;lxt ahf/s} lr;fkfg] g]jf/;Fu kf]On uOg\ . lr;fkfg]af6 klg ltgsf ;Gtfgx¿ eP / pgLx¿ cf]vn9'Ëf ahf/d} a:5g\ .

sljtf/fdsf a'jf gGb/fd >]i7n] NofOt] kl§sf 5f]/f dflgP/ afNosfndf lgs} ;f:tL e]mNg'k¥of] . pgsf] afNosfn dfjnLd} klg pgnfO{ sd ;f:tL lyPg . dfjnL efOx¿sf] Jojxf/ pgLk|lt slQ ;sf/fTds lyPg . pgLx¿ /ftdf k9\g] uy]{ / ;Fu} k9\g a;]sf gGb/fdnfO{ lstfasf] kGgfn] aQL 5n]/ k9\gdf Jojwfg lbGy] . pgL lbgdf gn sf6\b} c¿n] e6\ØfPsf b'gf]6sf] cEof; uy]{ . 5]qL, afx'gsf] ufpFdf x's]{sf] x'Fbf pgnfO{ ;'g]s} e/df w]/} l;nf]sx¿ cfpFy] . oxL l;nf]s s07 cfpg] Ifdtfsf] sf/0f pgnfO{ cIf/ l;Sg] af6f] aGg uof] . dfdf3/df cIf/ l;Sg gkfPkl5 l;nf]ssf] lstfadf pgn] s07 kf/]sf zAbx¿sf] cIf/ vf]Hg nfu] . o;/L pgn] klxnf] / bf];|f] cIf/x¿ …lxÚ / …nf]Ú eGg] l;Sg k'u] . pgnfO{ k|XnfbelQmsf l;nf]sx¿ s07} cfpy] . To;df klxnf] x/km lyof]– …lxnf] em}F sl;k' lyof t/ 5f]/f eGof sdn em}F lyof .Ú pgn] ToxL l;nf]ssf cIf/x¿ g} Pskl5 csf]{ ub}{ cfkmF}n] l;s] / cGttM afx|v/L To;/L hfGg] eP .

pgL ;fg}b]lv rª\v :jefjsf lyP / pgnfO{ …rª\v]Ú g} elgg] ul/GYof] . kl5 pgL k9\g egL !$ jif{sf] pd]/df cf]vn9'Ëf cfP . pgsf ;f}t]gL lbbL k'8\sL / bfh' ;fË] ;f}t]gL cfdfsf ;Gtfg eP klg cfdfx¿ lbbL alxgL ePsfn] pgLk|lt c¿ ;f}t]gL bfh'efOx¿n] eGbf s]xL ;xfg'e"lt /fVy] . To;}n] gGb/fd pgLx¿s} kl5 nfu] . bfh' ;fË] Jofkf/ uy]{ / efO gGb/fdnfO{ el/of agfO{ ahf/ wfpFy] . PskN6 pgnfO{ ;fË]n] o;/L g} el/of agfP/ xn];L ahf/ nu]5g\ . u'7ufpFsf] psfnf]df ;fx" eOvfÚsf bfh' cl3 nfu] / dfly /}gLsf] hfF8 k;ndf OlqFb} a;]/ gGb/fdnfO{ kv{g nfu]5g\ . gGb/fd cfOk'Ubf bfh'rflxFn] …hfF8 vfG5;\Ú egL ;f]w]5g\ . 5]qL afx'g ufpFdf x's]{sf x'gfn] pgn] hfF8 vfg l;s]sf lyPgg\ / …vfGgÚ eg]5g\ . clg t ;fË] p7\g nfUbf k;NgL /}gLn] …hfF8 gvfO hfG5f} t bfOÚ eGbf …d vfGg el/ofn] klg vfGg eGof] s] ug]{ t ÛÚ eg]5g\ . gGb/fdsf] dg cfkm"nfO{ bfh'n] …el/ofÚ eGbf w'?Ss /f]P5 . To;kl5 ;fË] cl3 nfu] . ef/L af]Sg'kg]{ gGb/fd kl5 5fl8P . gGb/fd ux|f}F dg;fy ef/L af]s/ xn];L cfOk'Ubf /ft emdSs kl/;s]sf] lyof] . bfh'n] eft vfOj/L h'7f efF8fx¿;fy} eft klg /flvlbPsf /x]5g\ . ef]sf] gGb/fdn] ef/L la;fP t/ cfˆgf] nflu yfn kvfNg aflx/ lg:sFbf Pp6f u'x'sf] yf; s'Nrg k'u]5g\ . gGb/fd clt g} 3Lg dfGg] JolQm lyP . To;} klg lbgel/sf] lrQ b'Vbf] ux|f}F dg To;dfly u'x' s'Nrg k'u]sf pgn] eft vfPgg\ . pgn] cfˆgf] efUonfO{ lwSsfb}{ TolQs} /f]P/ /ft sf6] .

k'8\sL lbbLn] klg pgnfO{ ;fy t lbPsL lyOg\ t/ pgsf] x}l;ot gf]s/ ;/xsf] lyof] . pgn] kfgL Nofpg'kYof]{{, eft ksfpg'kYof]{, efF8f df‰g'kYof]{ clg ef~hfx¿ x]g'{kYof]{ . x/]s zlgjf/sf] lbg bfh' wgaxfb'/sf] 3/df ef]het]/ x'GYof] . To; ef]hdf ahf/el/sf t?gLsf ;fy} ufpFb]lvsf c¿ t?gLx¿sf] klg ;xeflutf x'GYof] . o; ef]hdf k'8\sL lbbL / ;fgf] cf7b; jif{sf] efO ;"o{axfb'/ klg x'g] uy]{ . gGb/fd ;a}sf] ;]jfdf plePsf x'Gy] . clg wgaxfb'/n] …sfG5f, syf eg tÚ eGbf Tof] afns efO km'ls{Fb} …;fx"n] nfQn] e'Ss xfg]5 clg vfO; t rª\v] eg]5 cgL rª\v]n] rflxF vfFb}5' afh] eg]5Ú eg]/ lvltlt xfF:bYof] . …rª\v]Ú k|d'v kfq ePsf] nf]ssyfsf] k"gs{ygsf s]xL c+zsf] aRrfsf] egfOsf] :jfbdf wgaxfb'/, k'8\sL / ;a} c¿ t?gLx¿ klg unn xfF:y] / of] PskN6 xf]Og af/Daf/ x/]s hd36df x'g] ub{Yof] . gf]s/ ;/xsf] gGb/fd cyf{t\ rª\v] ;bf ljIf'Jw eP/ /xGy] .

gGb/fd htftt} ckx]lnt lyP . ptf dfOtdf cfdf p:t} ckx]lnt lyOg . cfdfsf] ef/ klg ca pgn] p7fpgkg]{ cj:yf cfOk¥of] . pgn] cfdfnfO{ cf]vn9'Ëfd} NofP . b'j}sf] hLjg b'MvL / c;xfo lyof] . ahf/df bf]k'{n] ;fx"n] pgLx¿nfO{ a:gsf] nflu l5F8Ldf af; lbP . of] 3/ ePsf] 38]/L bf]k'{n] ;fx'n] lktf hLtaxfb'/af6 klxn] ( ¿k}ofFdf lsg]sf lyP . bf]k'{n] ;fx'n] ToxL u'gsf] gftfdf gGb/fdnfO{ cf>o lbPsf lyP . vfg] d]nf]sf] nflu pgn] ahf/df 5 k};f ufu|L kfgL af]s]/ hLjgofqf k|f/De u/] . Pslbg bfh' wgaxfb'/;Fu c+zaf/] g} rsf{rsL{ eof] . gGb/fdeGbf !$ jif{ h]7f wgaxfb'/ alnof afËf lyP / gGb/fd RofFv'/] / ;fgf lyP . wgaxfb'/n] gGb/fdsf] 3fF6L lgrf]l/lbP . gGb/fdn] cfˆgf] arfpsf] nflu Pp6f 9'Ëf t l6k] t/ 3fF6L lgrf]l/Fbf s]xL an lg:s]g . ;f; y'lgP/ dg]{ l:ylt eO/x]sf] a]nfdf k/af6 cN5]sfG5fn] b]v]5g\ / bf}8Fb} cfP/ wgaxfb'/nfO{ Ps d'Ssf s;]5g\ . cN5]sfG5f klg p:t} alnof lyP . To;kl5 wgaxfb'/sf] cN5]sfG5f;Fu nfKkf kg{ uof] .

ahf/df gGb/fdsf] nflu cN5]sfG5fsf] ;bf ;fy /Xof] . To:t} ;xof]u dfYnf] 6f]nsf] uf}/L tfd|fsf/sf] klg lyof] pgnfO{ . t/ cfly{s ¿kn] Psbd} sdhf]/ ePsfn] cfdfsf] s/df b'j} hgf dw];lt/ ePsf dLtafsf]df z/0f kg{ uP . sljtf/fdnfO{ To; 7fpFsf] gfd yfxf 5}g . cfdf5f]/f ToxfF g} sfd ;3fpFb} hLp kfNb} lyP, gGb/fdnfO{ crfSnLsf] ladf/ nfUof] . pgL d/0ff;Gg g} eP . dl/;Sof] eg]/ ufO{sf] ynf]df ;'tfOPsf gGb/fdn] laxfg x'g] a]nfdf …cfR5' cfdfÚ eGg k'u]5g\ . gGb/fd km]l/ afFr] . pgn] sljtf/fdnfO{ ;'gfPsf lyP pgnfO{ od/fhsf] l;kfxLn] 3/sf blng / ;/fx¿sf] aLraf6 nfFb} lyP . cfkm" dl/;s]sf] nfu]/ pgn] eg]5g\ – …d t dl/xfn]F, Tof] d]/f] gofF sfnf] bf}/f;'?jfn d]/f] ;fyL uf}/LnfO{ lbg' x} ÛÚ od/fhsf l;kfxLn] …s] eG5 o;n] <Ú eg]/ XjfQ ToxfFFaf6 3r]l8lbP5g\ . To;}a]nf pgL tn 8Ë v:g k'u]5g\ . v:bf pgnfO{ hf8f] eO/x]sf] lyof] / pgn] af]n]sf lyP– …cf5' cfdf .Ú 3

/ftdf of] 36gf gePsf] eP gGb/fdsf] ;t\ut\ eO{ g} ;Sg] lyof] tyf pgL nufot pgsf efjL zfvf ;Gtfgsf] k|fb'ef{j x'g] g} lyPg . o;/L pgsf] k'gh{Gd dfq ePg sljtf/fd;d]tsf] hGdnfO{ of] dxTTjk"0f{ sfStfnL x'g uof] .4 gGb/fdnfO{ ca ;~rf] x'gnfUof] . t/ dw];df pgLx¿n] a:g rfx]gg\ . ;fdfGo ¿kdf tª\lu|g] lalQs} cfdf5f]/f km]l/ cf]vn9'Ëf g} kmls{P . km]l/ pgLx¿nfO{ ToxL af; lyof] bf]k'{n];fx"sf] l5F8L . kl5 pgsL cfdfsf] d[To' eof] . gGb/fdn] c+zsf nflu bfh' wgaxfb'/nfO{ d'2f xfNg vf]h] t/ wgaxfb'/n] cf]vn9'Ëfsf] h]ndf hDbf/sf] hflu/ vfPsfn] To; avtsf] sfg'g cg';f/ hflu/]sf] lhNnfdf d'2f xfNg kfOGgYof] . To;}n] d'2f xfNg gGb/fdnfO{ k"j{ b'O{{ gDa/ bf]nvfdf hfg' k¥of] . bf]nvfd} pgsf 7"nLcfdfkl§sL lbbLsf] ljx] ePsf] x'Fbf pg} lbbLsf] cf;kf; a;]/ d'2f v]k] . d'2fn] jiff}{+ ;do nfUg] b]v]kl5 gGb/fdn] xf/ vfP . cGttM pgnfO{ ahfl/ofx¿n] g} ;fy lbP / wgaxfb'/nfO{ yf]/} ePklg c+z lbg bafa lbP . lktf hLtaxfb'/nfO{ bfuaQL lbg] k'q g} gGb/fd ePsfn] wgaxfb'/ s]xL xlRsP / bzafx| xftsf] Pp6f 38]/L;fy 8fF8faf/Ldf ^ xn d]nf]sf] hUuf lbP . s]xL gx'g]nfO{ w]/} x'g uof] . v]tfnfx¿nfO{ lbg] vr{ gePsf] sf/0fn] gGb/fd cfkm}Fn] 9'Ëf, df6f, ] kfgL, af]sL hudfg eGg] tfdfªsf] ;xof]udf /ftlbg u/L Pp6f ;fgf] 3/ agfP . e"OFtnfdf cufl8 af/]/ k;n /fVg x'g] rf/ xft hlt rf}8fsf] ;fgf] sf]7f / To;}sf] k5fl8 Toq} rf}8fsf] ;fgf] ;'Tg]sf]7f pgLx¿n] agfP . eftvfg] 7fpFsf] nflu eg] Pp6f ;fgf] ln:gf] /fv]/ dfly xf]rf] w'/Ld'lg aGbf]a:t u/] .

o;/L af; t eof] t/ sdfO s]xL lyPg . gGb/fdn] ;xof]uL bf]k'{n];fx"sf]df uP/ …sfsf s]xL ug{ ;lsPg d'unfglt/ k:g'k¥of]Ú eg]5g\ . ;fx" a"9fn] eg] xf};nf lbFb} pgnfO{ laF8L agfpg] s]xL 9]k k]k/ eGg] sfuh / ;'tL{ lsGg b'O{{k};f C0f lbP5g\ . ca pgn] laF8L agfpg] Jofkf/ ;'? u/] . pgn] cf]vn9'\Ëfdf klxnf]kN6 cQ/ xfn]/ laF8L agfP . o;}n] pgsf laF8L v'a rn] . pgsf laF8L dfOnf ;fx"n] Ps k};fsf] ;q lvNnLsf] b/n] yf]s efpdf lsGby] . pgsf laF8L olQ laSy] ls pgn] /fte/ laF8L agfpg' kb{Yof] . kl5 ahf/sf s]6fs]6Lx¿ klg /ftdf /dfOnf] dfGb} cfP/ pgnfO{ laF8L agfpg ;3fpg nfu] . ca t pgsf] x]kfOt] gfd …rª\v]Ú ;fy pgnfO{ …laF8L sDkgLÚ eGg] k|z+;fo'Qm Joª\Uogfd klg lbOof] .

kl5 pgn] ef/tL5fksL Pp6L sGof;Fu lax] u/] t/ ltgL l5§} kf]On uOg\ . csf]{ lax] 5AaL; ;QfO; jif{sf] pd/df lr;ª\v'sL aL; PSsfO;sL dgdfof -dgys"_ ;Fu lj=;+= @))! ;fnlt/ eof] . dgdfofsf] pd]/af/] sljtf/fdnfO{ :ki6 5}g . dgdfof :jo+n] …gAa];fnsf] e"O{Frfnf] cfpFbf pleg} ufx|f] eP/ a'6f] ;dft]/ cl8Psf] /fd|} ;Demgf 5Ú eg]sL, clg PskN6 ljjfx eO{ ljwjf;d]t ePsL / sljtf/fdsf] hGd ldlt ;d]tnfO{ Wofgdf /fVbf dgdfof gAa] ;fndf nueu gf} bz jif{sL x'g ;lS5g\ . pgLnfO{ gGb/fdn] l3:ofP/ NofPsf lyP . ltgL ljwjf eP/ a;]sL lyOg\ /] / sfd ug klg clt alnoL /] . s]xL alnof cf]vn9'Ë]x¿nfO{ ;fy lnP/ pg}sf dfOtL ufpFsf hDbf/ eGg] If]qLsf] ;xof]udf of] l3:ofpg] sfd ;DkGg ePsf] lyof] . hDbf/n] /ftL klxn] ltgsf e}F;L km'sfP/ cfˆgf] ds}af/Ldf NofP/ 5f]8]5g\ / lrRofP5g\– …P sfG5L Û ltd|f] e}F;Ln] d]/f] ds} vfof] .Ú ltgL x:ofªkm:ofª ub}{ e}F;L lng ds}af/Ldf cfO5g\ . To;}a]nf gGb/fdn] ltgnfO{ RofKk ;dfP5g\ . To;kl5 alnofx¿n] h'?Ss af]s]/ NofO{ l3;f/]/ lax] ug]{ sfd ;lsof]] . :jf:gL Nofpg]n] klxn] 5f]Pkl5 p;}sf] nflu c¿n] l3:ofP klg x'g] rng lyof] To; a]nfdf . log} dgdfofaf6 sljtf/fdsf] hGd eof] .

dgdfofnfO{ NofPsf] a]nf gGb/fdsf] 3/df Pp6f cfwf dfgf] kfSg] lktnsf] s;f}F8L / Pp6f s/fxL clg b'O{6f yfndfq lyP /] . n'uf ksfpg r'nf]df xft xfNbf v/fgL klg lyPg /] . l6gdf n'uf ksfPsf lyP /] ltgn] . t/ ca v]tL ug{ af/L lyof] / laF8Lsf] Jofkf/ t /fd|} rNb} g} lyof] . pgLx¿ b'j}n] /fd|} d]xgt u/] . s]xL ;dokl5 pgLx¿;Fu @) ¿k}ofF hDdf eof] . Tof] a]nf of] /sd w]/} x'GYof] . of] /sd lnP/ gGb/fd sf7df8f}F cfP / Psef/L s;]/ ;fdfg af]s]/ kmls{P . of] ;fdfgn] pgnfO{ w]/} kmfObf u¥of] / kl5 sf7df8f}F / OlG8ofsf] hogu/;d]taf6 el/of nufP/ ;fdfgx¿ NofpFb} Jofkf/ a9fpg nfu] . cf]vn9'Ëfdf klxn] slxNo} glelqPsf ;fdfgx¿sf] nflu pgL b/eËf / snsQf;Dd klg hfg yfn] . o:tf] Jokf/df pgsf] a9L lbnr:kL x'GYof] lsgeg] To:tfdf a9L dfu / efp klg x'GYof] . o;/L pgn] k};f klg sdfP / klxn] t ;Fu} 6fFl;Psf] pgsf] 3/eGbf rf/kfFr bf]Aa/ 7"nf] b'O{{tn] 3/ cfˆg} ;f}t]gL lbbLaf6 lsg] . o;n] pgsf] k|lti7f a9\b} uof] / pgdf dgf]an klg a9\b} uof] .

cf]vn9'Ëfsf] sfª\u|];L /fhgLltdf klg pgL ;+nUg eP / ;ft ;fnsf] qmflGtdf cfˆgf lx;fan] ;Sbf] ;3fP . qmflGtsf] ;kmntfn] dQ eP/ pgn] sfdLx¿nfO{ 3/leq x'n]/ lrofsf] lgDtf];d]t u/] / s]xL ;dosf] nflu ljjfbf:kb dfq ePgg\ hftaf6} sfl9Psf] l:yltdf klg k'u] . t/ of] ;d:of bL3{sfnLg ePg . 3fd k:g] 7fpF;Dd c5'tx¿ k:g ;S5g\ eGg] dfGotfn] pgsf] Tof] cfF6nfO{ klxnf]kN6 cf]vn9'Ëfdf Pp6f ;fdflhs axfgf eof] . jf:tadf pgsf] a9\bf] k|lti7fn] Tof] s'/f]nfO{ TolQs} bafPsf] lyof] . pgL sfª\u|]; kf6L{sf lhNnf sf]iffWoIf tyf k|ltlglw eO{ dxflwj]zgx¿df ;d]t hfGy] . sfª\u|];sf] clkm; ;w}F pgs} 3/df lgMz'Ns /Xof] / g]tfx¿sf] af; a:g] 3/ g} pgsf] lyof] . o; afx]s ;fdflhs sfo{x¿df klg pgsf] p:t} ;+nUgtf x'GYof] . cf]vn9'Ëfsf 6f]n] ;f+:s[lts sfo{qmdx¿df pgL ;bfh;f] d]g]h/ -Joj:yfkg gfOs]_ x'g k'u] . pgdf ;ËLt, ufog / clego snfdf TolQ 9Ë t lyPg t/ 3/d} pgL xfdf]{lgod tanf / d'/nL /fVg] ub{y] / 9Ë gk'Ub} klg afhfx¿ ahfpFy] . ahf/sf gf6sx¿df klg ;fgfltgf e"ldsf lnP/ crDdsf k|of]un] k"0f{ k|:t'ltx¿ lbGy] . PskN6 s[i0fsf] e"ldsf lnFbf pgn] kf];fs t snsQfb]lv NofP/ nufPs} lyP To;df klg z/L/el/ 6r{nfO6sf aNax¿ Hf8]/ d'/nL ltl//L ahfpFbf z/L/el/ emn\emn\ aQL afn]/ bz{sx¿nfO{ rlst kf/] . Pp6f gf6sdf 3f]8f rflxP5 / pgn] afF;sf] rf]ofsf] 3f]8f a'g]/ /ËØfO{ To;leq dfG5] /fv]/ d~rdf 3f]8f lxF8fOlbP . lzIffdf pgsf] b'Mvb ;ª\3if{sf] sf/0fn] pgL o;tkm{ a9L g} ;+j]bgzLn lyP / lhNnfs} Ps dfq :s'nsf] Joj:yfkgdf pgL k|f/Deb]lv g} Ps5q sf]iffWoIf /x] . ;fy} 6f]nsf x/]s sfo{qmddf pgL geP sfo{qmdn] k"0f{tf g} gkfpg] 7fgL ahfl/ofx¿n] h;/L klg pgnfO{ cu'jf ;ldltdf /fVby]] .

pgn] cf]vn9'Ëfdf slxNo} s;}af6 gul/Psf gofFgofF Jofkf/x¿ h:t}, KjfFnf]sf] Jofkf/ / d;nfbf/ ;'ulGwt lrofsf] …x'6]nÚ u/] . snsQf;Dd k'u]/ dfn;fdfg Nofpg] klxnf] JolQm pg} lyP . cf]vn9'Ëfdf /]l8of] leq\Øfpg] klxnf] JolQm pg} lyP . pgn] ef/tlt/}af6 6r{nfO6, nfO6/, u|fdf]kmf]g / /]l8of];d]tsf] d/Ddt ug{ l;s]/ tL d/Ddt ;]jf;d]t cf]vn9'Ëfdf pknJw u/fP . cf]vn9'Ëfsf] nflu ;/sf/L sG6«f]nsf] dfndQf Nofpg] klxnf] JolQm pg} lyP . Ps k6s t gGb/fdn] NofPsf Jofkf/sf] ;fdfg @@ ef/L;Dd k'Uof] h'g cf]vn9'Ëfsf] nflu To; ;do Pp6f sf]z]9'Ëf g} lyof] . pgn] b'n{e xf]qm]Dkf elgg] hLljt /]8 kfG8f / /]8 kfG8fs} 5fnfsf] lgof{t klg u/] . pgn] cGgsf] /S;LnfO{ lg?T;flxt ug{ ;/sf/af6 kmnkm"nsf] /S;Lsf] 7]Ssf ;d]t ;'? u/] / cf]vn9'Ëfdf klxnf]kN6 :yfgLo wPF/] km"n / t/fO{af6 leq\ØfOPsf df}jfsf] /S;LnfO{ k"j{ # / $ gDa/ lhNnfdf kl/lrt u/fP . pgn] o; 7]Ssfsf] nflu /fO6/, hDbf/ / ;'a]bf/ bhf{sf sd{rf/L ;d]t /fv]sf lyP . cf]vn9'Ëfdf Jofkf/ If]qdf ;fdfGo gf]s/;Dd /flvGYof] t/ o; lsl;dsf] sd{rf/L Joj:yf klxnf] lyof] . )!^ ;fn;Dd cfOk'Ubf t pgn] jfl0fHo ljefudf …gGb P08 ;G;\Ú eGg] k|f=ln= g} btf{ u/]/ ;d'b|kfl/sf] Jofkfl/s nfO;]G; lnP/ l;Ëfk'/b]lv hfOkmn tyf ;'kf/Lsf] cfoft u/] . pgL o;/L cf]vn9'Ëfsf klxnf] cGt/fli6«o Jofkf/ ug]{ /fli6«o :t/sf] Jofkf/L ag] . pgn] cfˆgf] gfd …;fx" gGb/fd >]i7Ú / …gGb P08 ;G;\Ú eGg] sDkgLsf] gfd;lxt /ËLg Sofn]08/ 5fkL cf]vn9'Ëf NofP . h'g s'/f cf]vn9'Ëfel/ cfZro{sf] ljifo ePsf] lyof] .

cf]vn9'Ëfsf] Tof] ckx]lnt …rª\v]Ú ca …rª\v];fx"Ú sf] gfdn] /fd|} k|Voft eof] . pgn] k};f klg ToxfFsf] :t/df /fd|} sdfP . b'j} 3/ df;]/ Pp6f rf/tn] 3/ agfP h'g To;sfndf cfˆgf] 6f]ndf ;jf]{Rr lyof] . o;/L pTsif{lt/ a9\bf gGb/fdnfO{ cGttM )!& ;fnsf] /fhgLlts kl/jt{gn] 3Rrf] lbg k'Uof] . lhNnf:t/Lo g]tf algvfPsf pgnfO{ aGbL agfpg s]Gb|af6 lhNnf k|zf;sx¿dfly cg]s bafa cfP t/ lhNnfsf k|zf;sx¿n] eg] pgnfO{ /fhgLlts dfq geO{ Pp6f ;fdflhs k|lti7fsf] JolQm dfg]/ lhNnfaf6 knfog x'g cg'/f]w u/] . cGttM cfˆgf] Jofj;flos cg's"ntf gldn];Dd of] lhNnf / Tof] lhNnf x/fpFb} pgL )!* ;fndf eg] k"0f{ ¿kn] cf]vn9'Ëf 5f]8L )!* ;fndf w/fg a;fO ;g{ k'u] . w/fgdf cfPb]lv eg] pgL v]tL / ;fdfGo Jofkf/df dfq ;+nUg eP . t/ ToxfF klg /fhgLlts ckufnx¿n] v]b\g g5f]8]kl5 To;a]nfsf] k~rfotL Joj:yfleq /x]sf] k|dfl0ft ug{ pgL 3f]kf ufpF k~rfotdf j8fWoIf / kl5 k|wfgk~r;d]t aGg k'u] .

gGb/fdnfO{ klxn]b]lv g} wDsLsf] /f]u nfu]sf] lyof] / pgL kl5Nnf ;dodf Hofbfh;f] la/fdL g} /x] . @)@( ;fn dª\l;/ @) ut] k'/fg} /f]uaf6 %^ jif{sf] pd]/df pgsf] w/fgd} b]xfGt eof] . o;a]nf;Dd sljtf/fd la=P= plt0f{ u/L lq=lj=lj= df ;+:s[lt ljifodf Pd=P= k9\b} lyP / ;flxTotkm{ c:jLs[t cfGbf]ngsf] 8Íf lk6\b} lyP . sljtf/fdsL cfdf dgdfof eg] lktf gGb/fdsf] t'ngfdf lgSs} :j:y lyOg\ t/ ltgL klg cGbfhL &$ jif{sf] pd]/df ;f/sf]df -SofG;/_ af6 kLl8t eO{ @)%& ;fn ebf} % ut] sf7df8f}Fdf :ju]{ eOg\ .

gofF ;f]rsf] k|ltkfbg ug]{ tyf ;fdflhs ¿l9 / s'k|yfsf lj?4 ljb|f]x ug]{ k|j[lQsf] jLhf/f]k0f gGb/fd >]i7sf] dl:tisdf afNosfnd} ePsf] lyof] / pgsf x/]s s[ofsnfk Tof] jLh pb\3fl6t x'GYof] . gGb/fd >]i7sf ;/ntf, ;ª\3if{zLntf / cgf}7f gjLg k|of]uwdL{ k|j[lQ cflbh:tf u'0fx¿n] g} j+zfg'ut ¿kdf sljtf/fdsf] hLjgofkg / ;flxlTos tyf ;f+:s[lts ;[hgfx¿df klg 5fk kf/]sf] x'g'k5{ .

afNosfn

sljtf/fd >]i7 cfˆgf dftflktfsf h]7f ;Gtfg x'g\ . cfly{s ¿kn] :yflkt eOg;s]s} cj:yfdf pgsf a'jfsf] ljjfx ePsf sf/0fn] ljkGg cj:yfdf g} pgsf] hGd cf]vn9'Ëfdf @))$ ;fn df3 !! ut] eof] . sljtf/fdsf] hGd ePsf] a]nf lktf gGb/fdn] ahf/sf] pkNnf] 5]pb]lv csf]{ 5]p;Dd v'l;ofnL afF8\b} h;h;nfO{ e]6] cfˆgf bf]sfgsf 5u8f, ld7fO{, ld;|L / gl/jn AffF8] . sljtf/fd kfFr 5 dlxgfsf] x'Fbf bf]sfgdf lemFuf wkfpg] sfd lktf gGb/fdn] pg}nfO{ ;'Dk]sf lyP /] . pgn] afns sljtf/fdsf] v'§f / xftdf wfufx¿ afFlwlbP5g\ / wfufsf] csf]{ 5]p sfuhsf km'sf{x¿df afFlwlbP5g\ . afns sljtf/fdn] xftv'§f xNnfpFbf sfuhsf km'sf{x¿ xlNnP/ ;fdfgdf a:g] lemFufx¿ efUby] /] .

lr;ª\v' ufpFaf6 NofOPsL cfdf dgdfofnfO{ @) eGbf dfly uGtL cfpFb}gYof] . PSsfO;nfO{ ufpF3/df Psla;] Ps elgGYof] . Tof] a]nfsf ;a} k};fx¿ klg ltgL lrGb}glyg\ . To;}n] lbgel/sf Jofkf/sf] k};f uGg klg pgn] ahf/sL lszf]/L 9]jfnL;Fu d2t lng] uly{g\ . 9]jfnL x/]s ;fFem sljtf/fdsf 3/df cfpFlyg\ k};f uGg . 9]jfnLsf] efO sf]dn /fhe08f/L sljtf/fdeGbf Ps dlxgf sfG5f] lyof] . efO x]g]{ lhDdf pg}nfO{ ePsf] x'Fbf 9]jfnLn] sfv]efO sf]dnnfO{ ;d]t af]s]/ Nofpg] ub{lyg\ . gGb/fd aflx/ hfFbf log} 9]jfnL dgdfofsf] nflu ;fyL cfO{ ;'Tg] ub{lyg\ / dgdfof klg v]tLsf] sfddf hfFbf 5f]/f sljtf/fdnfO{ obfsbf log} 9]jfnLsf] ;fydf 5f8\lyg\ . 9]jfnLn] b'O{{ sfv]aRrfx¿nfO{ Pp6} sf]qmf]df ;'tfO x]/rfx uly{g\ t/ pgL ;bf Psgf;n] Tof] ;xof]u k'¥ofpg klg ;lSbglyOg\ / w]/}h;f] sljtf/fdnfO{ pgsL cfdfn] 3/sf] k]6Ldf afWotfaz PSn} 5f]8]/ hfg'kYof]{ . 9]jfnLs} efO lx/fsfhLn] sljtf/fdnfO{ atfP ls–sljtf/fd PSn} lbgel/ k]6Ld} lbzflk;fad} 8'a]/ ?g], ?Fb} yfs]/ ;'Tg] tyf k]6Laf6 n8\g] ub{y] .5

afNosfndf ahfl/ofx¿n] sljtf/fdnfO{ Hofb} g} sd af]Ng] ePsfn] …nf6f]Ú eGy]] . sljtf/fdsf] egfO 5, afNosfndf PSnf] c;'/lIft lbgx¿ latfpg k/]s} sf/0fn] pgdf y]Q/f]kgfsf] ljsf; eof] / c¿;Fu cGt/s[of ug{ 8/fpg] tyf cGt/d'{vL jf ahfl/ofx¿sf efiffdf eGbf…nf6f]Ú agfof] . o;/L g} cf]vn9'Ëfsf] ahfl/of jftfj/0fdf pgsf] c;'/lIft afNofj:yf laTof] .

lzIffbLIff

sljtf/fd >]i7sf a'jf gGb/fd >]i7 cfk"m lzIffsf] ;'ljwfaf6 7luPsf sf/0fn] klg cfˆgf ;GtfgnfO{ a'l4dfg\ / ljåfg\ agfpg rfxGy] . sljtf/fdsf a'afn] pgsf] kf:gLdf 5f]/f] a'l4dfg\ x'G5 eGg] k/Dk/fut wf/0ff cg';f/ k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxsf] df]xf]/ / sxfFsxfFb]lv vf]h]/ NofPsf] nfFxfFr]sf] 6fpsf]n] vfgf v'jfPsf lyP . :jo+ lktf gGb/fd >]i7n] g} ;j{k|yd sljtf/fdnfO{ cIf/f/De u/fPsf x'g\ . lktf gGb/fdn] …;/:jtL dof b[i6f jL0ff k':ts wfl/0fL ===Ú eGb} :t'lt ug{ nufP/ x/]s lbg k9fpFy] . x/]s laxfg k9fO ;s]kl5 kf]n]sf] cfn' pgsf] nflu tof/ x'g] u/]sf] ;Demgf cfh klg sljtf/fdnfO{ tfh} 5 . l5d]sL o'js kß;'Gb/ /fhe08f/Ln] sljtf/fdnfO{ afx|v/L l;sfpg /fd|} d2t u/] . pgn] cfˆgf efO :ofd /fhe08f/L;Fu} /fv]/ sljtf/fdnfO{ l;sfpFy] . o;/L sljtf/fdn] kß;'Gb/ /fhe08f/L / cfˆgf a'jfaf6 cIf/ l;s]sf x'g\ .6

;fdfGo k9\g / n]Vg 3/d} l;ls;s]kl5 sljtf/fdnfO{ lktfn] ;u/dfyf ldl8n :j'mn, w/desf/L cf]vn9'Ëfdf cf}krfl/s sIff/Desf] lglDt nu] . pgsf] gfd :s'ndf …/fdaxfb'/ >]i7Ú n]vfOof] . lzIfsx¿n] pgnfO{ ;fpF cIf/ k"/} hfGg] b]v]/ Pslbg dfq Ps sIffdf /fvL t'?Gt} bf];|f] lbg b'O{{ sIffdf /flvlbP . pm a]nf # sIffb]lv cË|]hL lzIff ;'? ul/GYof] . sljtf/fdnfO{ cË|]hL k9\g d2t ug{sf] nflu gGb/fd cfkm}Fn] klg lzIfsx¿;Fu cË|]hL l;s] . Pp6f ;do o:tf] cfof] ha sljtf/fdsf] cË|]hL lktfsf] eGbf dfly pSng nfUof] . Pslbg lktfn] sljtf/fdsf] lxHh]nfO{ …ePg 7Ls;Fu egÚ eGbf …cfkm"nfO{ g} cfpFb}g dnfO{ s] 7Ls ePg eg]sf]Ú eg]5g\ / Tof] egfO kl5;Dd klg cf]vn9'Ë] a"9fx¿sf] lha|f]df xF:of}nLsf] ljifo ag]/ /Xof] .

sljtf/fd nhfn', clt df}g k|j[lQsf / cGt/d'{vL :jefjsf lyP . 3/eGbf k/sfx¿;Fu pgL jftf{nfk g} ub}{gy] . lktf gGb/fdn] 5f]/f]nfO{ alxd'{vL agfpg ahf/sf gf6sx¿df k|j]z u/fP . gGb/fd Tof] a]nf ahf/sf ;f+:s[lts sfo{qmdx¿df Dofg]h/ cyf{t\ g]t[TjbfoL cj:yfdf lyP . pgn] afns 5f]/f]nfO{ gf} jif{sf] pd]/df ahf/sf gf6sdf ;}nL cyf{t\ s]6L gt{sLsf] ¿kdf k|j]z u/fP . sljtf/fdn] rf/ jif{;Dd ahf/sf ;F:s[ltsdL{ lji0'fbf; >]i7, k[YjLgf/fo0f /fhe08f/L, 8Da/axfb'/ >]i7, uf]ljGbaxfb'/ /fhe08f/L, /fdaxfb'/ /fhe08f/L, ef]hk'/] s[i0f pbf; / kß;'Gb/ /fhe08f/Lx¿af6 s]6L eP/ gfRg] k|lzIf0f kfP . o;/L ahf/sf ;fFs[lts sfo{qmdx¿df efu lnFbflnFbf sljtf/fdnfO{ afhfsf] tfn / ;'/x¿sf] 1fg x'g nfUof] / o;tkm{ pgL cfslif{t x'gk'u] . 3/df a'afsf] xfdf]{lgod / tanf 5Fb} lyof] . To;}df rNbfrNb} / lktfsf k|lzIf0fdf pgn] afhfx¿ ahfpg l;s] . 3/;Fu} dfOnf;fx"sf] s[i0f dlGb/ lyof] . ToxfF lbgx'F ehg x'g] ub{Yof] . ToxfF uP/ pgn] gf} jif{s} pd]/df tanf / kl5 xfdf]{lgod klg ahfpg nfu] . tanf / xfdf]{lgod afbgsf] cEof;df pgnfO{ of] ehg3/sf] 7"nf] of]ubfg eof] . ;f+:s[lts If]qdf k'qnfO{ tfGg] lktfsf] k|of]un] lgZro g} sljtf/fdnfO{ lgs} xb;Dd alxd'{vL agfof] . pgL gt{s dfq ag]g\ jfBjfbs klg ag] .

;ft sIff;Dd k'Ubf pgL t]¥x jif{sf lyP . o;} ;dodf pgsf] ljjfx x'g] eof] . cfˆgf] syfk|ltsf] ?lr g} ljjfxsf] sf/0f ePsf] s'/f sljtf/fd JoQm u5{g\ . lkkn8fF8] kxndfg ;fx"sf] hTyf d'2fsf] tf/]vdf cf]vn9'Ëf cfPsf lyP . pgsf] hTyfn] /flt @ ah];Dd dw'dfntLsf] syf eGof] / sljtf/fdn] @ ah];Dd} hfuf a;]/ Tof] k"/} syf ;'g] . aLraLrdf cfk"mnfO{ :ki6 gePsf s'/fx¿sf] :ki6Ls/0f klg vf]h] . o;f]x'Fbf kxndfg ;fx" pgLaf6 lgs} k|efljt eP5g\ / cfˆgL 5f]/Lsf] lax] sljtf/fd;Fu gu/fO{ g5f]8\g] eP5g\ . kl5, 5f]/Lsf] pd]/ sljtf/fd;Fu gldNg] ePsf] x'Fbf cfˆgL alxgLsf] lax] pgL;Fu u/fP/} 5f8] . lax] u/]kl5 :j'mn hfg nfh x'g] x'gfn] ljjfx ug{ gdfGbf klg pgsf] ljjfx eP/} 5f8\Øf] . pgL :j'mn g} hfg 5f8] .

a'jfn] k9fpg egL pgnfO{ sf7df8f}F NofP . pgsf a'jf sfª\u|]; kf6L{sf] lhNnf:t/Lo g]tf ePsf sf/0fn] g]tf lj=kL= sf]O/fnf;Fu /fd|f] ;Dkj{m lyof] . a'jf gGb/fdsf] hd{gLdf ag]sf] d'7Lel/sf] df]6f] Pp6f sfnf] kmfpG6]g k]g lyof] . pgn] o;df ;'gsf] lgk /fv]sf lyP . h;nfO{ cf]vn9'Ëfsf g]kfn] sfdLn] agfPsf lyP . o; sndn] ubf{ lalk afa' gGb/fdnfO{ …a8]k]gjfnfÚ eg]/ pkgfd lbg] ub{y] . @)!% ;fnsf] cfdlgjf{rgdf k"j{ # gDa/sf # If]qx¿af6 sfª\u|];kIfsf ;f+;bx¿nfO{ lhtfpg ;3fPsf] / r'gfj vr{;d]t hgxL ^ xhf/;Dd /flvlbPsfn] kf6L{n] s]Gb|af6 cGbfhL !*, ))) /sd ltg'{kg]{ lyof] . o;} k|;Ëdf e]6 ubf{ ljlkn] gGb/fdnfO{ …c/] a8]k]gjfnfÚ eGb} xft ldnfPsf] sljtf/fd ;DemG5g\ . lalkn] 5f]/f] -sljtf/fd_ nfO{ sf7df8f}Fd}} k9fpg] Joj:yf ldnfO{lbg] s'/f klg u/] . sljtf/fdnfO{ kmlk{ªsf] Pp6f k|l;4 cË|]hL ljBfno -lqe'jg dfWolds ljBfno_ df nluof] . ToxfFsf ljBfyL{n] km// cË|]hL af]n]sf] b]v]/ sljtf/fd ToxfF k9\g lxlRsrfP . Psjif{sf] ;do To;} laTof] . kl5 k]ml/ cf]vn9'Ëf kmj]{m/ pgL cf7 sIffdf egf{ eP .

o;} ;dob]lv ljBfyL{x¿sf] dgf]an a9fpFb} lzIf0f ug]{ lzIfsx¿ cfgGbLk|;fb l;+x / lal6 ;/ ef/taf6 cfPsf lyP . sf7df8f}Faf6 cfpg'ePsf eLdk|;fb >]i7 klg lzIfs x'g'eof] . pxfFsf] lzIf0f ljlw klg p:t} k|efjsf/L lyof] . k'/fgf lzIfsx¿df Ps hgf uf]kfn/fh e08f/L eGg] lzIfs lyP hf] kf7 s07 ;'gfpg g;Sg]nfO{ l;:gf]kfgL nufpFy] . Toltv]/sf] k9fO klg k"/} s07 u/]/ ;'gfpg' kYof]{ . x/km x/kmsf] cNklj/fd, k"0f{ lj/fd, k[i7 cflb ;d]t /6]/ ;'gfpg' kYof]{ . sljtf/fd >]i7 k"/} s07 kf/]/ hfGy] tfklg l;:gf]sf] 5]pdf 8/n] sfldxfNy] . kf7 ;'gfpg ;Sb}gy] / l;:gf] gvfPsf] lbg g} x'Fb}gYof] . ca ef/tLo ;/x¿ / eLdk|;fb >]i7 lzIfs eP/ cfPkl5 k9fOsf] z}nLdf k"/} kl/jt{g eof] . gofF pdË / hf]z sljtf/fddf klg ylkof] . o;kl5 pgsf] k9fO klg ;k|Fb} uof] . gofF ult;Fu} ljBfnodf ;flxlTos, ;fF:j[mlts ultljlwx¿ klg x'g yfn] . sljtf/fd To;} ;dob]lv sljtf cflb n]Vg], ;fF:j[mlts sfo{qmdx¿df klg ;s[o eO/x]sf x'Fbf pgsf ;flxlTos tyf cGo snfkIfsf dgf]j[lQn] klg o;} ;dodf dnhn kfP .

@)!* ;fndf sljtf/fdsf] kl/jf/ w/fg a;fO ;¥of] . pgn] klAns xfO:j'mn w/fgaf6 @)@) ;fn -;g\ !(^$_ df P;=Pn=;L= låtLo >]0fLdf pQL0f{ u/] . w/fgdf !) sIffsf] cWoogdf g} cfk"m /fdaxfb'/af6 …sljtf/fdÚ ag] . /fdaxfb'/ eGg] gfd clt JofKt ePsf]n] pgs} sIffdf c¿ rf/ hgf /fdaxfb'/x¿ /x]5g\ . u'?n] …nf} /fdaxfb'/n] eGg]Ú eGbf kfFr hgf Ps}rf]6L p7\bf /x]5g\ t/ sljtf/fdsf] ;flxlTos ultljlwsf] sf/0f u'?sf] ljz]if rfv rflxF pgLdfly g} x'GYof] c/] / …Tof] sljtf n]Vg] rflxF /fdÚ eg]/ sljtf/fdnfO{ OlËt ug'{x'GYof] /] . pgnfO{ ;fyLx¿n] ;d]t …sljtf n]Vg] /fdÚ / kl5 yfx} gkfO{ …sljtf/fd… eGg nfu] . cGttM /fdaxfb'/n] Tof] gfd :jLsf/] . ;flxlTos uf]i7Lx¿df klg oxL gfdn] pqg nfu] / o;} gfdn] cfh pgL g]kfnL ;flxTosf ljljw kmfF6df k|l;4 5g\ .

P;=Pn=;L= pQL0f{ ugf{;fy w/fgsf] Pp6f k|f=lj= df cWofkg ub}{ ;g\ !(^^ df >L dx]Gb| ax'd'vL SofDk; w/fgdf jfl0fHozf:qdf k|df0fkq txsf] cWoog u/L pQL0f{ eP . SofDk;df :jljo'sf] ;fF:j[mlts Pj+ ;flxTo ;lrjdf ;d]t r'lgP . k|df0fkq tx pQL0f{ u/]kl5 :gfts txdf k9\bf k9\b} vr{sf] Joj:yfkgsf] nflu bf]nvfdf uO{ lzIf0f k]zf cFufn]sfn] pgsf] k9fO 5'6\g uof] . k]ml/ pgn] ljifo kl/jt{g u/L -snf lnO{_ :jtGq k/LIffyL{sf ¿kdf ;g\ !(&! df :gfts tx pQL0f{ u/] .

pgL lq=lj=lj= df ;F:j[mlt ljifo lnO{ cWoog ug{ yfn] . a'jfsf] d[To' tyf ljljw 3/fo;L ;d:ofn] pgnfO{ :gftsf]Q/ tx pQL0f{ ug{ wf}wf} k¥of] / k9fO g} 5f8\g'k¥of] o;kl5 hflu/sf] l;nl;nfdf p7a; x'g] ;fyLx¿sf] pRrt/ of]Uotfsf] cufl8 cfk"mn] :gfts dfq n]Vg'kbf{ pgnfO{ lk/f]Ng] n3'tfef;n] :gftsf]Q/ ug{ hf]:ofof] . k]ml/ kl5 ;g\ !(*! df cfu/f ljZjljBfnoaf6 :jtGq 5fqsf ¿kdf ;dfhzf:q ljifodf :gftsf]Q/ tx pQL0f{ u/] . oltn] dfq k'u]g, pgsf] k];f / p7a;sf] ;ª\utsf] :t/ a9\b} uof] . To;}n] klg pgn] ;g\ !((& df uf]/vk'/ ljZjljBfnoaf6 d]l8sn ;f]l;of]nf]hLdf ljBfjfl/lw -lk=Pr8L=_ klg pQL0f{ u/] . zf]w zLif{s Socio-cultural aspects of a gap between knowledge and practice amongst home caretakers of childhood diarrohoea in rural Nepal lyof] .

ljjfx, bfDkTo hLjg / 5f]/f5f]/L

ljjfx hLjgsf] clgjfo{ 36gf xf] . sljtf/fdsf] ljjfx pgsf] k'Vof}{nL lhNnfs} ;fFwdf /x]sf] vf]6fË lhNnfdf kg]{ hfnkf uf=lj=;= j8f g+= ! sf 6fps] ;fx"sL 5f]/L ;'>L rGb|s'df/L >]i7;Fu lj=;+= )!^ df eof] . lax] ubf{ pgL t]x| jif{sf lyP eg] pgsL >LdtLsf] pd]/ gf} lyof] . @)@% ;fndf pgsf] k|yd ;Gtfgsf ¿kdf k'qL /ZdLn] hGd lnO{g\ . To; ;do >LdtL rGb|s'df/L >]i7 ;q jif{sL lyOg\ eg] sljtf/fdsf] pd]/ PSsfO; lyof] / pgL bf]nvfdf lzIfs lyP . o;kl5 @)@* ;fndf bf];|f] ;Gtfgsf ¿kdf 5f]/f /;f]h >]i7sf] hGd eof] / @)#! ;fndf t];|f] ;Gtfgsf ¿kdf 5f]/L /hgLn] hGd lnO{g\ .7 sljtf/fdsf] sdfO / d]x]gtn] 5f]/f5f]/Lx¿nfO{ ljb]zd} uO{ sfd ug{ / Tot}sf gful/s;Dd x'g ;Ifd t agfof] t/ pgsf] ax'cfoflds JolQmTj -;dfh;]jf, ;flxTo, ;+:s[lt, rnlrq, /fhgLlt, / b]z ljb]zsf] sG;N6\ØfG;L k];f cflb _ sf sf/0f pgn] lgZro g} 3/ kl/jf/nfO{ kof{Kt ;do lbg ;s]gg\ .

3/kl/jf/df a9]sf c;Gt'li6, c;dembf/Ltkm{ sljtf/fd slxNo} ;r]t x'g ;s]gg\ . k}lqs ;Dklt c+zdf glng] clg cfkm"n] sdfPsf] ;Dklt klg ;dfh;]jfdf bfg lbg] pgsf] k|jlQ klg 3/kl/jf/nfO{ kfRo x'g ;s]g . cGttM @* j6f /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o :t/Lo k':tssf ;h{s, b'O{ rnlrqsf lgdf{tf, ## j6f ;+:yfx¿df ;s[o ;dfh;]jL, cfˆg} kl;gfsf sdfOaf6 ^ j6f k'/:sf/ tyf 5fqj[lQx¿sf ;+:yfks, !( j6f /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o k'/:sf/ / clegGbgx¿af6 cleglGbt / $ j6f dxTTjk"0f{ /fhgLlts lgo'lQmn] ;Ddflgt sljtf/fd b]zs} Pp6f ax'cfoflds k|Voft JolQmTj -;]lnla|6L_ t ag] t/ 3/kl/jf/sf] nflu eg] c:jLs[t eP . log} ljljw c;dembf/Lx¿sf sf/0f kltkTgLsf aLrdf dfgl;s åGå a9\b} hfFbf hLjgsf] ;fl7of}F bzsdf cfOk'u]kl5 @)^% ;fndf b'ef{Uojz kTgL rGb|f >]i7;Fu pgsf] kf/kfr's] x'g uof] . sljtf/fdsf cg';f/ of] ;DaGw ljR5]b rGb|f >]i7s} dfu cg';f/ ePsf] xf] . sljtf/fd tyf s]xL gft]bf/ u'l7of/x¿sf] k|of; x'Fbfx'Fb} klg ldnfk x'g g;sL cGTodf b'a} hgf aLr kf/kfr's] ePsf] s'/f sljtf/fd atfpF5g\ . xfn rGb|f >]i7 c+z lnP/ cGoq} a:bl5g\ . 8

h]7L 5f]/L /ZdLsf] ;'b]z uf}td;Fu lj=;+= @)$& df ljjfx eof] . pgLx¿af6 k'q Ozfg uf}tdsf] hGd ePkl5 /ZdL / pgsf klt aLr ;DaGw ljR5]b x'g uof] / xfn /ljl;+x u'?Ë;Fu bf];|f] ljjfx eO{ /ZdL >]i7 k'q Ozfg ;d]t cd]l/sfdf Tot}sf] gful/stf ;fy a;f]af; ul5{g\ . pgLx¿af6 xfn sfG5f] gflt cfz'tf]ifl;+x u'?Ësf] klg hGd ePsf] 5 .=sljtf/fdsf bf];|f ;Gtfg /;f]h >]i7sf] lj=;+= @)%! df cl:dtf s];L;Fu ljjfx eO{ k'q cfef; >]i7 ;d]t ;kl/jf/ cd]l/sfdf pt}sf] gful/s eO{ a;f]af; u5{g\ / pgL klg lktf sljtf/fdaf6 c+z lnP/ 5'l§O;s]sf 5g\ . t];|L ;Gtfg /hgL >]i7sf] ;"o{ tfd|fsf/;Fu lj=;+= @)%@ df ljjfx eof] . xfn pgLx¿ b'O{{ k'qx¿ ;'/fg / ;'of]u ;lxt eQmk'/df a;f]af; u5{g\ t/ pgLx¿sf] klg cd]l/sfd} a;f]af;sf] k|s[of rln/x]sf] 5 .

sljtf/fd cem} n]Vb}5g\ / :jcfh{g ;d]t ub}{ 5g\ . pgn] k}lqs ;Dklt lnPgg\ . efOx¿nfO{ g} ;'Dk] . 5f]/fsf] sdfO klg vf]h]gg\ . pN6} cfˆgf] sdfO c+zdf lbP . ;fdfGo lhGbuL latfpg pgsf] sdfO kof{Kt ePsf] pgL dfGb5g\ / rf]vf] sndL kl;gfn] ;flxTosf] ;]jf ub}{ hLjg latfpg] pgsf] Ps dfq ;kgf 5 . sljtf/fd clxn] -lj=;+= @)^^_ ;f7Lof}F bzsdf k|j]z u/L PSnf] k|f}9 hLjg JotLt ub}{5g\ . hLjgsf] of] sxfnL nfUbf] pQ/f4{df cfkm"n] /utkl;gf l;+r]/ kfngkf]if0f u/L ;DkGg t'NofOPsfx¿af6 cfkm"k|lt ;xfg'e"lt ;d]t k|s6 gubf{ pgL slxn]sfxLF lvGgtf;d]t cg'ej ug{ k'U5g\ .9




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k];f

P;=Pn=;L kf; u/]kl5 @)@! ;fndf sljtf/fdn] w/fg gu/kflnsfsf] k|fylds ljBfno g+= !! df b'O{{ jif{ lzIfs eO{ sfd u/] . pgsf] of] klxnf] hflu/ lyof] . To;kl5 s]xL jif{df cfO= sd= sf] z}lIfs of]Uotf;fy @)@$ df bf]nvfsf] eLd klAns xfO :s'ndf ;xfos lzIfs eO{ 8]9 jif{ sfd u/] . @)@* ;fndf la=P kf; u/]/ lq=lj=df ;F:s[lqdf Pd=P= k9\b} ubf{ sl/a Ps jif{ lq=lj= k':tsfnodf nfO{a|]/L cl;6]G6 ;/xsf] ljBfyL{ ;xof]uLsf] ¿kdf c:yfoL sfd u/] .

@)@* df g} pgn] lk;sf]/ g]kfnsf] Pg–#! sfo{qmddf g]kfnL lzIfs eO{ sfd u/] . @)@( df lktfsf] d[To' eO{ 3/u[x:yL x]g'{kg]{ cj:yf ePkl5 pgnfO{ k9fO 5f]8L sf7df8f}Faf6 w/fg a:g'k¥of] . w/fgdf pgn] klxn] lktfsf] Jofkfl/s Joj;fonfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbP, kl5 @)#) df dx]Gb|gu/ rs3{§L ahf/sf] xfO:s'ndf cË|]hL lzIfs eO{ sfd u/] .

@)#! ;fndf pgL sf7df8f}F kmls{P / s]xL ;do lq=lj=lj= dfgljsLsf] 8Lg sfof{nodf ;xfossf] sfd u/] . o;} cj;/df pgn] ko{6g dGqfnoaf6 /fhf jL/]Gb|sf] /fHofleif]sdf cfpg] /fhsLo kfx'gfx¿nfO{ ;]jf lbg] ufO8sf] tflnd lnP / g]kfn;/sf/sf] ;+of]hgdf j]nfotsf o'j/fh, n8{ dfpG6a]6g / Unf:6/sf 8\Ø"snfO{ ;d]tnfO{ sf7df8f}Fsf ko{6sLo rfvsf :ynx¿df kyk|bz{g u/] . oxL ufO8 tflnd / klxn] lk;sf]/sf] efiff lzIf0fsf] tflnd klg kfO;s]sf] sf/0fn] ToxL ;fn Go" P/fdf ljb]zL ljz]if1x¿sf] nflu efiff tyf ;+:s[lt k|lzIfs eO{ sfd ;'? u/] . @)#@ df Go" P/fsf] btf{ g]kfndf g} x'g] ePkl5 sljtf/fd klg o;sf] ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfks ag] . pgn] o;df !) jif{;Dd cyf{t\ @)$@ ;Dd sfd u/] / o; cjlwdf Go" P/fd} cg';Gwfgstf{sf] ¿kdf klg sfd u/] tyf labf lnP/ ^ dlxgfsf] nflu s]o/ g]kfnsf] lgb]{zssf] nflu ;Nnfxsf/sf] sfd klg u/] . o;} !) jif{sf] cjlwdf pgn] ljleGg 6'/ Ph]G;Lx¿df 6'/ ufO8sf] sfdnfO{ klg lg/Gt/tf lbP .

@)$@ ;fndf pgn] cd]l/sL ;xof]u lgof]u cGtu{tsf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] kl/jf/ lgof]hg / afn arfp sfo{qmdsf sfpG6/kf6{ hf]g :gf] OÍdf lkmN8 8fO/]S6/ eO{ sfd u/] . of] kbdf pgL cd]l/sL ;xof]u lgof]usf] PkmP;Pg af¥xf}+ :t/sf lyP h'g g]kfnL sd{rf/Lsf] nflu ;jf]{Rr lyof] . pgn] o;df kfFr jif{ cyf{t\ @)$& ;Dd sfd u/] . o;} cjlwleq @)$% df pgn] …/x:odo u'kmfÚ eGg] Pp6f lel8of] lkmNd agfP .

@)$& sf] cGTolt/ pgn] 8]e]nkd]06 sDo'lgs]zg k|f]8Szg eGg] cGt/f{li6«o ;+:yfaf6 lel8of] rnlrq lgdf{0fsf] k|fljlws kIf -k6syf n]vg, 5fofÍg, lgb]{zg / ;Dkfbg_ af/] tflnd lnP / …d'lQm;ª\3if…{ eGg] /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o:t/df k'/:s[t pTs[i6 rnlrq agfP .

pgn] @)$* ;fndf jN8{ g]a;{ / @)$(df o'Pgl8lksf] ;k|f];sf] nflu sfd u/] . @)%) ;fndf pgn] cd]l/sfsf] 8]enkd]G6 Pzf]lzo6;\dfkm{t g]kfn ;/sf/sf] :jf:Yo dGqfnosf /fli6«o tflnd s]Gb|df cGt/fl{i6«o tflnd ljz]if1sf] ¿kdf @ jif{ sfd u/] . cGt/f{li6«o :t/df cg'alGwt eO{ sfo{ ug]{ of] pgsf] klxnf] cj;/ lyof] .

@)%@ df g]skf Pdfn]sf] ;/sf/ x'Fbf pgL 6]lnlehgsf] cWoIf kbdf lgo'Qm eP . pgL g]kfnsf] jfd /fhgLltdf klxn]b]lv g} ;lqmo lyP / pgsf] of] klxnf] /fhgLlts lgo'lQm lyof] .

@)%@ df g} 8]enkd]G6 Pzf]lzo6z\;Fusf] cg'aGw l;l4Pkl5 ;f]xL 7fpFdf sfo{/t hf]G; xlKsG; o'lgel;{6Lsf] k|f]u|fd km/ OG6/g]zgn Ph's]zg Og l/k|f]8lS6e x]Ny -hkfOuf]_ åf/f pgL k'gM cGt/f{li6«o tflnd ljz]if1sf] ¿kdf cg'alGwt eP . pgn] of] sfo{ % jif{sf] nlu @)%& ;Dd u/] .

@)%$ df pgn] g]skf Pdfn]sf] tkm{af6 /fli6«o ljsf; kl/ifb\df ;Ddflgt ;b:osf] ¿kdf lgo'lQm kfpg'sf ;fy} pk–k|wfgdGqL tyf u[xdGqLsf] nflu lj1 ;Nnfxsf/sf] lgo'lQm kfP .

@)%% ;fndf g]skf dfn]sf] tkm{af6 :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno cGtu{t\ hghflt ljsf; ;ldltdf /fHodGqL:t/sf] pkfWoIf kbdf /fhgLlts lgo'lQm kfP .

@)%& pk/fGt pgn] cfˆg} ;+:yfdf cg'alGwt sfdx¿sf ;fy}, k|f]klAns, kfy, l/8 g]kfnsf] nflu sfd ubf{ub}{ ljz]if u/L ljb]zlt/} czf]{jf skf]{/]]zg dn]lzof, hf]G; xlKsG; k|f]h]S6 cd]l/sf cflbdf cg'alGwt eO{ sfo{ u/] .

lj=;+=@)^% b]lv pgL o'lgel;{6L ckm Pjl8{g, :s6Nof08 o's]df lelhl6Ë k|f]km];/ 5g\ eg] g]kfndf lsi6 d]l8sn sn]hsf] nflu cGt/f{li6«o tyf /fli6«o ;Dks{ lgb]{zs 5g\ . o;sf cltl/Qm sljtf/fd klxn]b]lv g} lg/Gt/¿kdf ;flxTosf] l;h{gf tyf :jo+;]jL ;+ª\3;+:yfx¿df ;lqmo /lxcfPsf 5g\ . ;fy} pgsf] :j0f{ lzIff OËlnz :s'n, lsi6 d]l8sn sn]h, Go" P/f / d"NofÍg k|sfzgdf ;fem]bf/L klg 5 .10

cfly{s cj:yf11

sljtf/fdsf] hLjg afNosfnb]lv clxn];Dd ;;{tL{ x]bf{ pgn] ljkGgtfb]lv ;DkGgtf;Ddsf] cj:yf ef]u]sf 5g\ . pgL cfk"mnfO{ wgL jf ul/a b'j} dfGb}gg\ . k'Vof}{nL c+z pgn] lng rfx]gg\ . efOx¿sf] s]xL lng}kg]{ cfu|x eof] . pgn] cfˆgf] nflu xf]Og ls cfdfsf] >f4sf] ¿kdf 3f]kf /]nj] nfOgsf] ;'gf}nf k':tsfnodf cfdf dgdfof :d[ltsf]ifsf] nflu 8fF8f3f]kfsf] % s6\7f hldg 5'§ofpg dfg] / efOx¿;d]t a;]/ k':tsfnonfO{ bfg u/] . afFsL c+z efOx¿nfO{ g} bfdf;fxLn] afF8] . pgL;Fu cfˆg} Ifdtfn] sdfPsf] ;DklQ dfq /Xof] Tof] klg pgn] slxNo} cfˆgf gfddf /fVg rfx]gg\ . s]xL ckafb afx]s ;a} ;Dklt >LdtL rGb|f >]i7sf] gfddf g} /fv] . cGttM >LdtL rGb|f >]i7 / cd]l/sfaf;L 5f]/fnfO{ b'O{ efu c+z 5f]8L ltgsf] k]jfkft jf 5f]/fsf] sdfO s]xL glnO{ Ps efu cfˆg} sdfOsf] c+z lnP/ sljtf/fd PSn} a;]sf 5g\ . b'O{{ 5f]/Lx¿nfO{ ;d]t sf7df8f}FF s'n]Zj/df ;fF9] kfFr cfgfsf] b/n] PsPs 6'qmf 38]/L lbPsf 5g\ . pgn] xfn cfkm";Fu cgfdgu/sf] kfFrtn] 3/ dfq /fv]sf 5g\ . ;fy} …sf6{;\Ú eGg] …sG;N6\ØfG;L kmd{Ú, cfˆg} 3/ hUuf ;d]t ePsf] :j0f{ lzIff OËlnz af]l8{Ë xfO :s'n, lsi6 d]l8sn sn]h, Go" P/f / d"NofÍg dfl;sdf pgsf] ;+nUgtf eg] /lx/x]s} 5 .

dfG5]nfO{ hlt ePklg k'Ub}g eGg] ;f]r /fVg] sljtf/fdn] efOx¿ / 5f]/f5f]/L clg k"j{kTgL;d]tnfO{ lrQ a'emfO;s]kl5 cfkm";Fu ePsf] ;Dkltaf6} ;flxTo tyf cfdf / a'afsf] gfddf k'/:sf/ tyf 5fqj[lQ /fv]sf 5g\ . cfkm"n] k|fKt u/]sf n]vs:j tyf k'/:sf/sf ;d:t /sdsf ;fy} g]kfn 6]lnlehgdf /fhgLlts lgo'lQmdf /xFbfsf ;d:t eQf /sd;d]t hDdf u/L sf7df8f}Fdf afn;flxTo k|a4{g k'/:sf/ tyf c:jLs[t ljrf/ ;flxTo k'/:sf/ :yfkgf u/]sf 5g\ . cem pgn] eljiodf k|fKt x'g] ;Dk"0f{ n]vs:j / k'/:sf/sf /sdx¿;d]t log} b'O{{ ;flxlTos u'7LnfO{ bfg lbPsf 5g\ . hghflt ljsf; ;ldltsf] pkfWoIf kbdf /fhgLlts lgo'lQm eO{ To;af6 k|fKt ;a} tna /sdaf6 hghftLo afnaRrfsf] lzIffsf] nflu cf]vn9'Ëfdf a'af gGb/fd >]i7sf] gfdaf6 …gGb hghflt 5fq5fqf pTyfg sf]ifÚ :yfkgf u/]sf 5g\ .12

?lr tyf :jefj13

k|To]s JolQmx¿sf cf–cfˆg} ?lr x'g] ub{5g\ . JolQmsf] ?lrn] lghsf] JolQmTj ;d]t lgwf{/0f ub{5 . sljtf/fddf klg cfˆg} k|sf/sf ;flxlTos tyf ;f+:s[lts ?lr tyf :jefjx¿ /x]sf kfOG5g\ . vfglkg / e]ife"iffdf pgnfO{ vf; s'g}df ;f]v 5}g tfklg vfgfdf ;nfb ljz]if dg k/fpF5g\ eg] pgL rNtL km];gsf] ;kmf h'g;'s} kf];fs eP klg pgnfO{ x'G5 . kf];fs tyf ;hwh x]/]/ OHht lbg] kl/kf6LnfO{ pgL dxQf lbGgg\ . pgnfO{ cfˆgf] :jf:Yosf] ;+/If0fdf ljz]if ?lr 5 . pgL b}lgs zf/Ll/s Jofofd ub{5g\ . vfgf vfgnfO{ pgL xQkQ xftn] 5'Ggg\ . kfP;Dd rDrf k|of]u ub{5g\ . Psflt/ pgL xft kmf]xf]/ x'g] ;DefjgfnfO{ slxNo} la;{Fb}{gg\ eg] csf]{lt/ …xft h'7f] gx'Fbf vfgf vfg] ;dodf ;d]t sfd ug{ kfOG5Ú egL pgL eG5g\\ . pgL ;bf s]xL g s]xL ;Lh{gzLn sfddf Jo:t x'G5g\ . vfgkLg, df]hd:tL, h'jftf; / dgf]/~hgdf ;do v]/ kmfNb}gg\ . gfrufg tyf ;flxlTos dgf]/~hgnfO{ eg] pgL ;[hgzLn cEof;sf] ¿kdf lnG5g\ / pgsf] lx;fadf o:tf hd36 klg ;[hgzLntfs} kl/lwdf kb{5g\ . pgL eG5g\ …hGdg], vfg], aRrf sf8\g] / dg]{ dfq xf] egL ;f]Rg] dfG5] / s's'/df s] leGgtf eof] < Tolt t sL/f km6\ofª\u|f;d]tn] u/]sf 5g\ .Ú To:t} …d/]/ nfg] s]xL 5}gÚ eg]/ df]hd:tLdf ;do latfpg]x¿nfO{ pgsf] egfO 5 …d/]/ hfFbf nfg] s'/f x'G5 Tof] xf] ;'oz . o;f] x]bf{ ;'oz 5f]8]/ hfg] s'/f nfUb5 t/ Tof] dg]{ dfG5]n] nfg] s'/f xf] lsg eg] To;n] p;nfO{ p;sf] ;dfhdf hLljt /fVb5 .Ú hfF8/S;L, r'/f]6, laF8L gvfg] >]i7nfO{ wd{ ;DaGwL k/Dk/fut dfGotfdf klg ljZjf; 5}g / :jefjtM pgL lgd'vfsf] ;]jf / :jsd{nfO{ g} wd{ dfGb5g\ .

;flxTodf k|]/0ff / k|j]z

s'g} klg JolQmsf] JolQmTj lgdf{0fdf k[i7e"ldsf ¿kdf /xg] u/]sf] k|]/0ffn] dxTTjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]n]sf] x'G5 . k|]/0ffn] g} tt\ If]qdf k|j]z ug]{ /fhdfu{ k|z:t u5{ . k|]/0ff k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf b'j} x'g ;S5g\ .

sljtf/fdsf klg o:t} k|]/0ffx¿ /x]sf 5g\ . g]jf/L k/Dk/fut gfrufg, gf6s cflb pgsf k|f/lDes k|]/0ff ;|f]t x'g\ . To;kl5 g]kfnL ljifo lzIfs eLdk|;fb >]i7 d'Vo k|]/0ffsf ¿kdf /x]sf] s'/f pgn] …d]/f c:jLj[mt dfGotfx¿Ú eGg] k':tsdf lnlka4 u/]sf 5g\ . …eLdbfOÚ -:s'n lzIfs_ s} b]vfl;vL u/]/ pgL ;flxTo If]qdf k|j]z u/] .

@)!& ;fndf …h'gls/LÚ leQ]klqsfdf cfˆgf] …sfnÚ zLif{ssf] sljtf k|sfzg u/fP . o;k"j{ klg pgL n]Vg] uy]{ t/ tL lj:d[t eO;s]sf 5g\ .

k|yd k|sflzt sljtf o; k|sf/ 5 –

P sfn tF clnk/ x6\

dfgj hLjgdf afwf gkf/\

tF k|j]z gu/\ dfgjsf cf;] efjgfdf

k|f0f kv]?nfO{ gp8f kjgdf . 14

w/fg ;/fOkl5 klg o'jf ;flxTosf/ uf]kfn/fh hf]zLsf] k|]/0ffn] ;flxlTos cEof; hf/L g} /Xof] . sljtf n]vfOs} sf/0f pgsf] gfd klg …/fdaxfb'/Úaf6 …sljtf/fd… x'g k'Uof] . qmdzM cEof; a9\b} uPkl5 pgsf] cfˆgf] bz{g g} k|]/0ff / n]vgsf] sf/stTTj x'Fb} uof] . ljz]if u/L ;flxToIf]qdf lg/Gt/tf kfpg'df sf7df8f}F cfPkl5 k/z' k|wfgsf] k|]/0ffnfO{ pgL dxTTj lbG5g\ .

@)@^ ;fndf ;'? ePsf] c:jLs[t cfGbf]ng cfh cfP/ sljtf/fdsf] kof{ojfrL x'g uPsf] 5 . o;sf] ;Gbe{df cfˆgf] phf{;|f]tsf] ¿kdf pgL w]/} ;xsdL{ / cluNnf k':tfsf dxf/yLx¿sf] gfd lng] ub{5g\ . o; cfGbf]ngsf] j}rfl/s ;'?jftsf] nflu z}n]Gb| ;fsf/sf] ;fy / d"t{ ;'?jftsf] nflu g]kfne"if0f Gof}kfg] / kl5 k|sfz k|]dL, k'is/ nf]xgL, c+hL/ k|wfg kLl8t, a=cf= sgsåLk, efpkGyL, sfzLgfy tdf]6, ;fla 7fs'/ k|]dgf/fo0f k|]dL, df]xg;dz]/ yfkf / OGb| /fhee08f/Lsf] ljz]if of]ubfgk"0f{ ;fy /x]sf] pgL dfGb5g\ .

c:jLs[t ljrf/ ;flxTo cfGbf]ngs} nflu ;fy tyf k|]/0ff lbg] t/ o; cfGbf]ngdf ;+nUg g/x]sf s]xL ;flxlTos x:tLx¿sf gfd pgL clt ;Ddfgsf ;fy lnG5g\, tL gfd x'g\– jl/i7 ;flxTosf/ tyf kqsf/ dbgdl0f bLlIft, gu]Gb|/fh zdf{ / s[i0frGb|l;+x k|wfg . ha tTsfnLg af}l4s hdft c:jLs[t hdftk|lt cg]s k|tLs[ofTds ufnLunf}h;fy vlgO/x]sf lyP To;a]nf dbgdl0f bLlIftn] cfˆgf] klqsf …;dLIffÚdfkm{t\ c:jLs[t hdftsf] hgkIfLo qmflGtsfl/tfsf] kIf lnFb} tTsfnLg af}l4s hut\nfO{ o;k|lt uDeL/ x'g ;r]t u/fPsf lyP . of] u'gnfO{ sljtf/fd slxNo} la;{b}gg\ . …cleJolQmÚ dfl;s / o;sf ;Dkfbs tyf k|sfzs gu]Gb|/fh zdf{n] of] cfGbf]ng s]xL ;';'Kt /x]sf] a]nf Pp6f l;Ë} cÍ …sljtf/fdsf c:jLs[t dfGotfÚsf] nflu k|bfg ub}{ To;} cÍsf] lstfaL ;+:s/0f …d]/f c:jls[t dfGotfx¿Ú k|sfzg ul/lbP/ c:jLs[t cfGbf]ngsf] lg/Gt/tfdf phf{ k|bfg u/]sf] dfGb} sljtf/fd gu]Gb|/fh zdf{k|lt klg plQs} cg'u|lxt 5g\ . To:t} g]kfnL ;flxTosf] Sofgef;df c:jLs[t cfGbf]ng Pp6f 5f8f tyf p5[ª\vn ;gssf] ¿kdf lrlqt eO/x]sf] a]nf o;sf jfddfuL{ kl/jt{gsfdL l;4fGtnfO{ To;} Sofgef;dfly pHofnf /Ëx¿n] d"t{ ¿kdf phfu/ ul/lbg' x'g] JolQmsf] ¿kdf >L s[i0frGb|l;Fx k|wfgsf] gfd pgL ;Ddfgsf ;fy lnG5g\ . To:t} gjLg k|of]ux¿sf] nflu sljtf/fdnfO{ w/fgb]lv g} ljz]if k|f]T;fxg lbg] ldq ceL ;'j]bLnfO{ klg pgL Pp6f k|]/0ffsf] ;|f]t dfGb5g\ .

c:jLs[t ;flxlTos cfGbf]ngnfO{ ;+/If0f ug]{ x]t';fy @)%$ df :yflkt c:jLs[t ljrf/ ;flxlTos k'/:sf/ u'7Lsf] :yfkgfdf sljtf/fdn] ltg} cfˆgf k|]/0ffsf ;|f]tx¿nfO{ /xg cfu|x u/]sf 5g\ / ljut af¥x jif{b]lv s[i0frGb|l;Fx k|wfg cWoIf, gu]Gb|/fh zdf{ ;b:o ;lrj / cle ;'j]bL ;b:osf] ¿kdf ;+nUg 5g\ . o; u'7Ldf sljtf/fdn] ;'?b]lv g} j}rfl/s lx;fan] cfˆgf u'? /x]sf uf]ljGb e§ / ;xwdL{ gf/fo0f 9sfnsf ;fy} ;f]dgfy l3ld/]nfO{ ;d]t ;;Ddfg ;+nUg u/fPsf 5g\ .15 pgLx¿ klg sljtf/fdsf] ceLi6nfO{ ;3fpg] phf{;|f]tsf ¿kdf kl/lrt 5g\ . To:t} x/]s jif{sf] k'/:sf/ x:tfGt/0f ;df/f]xdf dbgdl0f bLlIftnfO{ k|d'v cfltYo u|x0f u/fpg pgn] slxNo} la;]{sf 5}gg\ .

;flxlTos n]vgsfo{ / k|sflzt÷ck|sflzt j[mltx¿

@)!& ;fnb]lv sljtf n]v]/ ;flxlTos ofqf k|f/De ug]{ sljtf/fdn] g]kfnL ;flxTonfO{ @* j6f k':ts lbP/ k|z:t u'g nufPsf 5g\ .16 logsf s[ltx¿ cd]l/sf / ef/taf6 PsPsj6f clg @^ j6f g]kfnaf6 k|sflzt ePsf 5g\ eg] % j6f cª\u|]hL efiffdf / @# j6f g]kfnL efiffdf k|sflzt 5g\ . oL dWo] !% j6f afn;flxTo / afFsL !# j6f k|f}9 ;flxTo 5g\ eg] !% pkGof;, & syf, @ gf6s, ! ;dfnf]rgf, ! lgaGw, ! cg';Gwfg / ! ldl>t ljwfsf k':tsx¿ 5g\ . logdf $ cg'lbt 5g\ / b'O{{ ;xn]vgsf 5g\ . o;sf cltl/Qm pgsf !# j6f ljleGg ljwfsf s[ltx¿ k|sfzf]Gd'v 5g\ . ;fy} ;flxTo]Q/ kmfF6df xfn;Dd cg';Gwfgtkm{ ## / tflnd ljifos hDdf $@ j6f k':ts k|sflzt 5g\ eg] s]xL ;fËLlts PNadx¿ klg k|sflzt 5g\ .17 pgsf k|sflzt tyf ck|sflzt j[mltx¿sf] ;"rL lgDg cg';f/ 5—


Psn n]vgdf k|sflzt ;flxlTos k':tsx¿ -hDdf @^, c+u|]hL ^, g]kfnL @)_

  1. ;f/ËLsf] ¥ofOF¥ofOF, afn pkGof;, -g]kfnL / cË|]hL_ a"s Kofn];, sf7df8f}F, @))( .

  2. Droplet, Science Novel (English Translation of "Paniko Thopa|"), Student Publication, Kathmandu, 009.

  3. Bandevi, Science Novel, (English Translation of "Bandevi"), Student Publication, Kathmandu, 009.

  4. ;[li6sf] k'/f0f –lj1fg afn pkGof;, ;femf k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, ;g\ @))* .

  5. df6f]sf] Joyf ljb]zsf] ;kgf, rnlrq gf6\Ø k6syf, ;flxlTos kqsf/ ;ª\3, sf7df8f}F, ;g\ @))% .

  6. :s"n hfg] /x/, afn pkGof;, -lrlgof n]vs Sjfg Xjfsf] Going to School sf] cg'jfb_ ;[hgzLn k|sfzg, ;g\ @))$ .

  7. h'h'xL/f, ?d 6' /L8, sf7df8f}F, ;g\ @))# .

  8. s's'/sf] syf M afnpkGof;, gfufh'{g k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, ;g\ @))@ .

  9. dfjnLsf] ofqf M afnpkGof;, ;femf k|sfzg, ;g\ @))@ .

  10. s] lsg elgof] < M au/ kmfpG8];g, sf7df8f}F, ;g\ @))@, -Ogf]e]zg cjf8{, ;g\ @))* n08gaf6 k|fKt_ .

  11. cgf}7f] ofqf M afn lj1fg pkGof;, ;femf k|sfzg, @))! -g]kfn afn;flxTo ;dfhåf/f jif{sf] ;jf]{Ts[i6 afn k':tssf] ¿kdf k'/:s[t tyf lq=lj=, lj=P= g]kfnL P]lR5s ljifosf] kf7\Øk':ts_ .

  12. sldnfsf] syf M afn lj1fg pkGof;, afn sf];]nL, sf7df8f}F+, ;g\ !((@, -g]kfn afn;flxTo ;dfhåf/f jif{sf] ;jf]{Ts[i6 afn k':tssf] ¿kdf k'/:s[t tyf lq=lj=, lj=P= g]kfnL P]lR5s ljifosf] kf7\Øk':ts_ .

  13. :jefjuLtf M gf6s, ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F+, !((@ .

  14. d'lQmk|;Ësf c:jLs[t syfx¿ M syf ;ª\u|x, ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F+, !(() .

  15. askq M pkGof;, ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F+, !(*( .

  16. d]/f c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿, lgaGw, cleJolQm k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F+, !(*( .

  17. k|nfk M syf ;ª\u|x, ;f´f k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F+, !(*! .

  18. jgb]jL M afn pkGof;, ;f´f k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F+, !(*) / !(*$ .

  19. kfgLsf] yf]kf M afn lj1fg pkGof;, ;f´f k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F+, !(*)÷!(** -cGt/f{li6«o afnsf]ifåf/f cGt/f{li6«o afnjif{ !(*@–!(*# sf] nflu ;jf]{Ts[i6 k':tssf] ¿kdf k'/is[t_ .

  20. sfnf] syfÚ M syf ;ª\u|x, ;f/ ;ª\u|x k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F+, !(&( .

  21. a'l4aËf/fsf] 6]lnkmf]g efu ! M afn lj1fg syf;ª\u|x, ljj]s l;h{gzLn k|sfzg, @))@ .

  22. a'l4aËf/fsf] 6]lnkmf]g efu @ M afn lj1fg syf;ª\u|x, ljj]s l;h{gzLn k|sfzg, @))@ .

  23. j'¢LaËf/fsf] 6]lnkmf]g efu # M afn lj1fg syf;ª\u|x, ljj]s ;Lh{gzLn k|sfzg, @))@ .

  24. From the Mango Tree and other Folk Tales from Nepal : Library Unlimited, Colorado, USA, 1996; -cd]l/sL dfWolds tyf k|fylds ljBfnosf lzIfsx¿sf nflu ;Gbe{ k':ts18 tyf "World Folk Series" df ;dflji6 . 19_

  25. Confession : (English Translation of Novel Bakpatra, translated by Larry Hartsel), Book Faith New Delhi, India, 1995.

  26. Socio-cultural aspects of a gap between knowledge and practice amongst home caretakers of childhood diarrhoea in rural Nepal; Doctoral Philosophy in Sociology; 1997.


;xn]vgdf k|sflzt k':tsx¿ -hDdf @_

  1. lj:yflkt cg'xf/x¿ M ;flxTo ;ª\u|x, k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F+, !(&@ .

  2. cjtf/ lj36g M pkGof;, hgfb{g hf]zL, sf7df8f}F+, !(*(


k|sflzt k'm6s/ ;flxlTos /rgfx¿ M

sljtf/fdsf k'm6s/ /rgfx¿ ljljw kqklqsfdf k|sflzt ePsf / eO/x]sf 5g\ . pgn] #)) eGbf a9L syf, sljtf, lgaGw tyf ;fF:j[mlts zf]wsf n]vx¿ ;+;f/el/sf ljleGg kqklqsf, OG6/g]6 j]e;fO6x¿sf ;fy} cfˆg} j]e;fO6 aswikrit.com dfkm{t\ k|sflzt u/]sf 5g\ . tL n]v /rgfx¿ k':tsfsf/df ;Ílnt 5}gg\ . c;ª\Vo ePsfn] ;ª\u|x u/]/ ;fWo klg 5}g . aswikrit.com df eg] oL km'6\s/ /rgfx¿sf] ;ª\u|x ug]{ k|of; ePsf] b]lvG5 .


k|sfzf]Gd'v ;flxlTos s[ltx¿ -hDdf !#_ M

sljtf/fdsf !# k':tsx¿ k|sfzf]Gd'v /x]sf 5g\ . logdf …/x:odo u'kmfÚ / …d'lQm;ª\3if{Ú gfds b'O{j6f rnlrqsf] k6syf gf6ssf] ¿kdf k|sfzf]Gd'v 5g\ eg] cGo k|sfzf]Gd'v s[ltx¿ x'g\– df6f] af]N5 -gf6s_, ;do h~hfn -lj1fg pkGof;_, c:jLs[t a'4 -ca kl/jlt{t zLif{s dxflelgiqmd0fsf c:jLs[t kfOnfx¿, P]ltxfl;s pkGof;_, k'g:yf{kgf -lj1fg pkGof;_, :jLs[t ofqfsf c:jLs[t ;Gbe{x¿ -lgaGw_, oL cb\e"t c:jLs[t ;|i6fx¿ -lgaGw_ . sljtf/fdsf sljtfx¿ -sljtf ;ª\u||x_, l;h{gzLn x:tfIf/x¿, -tfTtftf] ljrf/ ;Íng_, sljtf/fdsf c:jLs[tjfbL syfx¿, gGbgLlt -lktf gGb/fdsf dfGotfx¿sf] hLjgLk/s ;Íng_, xh'/cfdf gfltgL ;+jfb -@)) syfs[t csf6\o tYox¿_, / Tales from Himalayan Oral Tradition.

rnlrq syf, ;+jfb tyf uLt n]vg -hDdf @ j6f_ M

  1. /x:odo u'kmf, @)$% .

  2. d'lQm ;ª\3if{ @)$*, lel8of] lkmNd P;f]lzozgaf6 cfof]lht /fli6«o lel8of] lkmNd dxf]T;j !((@ af6 n]vg / clegosf ;fy} cGo $ ljwf u/L ^ j6f ;jf]{Ts[i6 k'/:s/, Kof]ª\ofª cGt/f{li6«o lkmNd dxf]T;j, !(($ af6 Plzof clk|msf ;f]ln8fl/6L cjf8{ k|fKt -tTsfnLg g]skf dfcf]jfbL kf6L{åf/f hgo'4 ;'? ug{'cl3 hgtfnfO{ zª\3if{zLn hgr]tgf lbg jif{lbg;Dd z}lIfs ;fdu|Lsf] ¿kdf k|o'Qm tyf g]skf Pdfn]sf ljleGg eft[ ;ª\u7g / ljb]zsf ;Dks{ ;ldltåf/f hgr]tgfTds sfo{qmdx¿df k|o'Qm ePsf] eGg] sljtf/fdsf] egfO_ .

;ËLt, uLt tyf ufog

lxdfno 6]lnlehg, sf]nf]/f8f], ;+o'Qm /fHo cd]l/sfn] sljtf/fdåf/f /lrt tyf ;ËLta4 * j6f hfu/0f uLtx¿;fy …df6f] af]N5Ú eGg] uLlt Sof;]6 tyf l;=l8= k|:t't u/]sf] 5 . 20

cg';Gwfg ljwfsf k|sflzt s[ltx¿M

sljtf/fdsf k|d'v k];f cg';Gwfg tyf tflnd x'g\ . pgn] cfkm}F ;+:yfks /x]sf] Go" P/fdf !) jif{, o'P;P8åf/f cg'alGwt ;d"x h]P;cfOdf % jif{;Dd oxL sfd u/] . kl5Nnf s]xL jif{x¿df k|fWofkg k];fdf ;+nUg x'g'cl3 pgn] cfˆg} ;+:yf sf6{;\af6 klg o;} k];fnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbP . log} sfo{x¿;Fu ;Da4 /xL ul/Psf cg';Gwfg;DaGwL Psn n]vgsf @) / ;xn]vgsf !# u/L hDdf ## j6f k|sflzt s[ltx¿ k|sflzt 5g\ .21 logsf] ljj/0f o; k|sf/ 5—


Psn n]vgsf cË|]hLdf k|sflzt zf]w k':tsx¿ -hDdf @)_

  1. An Ethnographic Study on Child-care Practices among Tamangs in a Rural Area near Kathmandu; Consulting Associates for Research and Training Services (CARTS)/Mrigendra Medical Trust (MMT); 1990.

  2. Social Marketing of New ORS Product in Nepal; John Snow Inc.(JSI)/Publich Health Division (PHD), 1988.

  3. Anthropological study on Alcoholism and Maternity Child Health Practices among Tamang Women in Kathmandu Periphery; CARTS/MMT; 1990.

  4. Women's Income Generation Feasibility Study; Communication Development Center/Women Development Section, Ministry of Panchayat and Local Development; 1989.

  5. ORT Consumer Preference Study: JSI; 1988.

  6. Community Health Leader Program Evaluation; JSI/PHD: 1987.

  7. A Study on the Family Planning Maternity Child Health Activities of NGOs in Nepal; JSI; 1987.

  8. Evaluation of Home Made ORS; JSI/Intercept/UNICEF; 1987.

  9. Child Survival Program Evaluation in Bara; JSI; 1987.

  10. ORT Container Study; JSI; 1987.

  11. Ethnographic Research on Diarrheal Diseases; CRS/JSI; 1986.

  12. As Evaluation of Community Based Health Project - Panauti; Nepal Red Cross Society/CARTS: 1986.

  13. Review of Ethnographic Literature on Diarrheal Disease in Nepal; JSI, 1986.

  14. Annotated Bibliography of Ethnographic Research on Diarrheal Diseases; JSI, 1986.

  15. Evaluation of Jumla Health Project; New ERA/Nepal Red Cross Society/International Human Assistance Program/USAID, Nepal, 1983.

  16. Women in Forestry Project; A Feasibility Survey and Designing of Two Years Long Action Program: New ERA/UNSCAP, Thailand; 1983.

  17. Peace Crop Nepal Education Program Evaluation; Peace Crop/New ERA, 1983.

  18. Attitude and Opinion Survey of United Mission of Nepal's School Assistance Program in Gorkha; United Mission to Nepal/New ERA 1982.

  19. Soybean Production and Utilization Survey at Kavre and Makawanpur District; CARE/Nepal, 1980.

  20. Forestry Needs Assessment Survey at Chautara; NAFP/New ERA; 1981, 1980 and 1979.


;xn]vgsf cË|]hLdf k|sflzt zf]w k':tsx¿ -hDdf !#_ M

  1. An Evaluation of GVS/SNV Involvement in the Community Water Supply Program of the Ministry of the Local Development; German Volunteer Service, Nepal/New ERA; 1981.

  2. Study on the Indigenous Knowledge and Traditional Practices of Farmers in the Hill Regions of Nepal; South Asia Watch on Trade, Economics and Environment/Ford Foundation/Pro-Public; Kathmandu, Nepal; 2002.

  3. Evaluation of Clean Home Delivery Kit; PATH, Save the Children (USA), Save the Children (UK), Save the Children (Japan), and REDDVARNA (Netherlands); 1998.

  4. Qualitative Investigation of Rural Social Marketing of Safe Home Delivery Kits; PATH/Save the Children USA, 1993

  5. Qualitative Investigation of Rural Social Marketing of Temporary Contraceptives and ORS; Save the Children USA, 1992.

  6. Study on Visual literacy; UNICEF/JSI; 1988.

  7. A Study of the Traditional Birth Attendants in Nepal; JSI; 1987.

  8. Acute Respiratory Infection Intervention Study at Gorkha District; Save the Children, USA/JSI; 1986.

  9. A Study on Ecological Behavior of Rhesus Monkeys at Temple Area in Kathmandu; New ERA/Earth Watch, Belmont, Ma. USA; 1985.

  10. A Follow-up Study of the Tinau Watershed Project at Palpa District; New ERA/SATA; 1985.

  11. Fertility and Mortality Rates in Nepal, A National Survey; New ERA/National Commission of Population, Nepal 1984.

  12. Social Action and Adaptive Research Project at Gorkha, Myagdi and Mustang; Resource Conservation and Utilization Project/USAID/New ERA, 1983.

  13. Nutrition Education Survey of the Kalimati Clinic's Service Area; American Women of Nepal (AWON), 1980.

tflnd ljifos k|fljlws ljwfsf k|sflzt s[ltx¿

sljtf/fdn] h]P;cfO, l8P / hkfOuf]sf] nflu !@ jif{ / kl5 o'Pgl8kL, jN8{ g]a;{, k|f]klAnssf nflu klg 5'6k'6df tflnd ljifos ;]jf lbPsf x'Fbf pgn] sfd u/]sf tflnd kl/of]hgfx¿ w]/} 5g\ . hDdf $@ j6f tflnd;DaGwL k|fljlws k':ts tyf ;fdu|Lx¿ k|sflzt 5g\ .22 oL s[ltx¿ cGt/fl{i6«o ;ª\3;+:yfaf6 k|fof]lht eP klg nlIft ;d"x g]kfnL ;d'bfo ePsfn] g]kfnL efiffdf lgld{t tyf k|sflzt 5g\ . logdf * j6f ljsf; lgdf{0fsf ljleGg If]q;Da4 ;fdu|Lx¿ 5g\ eg] afFsL #$ j6f g]kfn ;/sf/sf] /fli6«o :jf:Yo tflnd s]Gb|, :jf:Yo dGqfnosf] nflu tof/ ePsf :jf:Yo;Da4 ;fdu|Lx¿ 5g\ . logdf hf]G; xlKsG; o'lgel;{6L k|f]u|fd km/ OG6/g]zgn Ph's]zg Og l/k|f]8lS6e x]Ny -hkfOuf]_ n] ljZj :jf:Yo ;ª\3sf] dfgs cg';f/ tof/ u/]sf !# j6f k':tsx¿sf g]kfnL k|f¿k klg 5g\ h;nfO{ sljtf/fdn] g]kfnsf] dfgs tyf ;+:s[lt;Ddt agfO{ k'gn]{vg u/]sf lyP . pgn] cGo pNn]lvt k':ts tyf ;fdu|Lx¿sf] nflu k|fljlws ljifj:t' ;DalGwt ljifosf 1ftfx¿af6 lnFb} tflnd ljifos k|fljlws k|:t'lt tflnd ljif]z1sf] x}l;otdf ;dfof]hg u/]sf 5g\ . s]xL ljj/0f lgDgfg';f/ 5g\—


k|fs[lts ;|f]t Joj:yfkgdf hg;xeflutf

  1. k|fs[lts ;|f]t Joj:yfkgsf] nflu jsfnt ;|f]t k':ts M

  2. k|fs[lts ;|f]t Joj:yfkgsf] nflu jsfnt tflnd k'l:tsf

:jf:Yo dGqfno÷hkfOuf]÷o'P;P8÷sf6{;\ cGtu{t

  1. Dfft[ tyf gjhft lzz' :jf:Yosf] sfo{ ;~rfng ;Gbe{ k':ts, @))) .

  2. Dfft[ tyf gjhft lzz' :jf:Yo;DaGwL] xft]k'l:tsf, @))) .

  3. cgdLx¿sf] sfo{ ;~rfng ;Gbe{ k':ts, @))) .

  4. cgdLsf] sfd;DaGwL xft]k'l:tsf, @))) .

  5. cfOo"l8;DaGwL sfo{ ;~rfng ;Gbe{ k':ts, !((( .

  6. cfOo"l8;DaGwL xft]k'l:tsf, @))) .

  7. kl/jf/ lgof]hgdf ;ª\qmd0f /f]syfd;DaGwL sfo{ ;~rfng ;Gbe{ k':ts, !((^ .

  8. kl/jf/ lgof]hgdf ;ª\qmd0f /f]syfd;DaGwL xft]k'l:tsf, !((^ .

  9. gf]/KnfG6;DaGwL] sfo{ ;~rfng ;Gbe{ k':ts, !((^ .

  10. gf]/KnfG6;DaGwL xft]k'l:tsf, !((^ .

  11. ldlgNofkf/f6f]dL;DaGwL sfo{ ;~rfng ;Gbe{ k':ts, !((% .

  12. ldlgNofkf/f6f]dL;DaGwL xft]k'l:tsf, !((% .

  13. g]kfnsf Kof/fd]l8ssf] nflu ;dli7t kl/jf/ lgof]hg kf7\Øqmd !((#–!((% .

:jf:Yo dGqfno÷hkfOuf]÷o'P;P÷8]en]kd]G6 Pzf]lzP6\; cGtu{t !((# b]lv !((% df k|sflzt

  1. gLlt lgdf{tfsf] sfo{ ;~rfng k'l:tsf -dlxnf :jf:Yo :jo+;]ljsf sfo{qmd_ .

  2. k|lzIfssf] k|lzIfs Dofg'cn, -dlxnf :jf:Yo :jo+;]ljsf sfo{qmd_ .

  3. k|lzIfs Dofg'cn, -dlxnf :jf:Yo :jo+;]ljsf sfo{qmd_ .

  4. lg/If/ ldlxnf :jf:Yo :jo+;]ljsfsf] lgldQ ;lrq cEof; k'l:tsf .

  5. dlxnf :jf:Yo :jo+;]ljsfsf] lgldQ sfo{ ;~rfng k'l:tsf .

  6. cfdf ;d"x tflndsf] nflu k|lzIfs Dofg'cn .

  7. cfdf ;d"xsf] nflu ;lrq sfo{ ;~rfng k'l:tsf .

  8. ;lrq lˆnk rf6{ -dlxnf :jf:Yo :jo+;]ljsf sfo{qmd_ .

  9. k|lzIf0f k'l:tsf -dlxnf :jf:Yo :jo+;]ljsf sfo{qmd_ .

  10. :nfO8 Kofs]h -dlxnf :jf:Yo :jo+;]ljsf sfo{qmd_ .

  11. k|lzIf0f lrq k'l:tsf -dlxnf :jf:Yo :jo+;]ljsf sfo{qmd_ .

  12. ;'F8]gL tflnd ;fdu|L -k'l:tsf / ˆnLk rf6{_ /]8 jgf{, :jf:Yo dGqfno, g]kfn .


;k|f];/o'Pgl8lk cGtu{t !((# df k|sflzt

  1. pkef]Qmfsf] nflu sfo{;~rfng k'l:tsf M l;FrfO .

  2. pkef]Qmfsf] nflu sfo{;~rfng k'l:tsf M vfg]kfgL .

  3. pkef]Qmfsf] nflu sfo{;~rfng k'l:tsf M u|fdL0f af6f] .

  4. pkef]Qmfsf] nflu sfo{;~rfng k'l:tsf M jg .

  5. pkef]Qmfsf] nflu sfo{;~rfng k'l:tsf M u|fdL0f ljsf; .

  6. pkef]Qmfx¿nfO{ k|lzIf0f Dofg'cn .


jN8{ g]a;{ /kfy cGtu{t !((! k|sflzt

  1. kl/jf/ lgof]hg tyf k|hgg :jf:Yo xft]k'l:tsf, jN8{ g]a;{ /kfy .

  2. ;~rf/ xft]k'l:tsf, jN8{ g]a;{ /kfy .

  3. k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f xft]k'l:tsf, jN8{ g]a;{ /kfy .

hf]g :gf] OÍ/o'P;P8 cGtu{t !((* df k|sflzt .

  1. Zjf;k|:jf;sf] nflu emf8fkvfnf kf7\Øqmd, Pcf/cfO{ sfo{qmd / /]8qm;, g]kfn/ hf]g:gf] OÍ/o'P;P8 .

  2. g;{x¿sf] nflu Dofg'cn, kl/jf/ lgof]hg tfy dft[ lzz' :jf:Yo sfo{qmd, hf]g:gf] OÍ÷o'P;P8 .

  3. :jf:Yo sfo{stf{sf] nflu Dofg'cn, kl/jf/ lgof]hg sfo{qmd, hf]g:gf] OÍ/o'P;P8 .

  4. ;'F8]gL k|lzIf0fsf] nflu k|lzIfssf] Dofg'cn /]8jgf{ -cg'jfb_, /fli6«o tflnd s]Gb|, :jf:Yo dGqfno, g]kfn .


Tfflnd ;fdu|Lsf] ¿kdf lgld{t lel8cf] rnlrq !((% df lgld{t

  1. kl/jf/ lgof]hg lel8of] k|lzIf0f ;fdu|L M cg'jfb tyf cfjfh ;Dk|]if0f u/]sf], Kof/fd]l8S;sf] nflu kl/jf/ lgof]hg;DaGwL k|lzIf0f ;fdu|Lsf] ¿kdf lgld{t M hf]G;xlKsG; afnlbdf]/ o'P;P, !((% .

  2. kl/jf/ lgof]hg lel8of] rnlrq M lgdf{0f tfy lgb]{zg u/]sf], Kof/fd]l8S;sf] nflu kl/jf/ lgof]hg;DaGwL k|lzIf0f ;fdu|Lsf] ¿kdf lgld{t M hf]G;xlKsG;÷lkl;P;, o'P;P, !((% .


;ª\sng tyf ;Dkfbg M hDdf tLgj6f23

sljtf/fdn] w]/} kqklqsf / :dfl/sfx¿sf] ;Dkfbg u/]sf 5g\ . h;df dx]Gb| sn]h w/fgsf] …5fofFÚ, sf7df8f}Fsf] ;d;fdlos ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzg, ….. dGq..Ú / …;~hLjgLÚ k|d'v 5g\ . k':tsfsf/df ;ª\slnt tyf ;Dkflbt s[ltx¿ lgDg 5g\ .

  1. Ps ;o Ps x:tfIf/x¿ M ljrf/ ;ª\u|x, ljb]x k|sfzg, sf7df08f}F, !(*!

  2. kmqmFbf sf]lknfx¿ M /fli6«o afn lgaGw k|ltof]lutfsf pTs[i7 /rgfx¿, 6]Dk; OG6/g]zgn / /L8 o'P;P, ))^

  3. slnnf sndsf syfsYof}/L M /fli6«o afnsyf n]vg sfo{zfnf uf]i7Laf6 pTkflbt afnsyfx¿, 6]Dk; OG6/g]zgn / /L8 o'P;P, ))^

  4. d]/f] Kof/f] cf]vN9'+uf, cf]vn9'Ëf ;fdflhs u'7L, sf7df8f}F, )$@


;flxlTos, ;f+:s[lts, eflifs ultljlwM

sljtf/fdn] ljleGg ;dodf y/Ly/Lsf ;flxlTos k|j4{gfTds ultljlwx¿ ;~rfng u/]sf b]lvG5g\ . pgdf ljz]ifu/L sfo{zfnf uf]i7Lx¿, sfo{kq k|:t'lt, j}rfl/s cfGbf]ng, cg';Gwfg sfo{, k|j4{g ;+hfn tyf k'/:sf/ ;+:yfkg, sfo{zfnf uf]i7Lx¿, sfo{kq k|:t'lt k|d'v b]lvG5g\ . s]xL ljj/0f lgDgfg';f/ 5– 24

  1. cGt/f{li6|o g]kfnL afn;flxTo k|j4{g ;+hfn ;+of]hs M o; ;+hfndfkm{t sljtf/fdn] cGt/f{li6|o :t/df afnaflnsfx¿nfO{ g]kfnL ;flxTo ;[hgfsf] k|lzIf0f sfo{ ;+of]hg ub}{ 5g\ . g]kfn, j]nfot, cd]l/sf, ?;, j]lNhod, Sofgf8f, a'|gfO{df :yflkt cGt/f{li6|o g]kfnL afn;flxTo k|j4{g ;~hfnsf RofK6/x¿ o; sfo{df ;s[o 5g\ . sljtf/fd o;sf cGt/f{li6|o ;+of]hs 5g\ . of] ;~hfnn] cgnfOg ;flxlTos j]j ;fO6dfkm{t afnsx¿åf/f ;[lht /rgfx¿nfO{ k|sflzt ub]{ cfPsf] 5 .

  2. sfo{zfnf uf]i7L ;+of]hs M /fli6«o syfn]vg k|ltof]lutfÙ lgDg dfWolds ljBfno, dfWolds ljBfno, pRr dfWolds ljBfnosf 5fqx¿sf] nflu leGg leGg ¿kdf 6]Dk; OG6/g]zgn -Sofgf8f_ / /L8 -cd]l/sf_ åf/f cfof]lht sfo{qmdM sf7df8f}F @))& .

  3. sfo{zfnf uf]i7L ;+of]hs M /fli6«o syfn]vg k|ltof]lutfÙ lgDg dfWolds ljBfno, dfWolds ljBfno, pRr dfWolds ljBfnosf 5fqfx¿sf] nflu leGg leGg ¿kdf 6]Dk; OG6/g]zgn -Sofgf8f_ / /L8 -cd]l/sf_ åf/f cfof]lht sfo{qmdÙ sf7df8f}F @))& .

  4. sfo{zfnf uf]i7L ;+of]hs M /fli6«o lgaGwn]vg k|ltof]lutfÙ lgDg dfWolds ljBfno, dfWolds ljBfno, pRr dfWolds ljBfnosf 5fqfx¿sf] nflu leGg leGg ¿kdf 6]Dk; OG6/g]zgn -Sofgf8f_ / /L8 -cd]l/sf_ åf/f cfof]lht sfo{qmdÙ sf7df8f}F @))^ .


  1. sfo{zfnf uf]i7L ;+of]hs M /fli6«o lgaGwn]vg k|ltof]lutfÙ lgDg dfWolds ljBfno, dfWolds ljBfno, pRr dfWolds ljBfnosf 5fqx¿sf] nflu leGg leGg ¿kdf 6]Dk; OG6/g]zgn -Sofgf8f_ / /L8 -cd]l/sf_ åf/f cfof]lht sfo{qmdÙ sf7df8f}F @))^ .

  2. sfo{zfnf uf]i7L ;~rfns M /fli6«o k7gkf7g k|j4{g sfo{zfnf uf]i7L, /L8 -cd]l/sf_ cS6f]a/ ))$, sf7df8f}F .


  1. k'/:sf/ ;+:yfks M dgdfof ;'gf}nf] ;f+:s[lts k|j4{g k'/:sf/ x/]s jif{ Pshgf ;+:s[ltsdL{nfO{ lbOg] ;Ddfg . ;+rfns ;'gf}nf] k':tsfno, w/fg, !((* .

  2. k'/:sf/ ;+:yfks M c:jLs[t ljrf/ ;flxTo k'/:sf/, c:jls[t ljrf/ ;flxTo u'7Låf/f ;~rflnt x/]s jif{ ! hgfnfO{ ? !#, ))) ;fy lbOg] k'/:sf/, :yf= !((^ .

  3. k'/:sf/ ;+:yfks M sljtf/fd afn;flxTo k|j4{g sb/kq, afnd~r g]kfnåf/f ;~rflnt x/]s jif{ ! ;+:yfnfO{ lbOg] ;Ddfg, :yf= !((^ .

  4. k'/:sf/ ;+:yfks M sljtf/fd afn;flxTo k|ltef k'/:sf/, afnd~r g]kfnåf/f ;~rflnt x/]s jif{ ! hgfnfO{ ? @, ))) a/fa/sf] k':ts;fy lbOg] k'/:sf/, :yf= !((^ .

  5. k'/:sf/ ;+:yfks M sljtf/fd afn;flxTo k|j4{g ;Ddfg, afnd~r g]kfnåf/f ;~rflnt x/]s jif{ ! hgfnfO{ ? %, ))) ;fy lbOg] k'/:sf/, :yf= !((^ .

  6. cleoGtf M a'6kfln; ;flxlTos cleofg, sf7df8f}F, !(&$

  7. cleoGtf M c:jLs[t ;flxlTos cleofg, sf7df8f}F, !(^(

  8. sfo{kq k|:tf]tf M t];|f] /fli6«o efiff ;Dd]ng, g]kfn ln+u'Ol:6s ;f];fO6L, gf]e]Da/, !(*@, sfo{kq – nf]ssyfx¿n] efiffaf/] s] eG5 <

  9. sfo{kq k|:tf]tf M /fli6«o afn;flxTo ;Dd]ng, ag]kf, g]kfn afn;flxTo ;dfh, sfo{kq – afn;flxTodf lj1fgsyfsf] cfjZostf

kqsfl/tf -;+nUg klqsf hDDff !), kqsf/b]lv, k|sfzs tyf cWoIf;Dd_ M25

  1. cWoIf M g]kfn 6]lnlehg -/fhgLlts lgo'lQm_

  2. ;Nnfxsf/ M gjo'jf dfl;s, d"NofÍg k|sfzg, !((^ b]lv xfn;Dd

  3. ;+rfns -lgb]{zs_ M ;u/dfyf, g]kfnL b}lgs, ;"o{ k|sfzg k|f=ln, !((^ b]lv !((^ b]lv @))% ;Dd

  4. ;+rfns -lgb]{zs_ M Everst Herald, c+u]|hL b}lgs, ;"o{ k|sfzg k|f=ln, !((^ b]lv !((^ b]lv @))%;Dd

  5. k|sfzs÷cWoIf M 5fgjLg, ;fKtflxs xfn;Dd

  6. ;Dkfbs M d]/f] Kof/f] cf]vN9'Ëf, ;flxTo ;ª\sng, !(()

  7. ;Dkfbs÷k|sfzs M ;fdlos ;f/ ;ª\u|x, g]kfnL 8fOh]i6, !(&@–&#

  8. ;Dkfbs÷k|sfzs M dGq, ;fdlos ;flxTo, !(&)–!(&@

  9. cltly ;Dkfbs M ;+hLjgL, ;fdlos ;flxTo, !(&)

  10. kqsf/ M j;'wf, dfl;s, c+u|]hL, !(&)–!(&@

  11. kqsf/ M ;xL cfjfh, b}lgs g]kfnL, !(&!


:jo+;]jL ;ª\3 ;+:yfx¿df ;+nUgtf26

sljtf/fd ;dfh;]jfdf klg plQs} Jo:t b]lvG5g\ . pgL xfn lzIff, rnlrq, cg';Gwfg, k|lzIf0f, ;~rf/, ljsf; lgdf{0f, ;flxTo, ;+:s[lt, /Ëd~r, jftfj/0f ;+/If0f, dlxnf tyf lzz' sNof0f, b'Jo{;g lgoGq0f cflb;Da4 ;+:yfx¿df kbflwsf/L, ;+:yfks, tyf ;Nnfxsf/ u/L nueu tLg bh{g ;+:yfdf ;+nUg /x]sf 5g\ . xfn pgL cd]l/sg g]kfnL :6'8]G6\; jLldG; l/lnkm -PG;;{_ eGg] cd]l/sL ;+:yfsf] g]kfn RofK6/sf] nflu cWoIf 5g\ . o; ;+:yfn] g]kfndf xfn ^$# u/Lj 5fq5fqfnfO{ b]ze/sf !!% j6f lghL :s'n tyf sn]hx¿df z'Ns, k':ts, :6]zg/L, o'lgkmd{ tyf cfjZos z}lIfs / :jf:Yout ;+/If0f;fy lzIff lbFb}5 . of] ;+Vof x/]s jif{ a9\bf] 5 . ;fy} pgL cGt/f{li6«o g]kfnL afn;flxTo k|j4{g g]6js{sf] cGt/f{li6«o ;+of]hs 5g\, h;n] ljZje/sf ljB't -cgnfOg_ klqsfx¿df g]kfnL afn;flxTosf] k|j4{g ub}{5 . ;fy} pgL kmfpG8];g ckm ;fs{ /fO6;{ P08 ln6/]r/, g]kfn RofK6/sf] sfo{sf/L ;b:o klg 5g\ . pgL nfdf] ;dob]lv cfa4 ljleGg ;ª\3;+:yfx¿sf] s]xL ljj/0f o; k|sf/ 5—

  1. sfo{sf/L ;b:o M kmfpG8];g ckm ;fs{ /fO6;{ P08 ln6/]r/ g]kfn @))*– .

  2. cGt/f{li6«o ;+of]hs, cGt/f{li6«o g]kfnL afn;flxTo k|j4{g g]6js{, @))*– .

  3. cGt/f{li6«o ;Nnfxsf/ M afn;flxTo ;dfh, elh{lgof, o'P;P, @))*– .

  4. cGt/f{li6«o ;Nnfxsf/ M afn;flxTo ;dfh, n08g, o's], @))*– .

  5. cWoIf M cd]l/sg g]kfnL :6'8]G6\; jLldG; l/lnkm, g]kfn, sf7df8f}F @))& – .

  6. cGt/f{li6«o ;Nnfxsf/ M ;okqL sNr/n u|'k n08g, @))&– .

  7. cWoIf M cfbz{Hof]lt OËlnz xfO{ :s'n, u'G8' eQmk'/, @)))– .

  8. cWoIf M :j0f{ lzIff OËlnz ;]s]G8/L af]l8{Ë :s'n, uf]s0f{ sf7df8f}F+, !(((– .

  9. sfo{sf/L ;b:o M lzl4r/0f Ps]8]dL, sf7df8f}F+, !((*– .

  10. ;Nnfxsf/ M k"j]{nL hg;f+:s[lts ;d"x, sf7df8f}F+, !((^–!((( .

  11. ;+/Ifs Pj+ ;Nnfxsf/ M Plss[t snf ;d"x, sf7df8f}F+, !((^–!((( .

  12. ;+/Ifs Pj+ ;Nnfxsf/ M g]kfn cd]l/sf PsLs[t snf ;d"x, sf]nf]/f8f], cd]l/sf, !((^–!((( .

  13. ;Nnfxsf/ M g]kfn cd]l/sf ;Dks{ ;ldlt, sf]nf]/f8f], cd]l/sf, !((^–!((( .

  14. ;Nnfxsf/ M g]kfn cd]l/sf ;Dks{ ;ldlt, jfl;Ë6g, cd]l/sf, !((^–!((( .

  15. ;Nnfxsf/ M ;"of]{bo snf ;d"x, ;'ljwfgu/, sf7df8f}F+, !((%– .

  16. ;Nnfxsf/ M ;"o{ pbo snf ;d"x, sf]6]Zj/, sf7df8f}F+, !((%– .

  17. ;Nnfxsf/ M snf /fFsf], sf]6]Zj/, sf7df8f}F+, !((%– .

  18. ;Nnfxsf/ M gj/; snf dlGb/, dxfb]j:yfg, sf7df8f}F+, !((%– .

  19. sf]iffWoIf M g]kfn kmf]snf]/ ;f];fO6L, sf7df8f}F+, !(($– .

  20. ;Nnfxsf/ M dlxnf jftfj/0f bafa ;d"x s'k08f]n, nlntk'/+, !(($– .

  21. ;Nnfxsf/ M cf]d]g P08 lrN8«]g j}nkm]o/ d'ed]G6, ;f];fO6L km/ g]zgn 8]e]nf]kd]G6 -;fp08_ g]kfn, nlntk'/, !((%– .

  22. ;Nnfxsf/ M g]kfn lel8of] ;ª\3, sf7df8f}F+, !((%–!((( .

  23. ;Nnfxsf/ M dlxnf sNof0f tyf ljsf; s]Gb|, sf7df8f}F+, g]kfn, !((#–!((( .

  24. cWoIf tyf cfhLjg ;b:o M g]kfn lel8of] k|j4{g ;ª\3, sf7df8f}F, !(() – .

  25. pkfWoIf tyf cfhLjg ;b:o M jN{8 cu{gfOh]zg km/ cnL{ rfON8x'8 Ph's]zg, g]kfn RofK6/, sf7df8f}F+, !(** – .

  26. cWoIf M d~h'>L lkmNd;\ k|f=ln= sf7df8f}F+, !(**– .

  27. sfo{sf/L ;b:o tyf cfhLjg ;b:o M g]kfn 8«u PAo"h sG6«f]n ;f];fO6L, sf7df8f}F+, !(**– .

  28. dxf;lrj tyf cfhLjg ;b:o M lgb]{zg ;ldlt, cf]vn9'Ëf ;fdflhs u'7L, sf7df8f}F+, !(*^– .

  29. cWoIf tyf lgb]{zs M sG;lN6Ë Pzf]l;o6\; km/ l/;r{ P08 6«]lgË ;le{;]h, sf7df8f}F+, !(*^– .

  30. cfhLjg ;b:o M g]kfn afn;flxTo ;dfh, sf7df8f}F+, !(*$– .

  31. ;Nnfxsf/ M gd:t] Pzf]l;P6\;, Joj;foL dlxnfx¿åf/f ;~rflnt cg';Gwfg tyf tflnd ;+:yf, sf7df8f}F+, !(*@– .

  32. cWoIf tyf cfhLjg ;b:o M cf]vn9'Ëf ;fdflhs u'7L, sf7df8f}F+, !(*@–!(*^ .

  33. ;+:yfks M Go" P/f, cg';Gwfg tyf tflnd ;+:yf, sf7df08f} !(&$– .

;Ddfg tyf k'/:sf/x¿ 27

cf]vn9'Ëf h:tf] b'u{d 7fpFdf hGd]/ cfˆgf] d]xgt / sd{n] ;]Frg ub}{ cfk"mnfO{ ;Ddflgt / k'/:j[mt JolQmTj;Dd k'¥ofpg ;kmn ePsf sljtf/fdn] !( j6f /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o k'/:sf/, clegGbg tyf ;Ddfgx¿ k|fKt u/]sf 5g\ .28 h;df /fli6«o !# j6f / cGt/f{li6«o ^ j6f 5g\ .


/fli6«o:t/df k|fKt ;Ddfg tyf k'/:sf/x¿ M

  1. ;Ddfg tyf gub k'/:sf/ M pBf]u klqsf ;Ddfg, sf7df8f}F, @)^$ .

  2. clegGbg M ;'gf}nf] k':tsfno, w/fg–!&, @)^! .

  3. tGg]/L k|ltef ;Ddfg M tGg]/L å}dfl;s -tGg]/Ldf ljz]iffÍ;d]t k|sflzt_, @)%( .

  4. clegGbg M cfFvfsf] gfgL ljBfno, hf]/kf6L, sf7df8f}F, @)%( .

  5. ;femf afn;flxTo k'/:sf/, M ;jf]{Ts[i6 k':ts …cgf}7f] ofqfÚsf] nflu, )%* .

  6. clegGbg M /Tgrf]s dxf]T;j, w/fg, ;'G;/L, @)%^ .

  7. ;Ddfgkq M bf]nvf eLd klAns xfO :s'n, k|wfgfWofks eO{ of]ubfg lbP afkt, @)%* .

  8. clegGbg M lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt, cf]vn9'Ëf, lhNnfs} gfd /f]zg u/]afkt, @)%% .

  9. dx]Gb| ljBfe"if0f …sÚ M lk=Pr=8L= pkflw k|fKt u/] afkt, !((* .

  10. ;j{>]i7 o'jf k'/:sf/ M /Ëd~r, kflIfs, cGt/f{li6«o rnlrq dxf]T;jdf k'/is[t eO{ g]kfnsf] uf}/j a9fP afkt, )%! .

  11. ;jf]{Ts[i6 k':ts n]vs M …sldnfsf] syfÚ afnpkGof;sf] nflu, g]kfn afn;flxTo ;dfhÚ, !((@ .

  12. ;jf]{Ts[i6 lkmNdL 8«fdf n]vs M rnlrq …d'lQm ;ª\3if{Ú, lel8of] lkmNd P;f]lzozgaf6 cfof]lht /fli6«o lel8of] rnlrq dxf]T;j, !((@ .

  13. ;jf]{Ts[i6 rl/q cleg]tf M rnlrq …d'lQm;ª\3if{, lel8of] rnlrq P;f]lzozgaf6 cfof]lht /fli6«o lel8of] rnlrq dxf]T;j, !((@ .


cGt/f{li6«o:t/df k|fKt ;Ddfg tyf k'/:sf/x¿ M

  1. ;Ddfg M c:jLs[t ljrf/ ;flxlTos cfGbf]ngnfO{ ljlzi6 prfOdf k'¥ofPjfkt ;Ddfg M k|jf;L g]kfnL ;flxTo kl/ifb\, n08g, o's], )( .

  2. clegGbg M cGt/f{li6«o g]kfnL ;flxTo ;dfh, l8l; d]6«f] RofK6/, elh{lgof o'P;P, h'nfO{, @))* .

  3. ;Ddfg M ljug]kfn 86 sd, o's] RofK6/, n08g, o's], h'g, @))* .

  4. OGgf]e]zg Pjf8{ M -s] lsg elgof] < eGg] k':tssf] nflu_, g]kfn sNr/ ;]G6/, n08g, o's], h'g, @))* .

  5. Plzof clk|msf ;f]ln8fl/l6 Pjf8{ -cGt/f{li6«o rnlrq dxf]T;j k'/:sf/_ M …d'lQm ;ª\3if{Ú sf] nflu rf}yf] Kof]ªofª\ cGt/f{li6«o lkmNd dxf]T;j, !(($ .

  6. ;jf]{Ts[i6 k':ts n]vs M …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ sf] nflu cGt/f{li6«o afnsf]ifåf/f …cGt/f{li6«o afnjif{Ú -!(*@–!(*#_ df .


sljtf/fdsf sfo{If]q

sljtf/fdsf sfo{If]q ljljw 5g\ / Pscsf{sf kl/k"/s eP/ /x]sf 5g\ . df]6fdf]6L ¿kdf pgsf sfo{If]qnfO{ …;flxlTosÚ, …;f+:s[ltsÚ, …/fhgLltsÚ / …k/fdz{;]jfÚ u/L x]g{ ;lsG5 .

;flxTo M @)@^ ;fnb]lv ;zQm ¿kdf pbfP/ sljtf/fd cfh;Dd ;flxTosf ljljw ljwfdf / afn;flxTodf ;d]t ;[hgfsf ;fy} cu|ufdL cfGbf]ng / k|j4{g sfo{df plQs} of]ubfg lbFb} cfO/x]sf 5g\ .

;+:s[lt M sljtf/fd gf6s tyf rnlrqdf uLt, ;ËLt, ufog, clego, lgb]{zgdf ;nUg x'g'sf ;fy} ljleGg ;f+:s[lts ;d"xsf] ;Nnfxsf/ Pjd ;+/Ifs ;d]t /x]sf 5g\ . pgL g]skf dfn]sf ;flxTo Pj ;+:s[lt s]Gb|Lo ljefusf] ;b:o klg /x]sf] s'/f pgsf] hLjgj[Qdf e]l6G5 .

/fhgLlt M SofDk; k|j]z;Fu} k|ultzLn ljBfyL{ v]dfdf ;dflxt eO{ g]=s=kf= Pdfn]df /x]/ /fHodGqL:t/sf ;d]t $ j6f dxTTjk"0f{ /fhgLlts lgo'lQmx¿ kfO;s]sf sljtf/fd kl5 …g]=s=kf= dfn]Ú df /fli6«o kfif{b\, s]Gb|Lo k|lzIfs Pj+ ;flxTo tyf ;+:s[lt s]Gb|L|o ljefusf ;b:o eO{ sfd ul/;]s]sf 5g\ . xfn pgL g]skf PsLs[t dfcf]jfbLlt/ ePklg klxnf em}F /fhgLts lx;fan] ;s[o g/xL ;flxTo, ;+:s[lt, / ;dfh;]jfsf If]qdf ;+nUg 5g\ .29

k/fdz{;]jf -sG;N6\ØfG;L_ M sljtf/fdsf] hLjgsf] ;a}eGbf Jo:t sfo{If]q ;dfhzf:qLo k/fdz{;]jf xf] . of] k];f g} pgsf] k|d'v hLjgofkg ug]{ k];fsf] /x]sf] 5 . xfn pgL /fli6«o–cGt/fl{i6«o, ;/sf/L–u}/;/sf/L u/L bh{gf}F ;+:yfx¿df tflnd tyf cg';Gwfg ljz]if1sf] ¿kdf k/fdz{bftf 5g\ . pgsf] cfˆg} sG;lN6Ë Pzf]lzo6\; km/ l/;r{ PG8 6«]lgË ;le{;]h eGg] kf/dz{;]jL kmd{ klg 5 . pgL ljb]zdf lelhl6Ë k|f]km];/ klg /xFb} cfPsf 5g\ .

ljb]z e|d0f

sljtf/fdn] cGt/fl{i6«o Joj;fo cGtu{t cWofkg, k|lzIf0f, sfo{zfnf uf]i7L, a}7s tyf k/fdz{;]jf cflbsf nflu w]/} d'n'sx¿sf] e|d0f u/]sf 5g\ . af6fdf k/]sf d'n'sx¿;d]t u/L pgL !& d'n'sdf k'u]sf 5g\ . tL x'g\ –cd]l/sf, Sofgf8f, hd{gL, k|mfG;, gj]{, d]lS;sf], o'PO{, ?;, hfkfg, blIf0f sf]l/of, dsfp, xªsª, yfONofG8, dn]lzof, l;Ëfk'/, aËnfb]z, ef/t cflb . pQ/ sf]l/ofdf pgL d'lQm;ª\3if{ rnlrq;fy rf}Yff] Kof]ª\ofª cGt/f{li6«o rnlrq dxf]T;j, !(($ df efu lng uPsf lyP tyf af6fdf rLgsf] klg e|d0f u/] . sljtf/fd e|d0fk|]dL JolQm x'g\ / :jefjjz cfk"mn] >LdtL rGb|f >]i7, sfG5L 5f]/L /hgL >]i7 / HjfOF ;"o{ tfd|fsf/ ;d]tnfO{ lnP/ Ps} e|d0fdf ljZjsf] kmGsf] df/]sf / tL If0f cfk"mnfO{ clj:d/0fLo /x]sf] s'/f pgL JoQm ub{5g\ . ljZj kmGsf] nufpg] qmddf pgn] k[YjLnfO{ k"j{lt/af6 kl/qmdf u/] . pgL l;Ëfk'/af6 6f]lsof], cd]l/sf, Sofgf8f, k|mfG;, hd{gL x'Fb} k'gM l;Ëfk'/ cfP/ tLg dlxgfdf of] ofqf k"/f u/]sf lyP .30

:d/0fLo Pj+ ;'vb'Mvsf If0fx¿

dflg;sf hLjg cg]sfF}F 36gfx¿sf cf/f]x cj/f]xsf >[ÎnfnfO{ e]bg ub}{ cufl8 a9\b} u/]sf] x'G5 . tL 36gfdWo] sltko 36gfx¿ ;lDem/xg of]Uo x'G5g\ . ltgnfO{ ;'vb\ eGg] jf s] eGg] pgL eGg ;Sb}gg\ . sljtf/fdsf To:tf s]xL :d/0fLo If0fx¿ 5g\ .

pgL P;=Pn=;L= pQL0f{ ubf{ ;+;f/} ljho u/]h:tf] cg'e"lt cfk"mnfO{ ePsf] ljrf/ JoQm ub{5g\ . csf]{ 36gfdf e[s'6L d08ksf] k|bz{gLdf rGb|dfsf] r§fgsf] k|bzgLnfO{ pgL dfGb5g\ . Tof] r§fgnfO{ b]Vbf pgsf] af}l4s cg'e"ltdf crDd} p5fn cfPsf] s'/f pgL JoQm ub{5g\ . pgsf] nflu of] Pp6f ;fdfGo r§fg dfq lyPg . k[YjLsf] ;[li6;Fu} a]Un} lk08sf] ¿kdf l;lh{t of] Pp6f lk08sf] c+z lyof] . of] cg'e"lt crDdsf ;fy} ;'vb klg ePsf] pgL JoQm ub{5g\ . To:t} lzIff If]qsf] ;jf]{{Rr kbs dx]Gb| ljBfe"if0f k|yd, /fi6«sf tTsfnLg ;jf]{Rr JolQmTj /fhf jL/]Gb|af6 !((* df k|fKt ubf{ klg pgn] cToGt uf}/jsf] cg'e"lt u/]sf lyP / !(&$ df o'j/fh rfN;{ -a]nfotsf /fhs'df/_ nfO{ sf7df8f}Fdf /fhsLo ufO8sf] ¿kdf e|d0f u/fpg kfpFbfsf] ;'gf}nf] cj;/ klg pgsf] dgdl:tisdf :d/0fLo eP/ /x]sf] 5 . s]xL otf rLgsf] e"lddf klxnf]kN6 6]Sbf ToxfFsf] /ftf] em08f b]Vgf;fy efjflee"t ePsf] If0f pgsf] nflu cfh;Dd plQs} clj:d/0fLo 5 eg] sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ Pdfn]n] )%@ ;fndf klxnf]kN6 ;Qfdf hfFbfsf] If0f klg cljZj;gLo 36gfsf] ¿kdf pgsf] dgdl:tisdf clee"t 5 .

sljtf/fdsf hLjgdf b'Mvsf If0fdWo]sf] Pp6f If0f cToGt dfld{s 5 . pgL ;fgf] x'Fbf pgsf] efO kvfnf nfuL la/fdL eof] . j:t'ut ¿kdf Pp6f kvfnfsf] la/fdLnfO{ k6sk6s t/n kbfy{ lbO/xg'kg]{ x'G5 t/ tTsfnLg ¿l9ut dfGotfcg'¿k wfdLåf/f pkrf/ ul/g] / la/fdLnfO{ kfgL vfg gbLOg] x'gfn] kl/jf/sf ;b:ox¿n] efOnfO{ kfgL vfg lbPgg\ . kfgLs} sdLsf] sf/0f pgsf] efOn] 56\k6fO{ 56\k6fO{ z/L/ 5f]8\g' k¥of] . cfkm" 7"nf] eP/ s'/f] a'‰g] ePkl5 efOnfO{ kfgL gbLO{ dfg{ afWo u/fpg]dWo]sf] cfkm}F klg Ps ePsf] lgbf]{if ck/fwaf]wn] sljtf/fdnfO{ af/Daf/ lryf]g]{ / ?jfpg] u/]sf] s'/f pgL JoQm u5{g\ . oxL 36gfaf6 b'lvt eO{ kZrftfk ub}{ ¿l9ut ;dfhsf cfdfafa'nfO{ kvfnfsf] af/]df jf:tljs 1fg lbg] p2]Zon] u|fdL0f kl/j]zsf gfgLx¿nfO{ nfUg] kvfnf /f]u / To;sf] lgbfg;Fu ;DalGwt ljifodf ljBfjfl/lw u/]/ dgsf] lrdf]6\ØfOF sd ug]{ hdsf]{ u/]sf 5g\ . sljtf/fdsf] ljBfjfl/lwsf] zf]wu|Gydf pgn] pg} efOsf] ;Demgfdf of] u|Gy tof/ ePsf] eGg] efjsf] cleJolQm klxnf] k[i7d} o;/L n]v]sf 5g\ – "In memory of my beloved infant brother who died of diarrhoeal dehydration".31

kl/R5]b– b'O{{


8f= sljtf/fd >]i7sf] JolQmTj

k[i7e"ld

s'g} klg JolQmsf] j}olQms ljz]iftf jf lghLkg g} JolQmTj xf] . k|To]s JolQmsf] j}lzi6Øn] tbg'¿k c¿nfO{ k|efj kfg]{ ub{5 . JolQmTjn] lghsf] Ifdtfsf] ;d]t j0f{g ub{5 .32 sljtf/fdsf] ;du| hLjgsf] cWoogaf6 pgsf] JolQmTjnfO{ d"n ¿kdf b'O{{ efudf /fv]/ x]g{ ;lsG5 . klxnf] xf] ;flxlTos JolQmTj . h;df pgL afn;flxTosf/, lgaGwsf/, gf6ssf/, pkGof;sf/, syfsf/, slj, uLtsf/, cfGbf]ns, k'/:sf/ ;+:yfkssf] ¿kdf b]lvG5g\ . bf];|f] JolQmTj eg]sf] ;flxTo]t/ xf] / pgL ufog clego, ;ËLt, lzIf0f, k/fdz{bftf, tflnd ljz]if1, cg';Gwfgstf{, ;dfhzf:qL, ;+:s[lt ljz]if1, /fhgLlts sfo{stf{, ;dfh;]jL cflb ;d]l6Psf] ax'cfoflds JolQmTjsf ¿kdf b]lvG5g\ .

afn;flxTosf/

afnsx¿ eg]sf /fi6«sf ef]lnsf eljiojfxs x'g\ . pgLx¿ :jo+sf] eljio lgdf{0fdf k"j{ k':tfsf] dxTTjk"0f{ e"ldsf x'G5 . oxL e"ldsf cGtu{t ;flxTo klg kb{5 . :jR5 afn;flxTon] afnsx¿df pGgt ljrf/sf] >[hgf ub{5 / oxL pGgt ljrf/ /fi6« / ;dfhsf] nflu pkof]uL x'g k'U5 .

sljtf/fdn] cfˆgf] afNosfndf afnf]kof]uL ;flxlTos j[mltx¿sf] -kf7\Øk':ts afx]s_ kof{Kttf b]v]gg\ . sIffut kf7\Øk':ts / bGTosyf afx]s pgsf ;dodf cGo afn;flxTosf j[mlt Tolt gePsf] b'v];f] pgn] …d]/f c:jLj[mt dfGotfx¿Ú eGg] k':tsdf kf]v]sf 5g\ . ef/taf6 cfpg] lxGbL efiffsf sldsx¿n] afnaflnsfsf] dfgl;stf cf]u6]sf lyP . afnsx¿nfO{ cfhsf cfjZostf cg'¿k ;fdflhsLs/0f ug]{ jf cfpFbf ;f+;fl/s xfFs lj?4 p7\g ;Ifd agfpg] vfnsf k':tsx¿sf] cefj lyof] .33 of] hl6n kl/l:yltdf s]xL b]g lbgsf nflu pgn] afn;flxTosf] If]qdf k|z:t} snd rnfP . afn;flxTodf pgn] cfˆgf] k|f}9 ;flxlTos :jefjsf] ljb|f]xL 5fk k6Ss} kf/]sf 5}gg\, a¿ ljljw b[li6n] cToGt afnf]kof]uL j[mltx¿ l;h{gf u/]sf 5g\ .

sljtf/fdn] afn;flxTodf ljz]if u/L pkGof;sf] If]qdf of]ubfg lbPsf] s'/f k|df]b k|wfgn] o;/L JoQm u/]sf 5g\ – …afnpkGof;sf] If]qdf sljtf/fdn] j}1flgs r]tgfnfO{ k|j]z u/fP/ ;dofg'j"mn afn;flxTosf] cfjZostfsf] dxTTj af]w u/fP = = = .Ú34 afn pkGof;sf] If]qdf pgn] lbPsf j[mltx¿– …jgb]jLÚ, …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ …sldnfsf] syfÚ, …a'l4aËf/fsf] kmf]gÚ, …cgf}7f] ofqfÚ, …dfjnLsf] ofqfÚ, …;[li6sf] k'/f0fÚ, …afn uGwj{ / ;f/ËLsf] ¥ofOF¥ofOFÚ cflb x'g\ . …sldnfsf] syfÚ df h;/L sldnf cfˆgf] sfo{If]qdf OdfGbf/Lk"j{s nfu]sf x'G5g\ To;/L g} afnaflnsfn] klg cfˆgf] sfo{ ug'{k5{, 7"nf];fgf] c;dfgtfsf] efjgf lng'x'Fb}g, cflb h:tf wf/0ffx¿nfO{ afndl:tisdf leq\ofpg] p2]Zo /flvPsf] 5 . …cgf}7f] ofqfÚ afnpkGof; z/L/ lj1fg / cf}iflw lj1fgsf ;DaGwdf n]lvPsf] 5 . o;df cf}iflwn] xfd|f] z/L/sf] /QmgnLdf k|j]z u/]/ s] s:tf] / s;/L c;/ u5{ / z/L/df s:tf] k|efj kf5{ eGg] 1fg afnsx¿nfO{ lbg] p2]Zo /flvPsf] 5 . To;}u/L …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ afnpkGof;df kfgLsf] hLjgrqm / o;sf] dfgj hLjgdf pkof]lutf cToGt /f]rs 9Ën] afndl:tisdf /Dg] z}nLdf j0f{g ul/Psf] 5 . …jgb]jLÚ afnpkGof;df jgsf] pkof]lutfsf] ljifoj:t' ;Dk|]if0f ul/Psf] 5 eg] …a'l4aËf/fsf] kmf]gÚ df ljljw ;fdfGo :jf:Yo ;d:of / ltgsf] k|fylds pkrf/ kIf pb\3fl6t 5 . To:t} …dfjnLsf] ofqfÚ df cfkb\ljkb\df klg afnaflnsfnfO{ dgf]j}1flgs ¿kn] k/fDk/fut cGwljZjf;x¿ tf]8\b} ;fx;L tyf lg8/ agfpg] p2]Zo /flvPsf] 5 eg] …;[li6sf] k'/f0fÚ df a|Xdf08sf] ;[li6af/] lj1fg;Ddt tYonfO{ syfs[t u/L afnsx¿nfO{ nf}lss tYosf] pkf;s agfpg] p2]Zo /flvPsf] 5 . To:t} …afn uGwj{ / ;f/ËLsf] ¥ofOF¥ofOFÚdf Pp6f afn uGwj{sf] ;fxl;stf, nugzLntf Pj+ ;ª\3if{sf] syf dfkm{t\ afnsx¿nfO{ cfˆgf kfl/jfl/s bfloTjk|lt pGd'v u/fpg] tyf snfsf] ;fwgfdf nugzLn agfpg] p2]Zo /flvPsf] 5 . pgsf afn;flxlTos j[mltx¿ efiff, z}nL, ljifoj:t', p2]Zo cflb b[li6n] cToGt ;fy{s b]lvG5g\ .

lgaGwsf/

sljtf/fdsf] ;flxlTos JolQmTjnfO{ s]nfpFbf lgaGwsf/ JolQmTj klg b]vf k5{ . pgn] …d]/f c:jLj[mt dfGotfx¿Ú eGg] k':ts lgaGwsf ¿kdf k|sflzt u/]sf 5g\ . logn] ;of}F ;f+:s[lts lgaGwx¿ clw/fHosf w]/} dfl;s, ;fKtflxs, / b}lgs kqklqsfx¿ / OG6/g]6sf j]e;fO6x¿df k|sflzt u/]sf 5g\ . pg} /rgfx¿sf] ;Fufnf]nfO{ …s] lsg elgof] <Ú gfd lbO{ k|sflzt u/]sf 5g\ . pgsf] …:jLj[mt ofqfsf c:jLj[mt dfGotfx¿Ú gfds lgaGw;ª\u|x k|sfzf]Gd'v 5 . …d]/f c:jLj[mt dfGotfx¿Ú ;dfnf]rsLo k':ts xf] tyflk n]vsn] o;nfO{ lgaGwsf] ;Fufnf] eg]sf 5g\ . o; j[mltdf pgn] cfˆgf] ;flxlTos ofqf, ;flxlTos wf/0ff, dfGotf, ;flxTodf k|j]z / k|]/0ff, :jceLi6, afn;flxTo cflb ljljw kIfdf pkzLif{sx¿ lbFb} cfBf]kfGt >[ÎnfTds ¿kdf j0f{g u/]sf 5g\ . ljwfut lj>[Întfsf] n]vg g} cfˆgf] j}lzi6\Ø ePsf] wf/0ff n]vs JoQm ub{5g\ .

gf6ssf/

ljwfut lj>[ÎntfnfO{ cFufNb} ;flxTo /rgf ug]{ sljtf/fdn] g]kfnL gf6\Ø hut\\nfO{ lbPsf] cd"No j[mlt xf] …:jefjuLtfÚ lj1fggf6s . of] gf6s klg pgsf] cfˆg} kf/fsf] 5 . pgn] o; k/Dk/fut gf6\Øzf:qLo dof{bf cg'¿k b[Zo, cÍ, cflbdf ljefhg u/]sf 5}gg\ . s]jn kl/R5]b / zLif{s lbPsf 5g\ . t/ k|:t't gf6ssf] ljifoj:t' ;j{yf gf}nf] / j}1flgs 5 . k|:t't gf6sdf n]vsn] Ps lbg dflg;sf j}1flgs cfljisf/n] dflg;nfO{ cof]Uo lgl:qmo / lg/Lx agfpg ;Sg] b"/ufdL ;Defjgf JoQm u/]sf 5g\ . lj1fgsf] k/fsfi7f sxfF;Dd eg] ;Gtfgf]Tkfbg ;d]t j}1flgs k|lqmofaf6 x'g;Sg] eljiot\sfnLg ;Defjgfsf] ;Í]t gf6ssf/n] u/]sf 5g\ . ;du|df of] /rgf sljtf/fdsf] bz{gnfO{ af]Sg ;Sg], :jefjjfbnfO{ JoQm ug{;Sg] uxlsnf] / vFlbnf] j[mltsf] ¿kdf b]vf k/]sf] 5 .

kl5 cfP/ sljtf/fdn] …df6f]sf] Joyf ljb]zsf] ;kgfÚ eGg] rnlrq gf6\Ø k6syf n]v]sf 5g\ . pgn] o;nfO{ gf6\Ø ljwfsf] k':ts gegL …rnlrq gf6\Ø k6syfÚ eGg k'u]sf 5g\ . pgn] of] ljwf g]kfns} nflu lgtfGt gofF x'g k'u]sf] 3f]if0ff k':tssf] e"ldsf …eGbf eGgkg]{ s'/fÚdf JoQm u/]sf 5g\ .35 rnlrq Sofd]/fn] n]lvG5g\ . sndn] xf]Og . rnlrq lgdf{0fdf cf}krfl/s tflndk|fKt sljtf/fdn] Sofd]/fsf] k|fljlws efiffnfO{ o; s[lqdf cIf/x¿df ;d]6]sf 5g\ . To;}n] pgn] gf6sdf em}F o;df ;+jfb jf clegosf lgb]{zgnfO{ ;d]6\bf;d]6\b} klg Sofd]/fsf] k|fljlws k|:t'ltsf ;fy} cGo rnlrqut ;Dkfbg, Wjlg ;Dk|]if0f, cflb ;d]tnfO{ efiffdf ;dfof]hg u/]sf 5g\ . ;fdfGotM of] gf6s dfq /xg k'u]sf] 5}g . To;}n] pgn] o; s[ltnfO{ gfd …rnlrq gf6\Ø k6syfÚ gfd lbP . k/Dk/fdf ;sf/fTds cu|ufdL kl/jt{g rfxg] c:jLs[tjfbL sljtf/fdn] o; s[ltnfO{ g]kfnL ;flxTodf pgsf] dfGotfsf] csf]{ gjLg sf];]9'Ë] sf];]nL dfg]sf 5g\ . o; s[ltn] cf]u6]sf ljifoj:t' / o;sf] k|:t'lt eg] cGo pgsf k"j{jt\ k|:t'lteGbf ;/n /x]sf] pgsf] egfO 5 . pgL eG5g\–o;sf kf7s rnlrq ljwfsf ;fdfGo bz{shg ;d]t ePsfn] o;df k|o'Qm efiff clt ;/n 5 . o; s[ltn] b]zsf] ;d;fdlos ;fdflhs, cfly{s / /fhgLlts b[li6af6 kLl8t ljb]zlt/ ef}Ftfl/g k'u]sf o'jfx¿sf] kL8fx¿nfO{ syfs[t u/]sf] 5 .

pkGof;sf/

g]kfnL pkGof; ;flxTo cGtu{t cfw'lgssfnsf] bf];|f] r/0fsf k|j[lQnfO{ cfTd;ft\ ub}{ sljtf/fdn] …askqÚ pkGof; n]vL cfˆgf] cf}kGofl;s JolQmTjnfO{ 5n{ª\UofPsf 5g\ . k/Dk/fut n]vgsf] ;dflKtnfO{ Oª\lut ug]{ ;flxlTos cfGbf]ngx¿ klg nueu o;} ;dodf ePsf lyP . o; o'udf gjLg d"No / k/Dk/f lnP/ pkGof; n]lvPsf] kfOG5 .36 sljtf/fdn] …askqÚ pkGof;df tNnf] ju{sf ljkGg kfqx¿sf] k|ltlglwTj u/fP/ pgLx¿sf] sf?l0fs lrTsf/, ;fdflhs ljj[mlt, s'/Llt / cf8Da/k|lt Joª\UofTds k|xf/ u/]sf 5g\ . o; pkGof;df klg pgL cfˆgf] c:jLj[mt ljb|f]x kf]Vg r's]sf 5}gg\, k/Dk/fut d"Nok|lt cfqmf]z JoQm ug{ lxlRsrfPsf 5}gg\, of}g ljj[mlt / s'07fx¿k|lt 5tf5'Nn Joª\Uo ug{ cNdlnPsf 5}gg\ . zflAbs rogdf klg pgsf] cfˆg} ljb|f]x 5 / ljb|f]xjz, u|fDobf]if -sljtf/fdn] o;nfO{ u|fDobf]ifsf] ¿kdf glnP/ :jfefljs 9Ëdf cfPsf] nf]sefiffsf] ¿kdf lnPsf 5g\_ klg emNsG5 . ;du|df pkGof; ;fdflhs ljj[mltdf Joª\Uo ug{ ;Ifd x'gfn] pgsf] cf}kGofl;s JolQmTj ;an ¿kdf :kli6G5 . o;} k':tsnfO{ cd]l/sL ;flxTosf/ Nof/L xf6{;]nn] cË|]hLdf ‘Confession’ eGg] gfd lbO{ cg'jfb u/]sf 5g\, h;nfO{ Go" lbNnL OlG8ofsf] k|sfzs a'skm]yn] k|sfzg u/]sf 5 .

syfsf/

cfw'lgs g]kfnL syfsf] bf];|f] r/0f cGtu{t …gjo'uÚdf sljtf/fd syfj[mlt lnP/ b]vf k/]sf x'g\ .37 k|sflzt ¿kdf logsf syfj[mltx¿ tLgj6f b]vf k/]sf 5g\ – -!_ …k|nfkÚ syf;ª\u|x, -@_ …sfnf] syfÚ syf;ª\u|x, ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzg, sf7df8f}Faf6 @)#^ ;fndf k|sflzt 5 . To;}u/L -#_ …d'lQmk|;ª\usf c:jLj[mt syfx¿Ú klg ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzgaf6 @)$& df k|sflzt 5 . oL tLg} j[mltx¿df hDdf ^@ j6f syfx¿ 5flkPsf 5g\ .

sljtf/fdn] @)@^ ;fnb]lv syf n]Vg k|f/De u/]sf x'g\ . logsf syfx¿df dfgjhLjgsf afFRg'sf l:yltx¿nfO{ a'emfpg] k|of; ul/Psf] 5 . gjLg ljifoj:t' / lzNkljwfgsf] k|of]u b]lvG5 . …d'lQmk|;ª\usf c:jLj[mt syfx¿Ú af/] s[i0frGb| l;+x k|wfg eGg'x'G5– …=== s'g} cfu|x /fv]/ eGbfklg g]kfnL ;flxTodf klg o; k|sf/sf] cgf}7f] ljrf/ df}nfPsf] 5 / o; lsl;dsf syf klg n]lvFb}5g\ eg]/ n]vgsf] ;dsfnLg lj:dohGo k|of]uk|lt Wofgfs[i6 ug'{ ck|f;ª\lus 7xb}{g .Ú38 pgsf syfx¿df zAb, jfSou7g, cg'R5]b of]hgf / zLif{s rogdf ;d]t gjLg k|of]u 5 . ;zQm af}l4s ;r]ttf kfOG5 . k/Dk/fut d"No / dfGotfnfO{ cltqmd0f ug]{ Wo]o 5 . ;fdflhs dfGotfaf6 c:jLj[mt kfqsf 56k6L, c;Gt'li6 cflbnfO{ k|:6 kfl/Psf 5g\ . s[i0frGb|l;+x k|wfgn] sljtf/fdsf syfsfl/tfdf o;/L zAblrq sf]/]sf 5g\ .39 . …==== w|'jrGb| uf}td, dg'a|fhfsL, df]xg/fh zdf{, k'is/ nf]xgL, efpkGyL, sljtf/fd, z}n]Gb| ;fsf/, hubLz l3ld/] cflb ;'?sf syfsf/x¿sf] s]Gb|Lotfdf ljsl;t ePsf] jt{dfgn] nfdf] ofqf to u/L ca t y'k|} jif{ latfO;Sof], y'k|}sf] ;xeflutf k|fKt 5 . ===== clg cf/f]lkt sYosf] k|ToIftf 5 sljtf/fddf . sljtf/fd ;f]h} cfOnfU5g\, c?x¿sf t'ngfdf w]/} syfTds 5g\ .====== k|rlnt zf:qLo dfGotfl;t ;xdt gx'g] s]xL sYo k|wfg syfsf/ x'g\ w'|jrGb|, dg'a|fhfsL, df]xg/fh zdf{, sljtf/fd, hubLz l3ld/], z}n]Gb| ;fsf/ cflb / kl5sf lszf]/ kxf8L klg . ====== o;df k|of]uwdL{ df]xg/fh, :j}/sNkgfsf/L w|'jrGb|, of}g k|of]Qmf k'is/, c:jLs[t d"Nosf sljtf/fd h:tf cfˆgf] kmfF6sf c? syf n]vsx¿ 5}gg\ ls eGg'kg]{ Psflwsf/ s;}af6 vf]l;g ;s]sf] 5}g .Ú

;ª\VofTds / u'0ffTds b[li6n] ;d]t cGo ljwfdf eGbf a9L syfljwfdf n]vg ug'{n] syf ljwfdf logsf] a9L g} ?lr k|:6 x'G5 .

cg'jfbs

sljtf/fdn] cg'jfb ;flxTodf ;d]t snd rnfPsf 5g\ . h;df pgn] g]kfnL nf]ssyfx¿nfO{ cË|]hLdf From the Mango Tree and Other Folktales from Nepal’ sf] zLif{s lbP/ cd]l/sfaf6 k|sflzt u/fPsf 5g\ eg] lrlgof n]vs Sjfg x'jfsf] Going to School eGg] afnpkGof;nfO{ g]kfnLdf cg'jfb u/L …:s'n hfg] /x/Ú gfds zLif{sdf k|sflzt u/fPsf 5g\ . ;fy} cfˆg} b'O{{ afnpkGof; kfgLsf] yf]kf / jgb]jLnfO{ klg cË|]hLdf cg'jfb u/L ‘Droplet’ / ‘Forest Goddess' sf] zLif{s ;fy k|sflzt u/fPsf 5g\ .


;flxlTos cfGbf]ngsf/

sljtf/fdsf] JolQmTj ;h{sdfq geP/ cfGbf]ns klg 5 . g]kfnL ;flxTodf ;do;dodf cfGbf]ngx¿ ePsf kfOG5g\ . tLdWo] tTsfnLg cfGbf]ngx¿, xnGt alxisf/, em/f]{jfb, t];|f] cfofd, cdn]v, /fNkmf, c:jLj[mt hdft, a'6kfln; cleofg, ;8ssljtf qmflGt, ;8sgf6s cleofg, cflb x'g\ .40 sljtf/fdn] g]t[Tj u/]sf ;flxlTos cfGbf]ngx¿sf gfd x'g\– …c:jLj[mt hdftÚ / …a'6kfln; cleofgÚ . c:jLj[mt ljifodf a;]/ cufl8b]lv g} ;flxTosf/x¿n] n]Vg] u/]sf lyP tfklg 3f]lift ¿kdf, cfGbf]lnt ¿kdf b]vf k/]sf lyPgg\ . sljtf/fdn] o; cfGbf]ngsf] k|yd 3f]if0ff …;~hLjgLÚ )@^ af6 u/] . …;~hLjgLÚ sf tTsfnLg ;Dkfbs g]kfn e"if0f Gof}kfg] / sljtf/fd >]i7 lyP .41 cfGbf]ngsf] ;'?jftdf lgs} n]vsx¿ ;+nUg lyP . sfnqmd laTb} hfFbf ljljw kl/l:yltjz pgLx¿ qmdzM cfGbf]ngsf] zfvfaf6 r'Fl8b} uP . jt{dfg ;dodf ;DejtM sljtf/fd PSn}n] o;sf] g]t[Tj ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ / o; cfGbf]ngsf af/]df g]kfnL ;flxTo ;dfnf]rgfsf k':tsx¿df k|ltli7t n]vsx¿n] k|z:t 6Lsfl6Kk0fL ;d]t u/]sf 5g\ . jt{dfg ;dodf klg o; cfGbf]ngsf af/]df cWoog cg';Gwfg eO{ g} /x]sf] e]l6G5 .


bof/fd ;Dej >]i7sf cg';f/– …klZrdsf] aL6 u|'k / ef/tsf] xª\u|L h]g]/];gsf ;fy} lk|G; qmf]kf]lTsgsf] c/fhstfjfbL ljrf/ af6 klg of] hdft lgs} k|efljt /Xof] . log} k|efjn] ubf{ of] hdft /fhgLlts lg/k]If x'g ;s]g . d"VotM ;flxlTos, ;fdflhs, g}lts, of}lgs d"NonfO{ eË ub}{ jf:tljstf / :jfefljstfdfly o;n] hf]8 lbof] . o; hdftn] cfkm"nfO{ :yflkt d"Noaf6 zfl;t / zf]lift 7fg]/ s[lqd hLjg tyf ;fdflhs dfGotfsf] lj/f]w u¥of] .Ú42

sljtf/fds} wf/0ffdf o;nfO{ x]bf{ a'6kfln; cleofg klg Pp6f ljb|f]xsf] cleJolQm lyof] . of] c:jLs[t cfGbf]ngs} Ps lx:;f jf :j¿k lyof] . pgsf] o;df ;+nUgtf jf ;xeflutf c:jLs[t dfGotfd} cfwfl/t lyof] .

slj

sljtf/fd, ;flxlTos hLjgsf] k|f/lDes r/0fdf sljtf g} n]Vg] uy]{ To;}sf/0f pgL /fdaxfb'/af6 sljtf/fd eP . pgsf] k|yd k|sflzt / ;+/lIft sljtf …sfnÚ xf] h;nfO{ …k|]/0ff / k|efjÚ pkzLif{sdf pb\w[t ul/;lsPsf] 5 . pgsf] k|yd sljtf …sfnÚ cf]vn9'Ëfsf] x:tlnlvt klqsf …h"gsL/LÚ df k|sflzt eof] eg] k|yd d'lb|t sljtf …l;Gb"/Ú w/fgaf6 k|sflzt …k|]/0ffÚ ;fdlos ;Íngdf @)@! lt/ 5flkof] . To;kl5 pgn] @)@@ ;fnsf] …efg'Ú klqsfdf …slj rSsf s'Dxfn]sf]Ú u|flkms sljtf k|sflzt u/fP . ;+/rgfTds b[li6n] of] sljtf ;j{yf gf}nf] k|of]u xf] . To;kl5 …c:jLj[mt hdftÚ sf] …3f]if0ffkqÚ sljtfsf] ¿kdf /x]sf] .. dGq .. sf] 5}7f}F cÍdf …sljtf/fd ;8sdfÚ 5flkof] .43 h;sf] s]xL c+z o:tf] 5 –

= = = Pp6f sljtf/fd ;f]rfOdf afFR5 .

csf]{ sljtf/fd ;8sdf afFRg ljjz 5 .

;f]rfOdf afFRg] sljtf/fdnfO{

!%) kfp08 xf8df;' lnP/ ;8sdf lxF8\g],

e';lt3|] sljtf/fdsf] kl;gfn] kfN5 . = = =

o;/L sljtf n]Vg] qmddf pgn] ;}s8f}F sljtf k'm6s/ ¿kdf k|sflzt u/fPsf 5g\ . k':tsfsf/ ¿kdf eg] logsf sljtfx¿ cfO;s]sf 5}gg\ . k|sfzf]Gd'v 5g\ .

uLtsf/

sljtf/fdn] cfˆgf] hLjgsf] k|f/lDes jodf g} uLt n]Vg yfn]sf x'g\ . ;fg}b]lv uLlt nodf pgnfO{ a9L g} ?lr lyof] . cf]vn9'Ëfsf gf6s tyf sfo{qmdx¿df To;a]nf lxGbL uLtx¿nfO{ g]kfnLdf cg'jfb u/L ufOg] tyf gfRg] k|rng lyof] . sljtf/fdn] o:t} uLtdf rf/jif{;Dd gfr]sf x'g\ . ahf/d} h'jf/L v]Ng] ufpFsf o'jfx¿n] ToxfFsf] ToxfF g} uLt /rgf u/]/ ufPsf sljtf/fdn] ;fg}b]lv cjnf]sg u/]sf lyP / o;/L g} pgn] gfRg] uLtx¿ klg lsg g]kfnL x'g ;s]gg\ < eGg] k|Zg pgsf] dgdf pAhg] ub{Yof] . pgn] cfkm}Fn] uLt /rgf u/]/ klg x]/] .44 t/ pgsf oL uLtsf] k|;f/0f x'g] 7fpF g} lyPg . @)!# ;fndf >L % dx]Gb| cf]vn9'Ëf ;jf/L x'Fbf pgn] cfˆgf] ljBfnonfO{ dxfljBfno agfOlbg] cg'/f]w uLt n]v] . To;nfO{ lzIfx¿n] b]v]/ dgk/fP / /fhfnfO{ ;'gfpg klg pgnfO{ nufP . @)!% ;fnsf] cfdlgjf{rgdf sfª\u|];sf pDd]bjf/sf lglDt ef]6 dfUg klg pgn] uLt n]v] / cfkm}Fn] dfOsdf ufP/ klg lxF8] . @)@$ ;fndf lzIf0fsf] qmddf bf]nvfdf lzIfs x'Fbf ToxfF klg lxGbL uLts} g]kfnLs/0fsf] k|rng ePsf] kfO pgn] g]kfnL uLtsf] ;'?jft u/fP . 45

pgn] g]kfn 6]lnlehgsf nflu lgld{t …df6f] af]N5Ú wf/fjflxs 6]lnlrqsf nflu ;d]t uLt n]vg u/]sf lyP . lxdfno 6]lnlehg sf]nf]/f8f]af6 pgsf] …df6f] af]N5Ú Pnadsf] l;=l8= / Sof;]6 ljdf]lrt ePsf] 5, h;df /fds[i0f 9sfn, nf]rg e§/fO{, ;kgf>L, 8Da/ 9sfn / :jo+ pg}n] :j/ lbPsf 5g\ . sljtf/fdn] lel8of] rnlrq …/x:odo u'kmfÚ sf] nflu kfFrj6f uLt / P8\;sf] af/]df ;d]t uLt n]v] . sljtf/fdsf] sndaf6 tof/ ePsf] afnuLtsf] Sof;]6 :j0f{ lzIff Olª\n; af]l8{Ë :j'mn, uf]s0f{n] k|sflzt ;d]t u/]sf] 5 .

;ËLtsf/

g]jf/L ;dfhsf] k|v/ ;fF:j[mlts jftfj/0fdf x'j]{msf sljtf/fd cfˆgf] ufpF3/ jf ljBfnodf s]6L eP/ gfRg] ub{y] .46 oxL gfrufgsf] qmddf pgL :jefjtM afhfkl§ cfslif{t x'g k'u] . pgnfO{ To;} ;dob]lv jfBjfbgaf6 gjLg w'gx¿sf] ;+of]hg ;DaGwL lh1f;fn] s'Ts'tfpFYof] . w/fgdf a;fOF ;/]kl5 pgn] ;ËLt /rgfsf] 1fg xfl;n ug]{ df}sf kfP . bf]nvfdf lzIfs eP/ kl5 eLd xfO:j'mndf ufOg] ;/:jtL aGbgf –…d]nf 5 oxfF lzIffsf] cfdf cfOb]pm zf/bf = = =Ú df k|yd k6s cfˆgf] ;ËLt lbP .47 bf]nvfsf] lzIf0fs} qmddf sljtf/fdn] bzj6f hlt uLtx¿df ;ËLt lbP . pgLåf/f lgld{t rnlrq …d'lQm;ª\3if{Ú df ;d]t cfk}mn] ;ËLt lbPsf 5g\ . :j0f{lzIff :j'mnaf6 k|sflzt afnuLtsf] Sof;]6df klg pgs} ;ËLt /x]sf] 5 . cfk"mnfO{ uLt / sljtfn] eGbf klg a9L ;ËLtn] 5'g] s'/f pgL JoQm ub{5g\ .

lxdfno 6]lnlehg sf]nf]/f8f], cd]l/sfaf6 pgLåf/f g} k"0f{tof ;ËLt lbOPsf] …df6f] af]N5Ú Pnadsf] l;=l8= / Sof;]6 ljdf]lrt ePsf] 5 . o; Pnadsf] nflu pgsf] ;ËLtdf Vofltk|fKt ufos uflosfx¿ /fds[i0f 9sfn, nf]rg e§/fO{, ;kgf>L, 8Da/ 9sfn / :jo+ cfkm}Fn] klg :j/ lbPsf 5g\ .

rnlrqsdL{

sljtf/fd rnlrqsf] syfn]vg, lgdf{0f, clego cflbdf klg ;ª\nUg x'g] u/]sf 5g\ . pgn] …/x:odo u'kmfÚ / …d'lQm ;ª\3if{Ú rnlrqdf lgb]{zg lgdf{0f tyf clego u/]sf 5g\ eg] ;ËLt ;d]t lbPsf 5g\ . o;sf cltl/Qm cGt/f{li6«o ;d"xåf/f cfof]lht …cGt/f{li6«o lkmNd ztjflif{sL dxf]T;j… sf7df8f}F, !((% df …Ho'l/Ú ;d]t ePsf 5g\ . …d'lQm;ª\3if{Ú n] ^ j6f k'/:sf/ k|fKt u/]sf] 5 eg] pQ/ sf]l/ofdf ePsf] c;ª\nUg /fi6«x¿sf] rf}yf] cGt/f{li6«o rnlrq dxf]T;jdf …Pl;of clk|msf ;f]ln8fl/6L cjf8{Ú ;d]t lht]sf] lyof] .48 of] rnlrqnfO{ tTsflng ;+o'Qm hgdf]rf{n] hgtfnfO{ ;ª\3if{zLn hgr]tgf lbg z}lIfs ;fdu|Lsf] ¿kdf k|of]u u/]sf lyP eGg] egfO sljtf/dsf] 5 . lxGbL l;g]df alxisf/ cfGbf]ngdf klg g]kfnL rnlrqsdL{ ;+of]hgdf pgsf] ;lqmotf lyof] .

sljtf/fdn] lel8of] rnlrq afx]s ljsf; lgdf{0f ;DaGwL / tflnd ;fdu|Lsf] ¿kdf klg lel8of] rnlrq agfPsf] b]lvG5 . ljsf; lgdf{0f;DaGwL lel8of] rnlrq agfpgs} nflu sljtf/fdn] l8l;lk g]kfn eGg] cGt/f{li6«o ;+:yfaf6 rnlrq lgdf{0f;DaGwL k|fljlws kIf -k6syf n]vg, 5fofÍg, ;Dkfbg / lgb]{zg_ af/] cf}krfl/s tflnd lnPsf lyP .

lzIfs Pj+ k|fWofks

sljtf/fdn] cWofkg If]qdf ;d]t cfˆgf] of]ubfg lbPsf 5g\ . slxn] :s'ndf t slxn] cGt/f{li6«o ;ª\3;+:yfx¿sf ljz]if1x¿sf nflu efiff tyf ;+:s[lt lzIfs eO{ sfd u/] . pgsf] k|f/lDes k];f g} lzIf0f lyof] . w/fgdf @)@! ;fndf gu/k~rfotsf] !! g+= k|ylds ljBfnodf @ jif{, @)@$ ;fndf bf]nvfdf eLd klAns xfO:s'ndf ;xk|wfgfWofks eO{ 8]9 jif{ / )#) ;fndf dx]Gb|gu/ rs3{§Lsf] xfO:j'mndf em08} Ps jif{ cË|]hL lzIfs eP/ sfd u/] . ljifoj:t'eGbf afXo cltl/Qm lqmofsnfkx¿ ufog, jfbg, gt{g, ;dfh;]jf cflbdf ;d]t pgsf] hf]8 /xGYof] . ljBfno:t/df lzIf0f cjlw 5f]6} eP klg pgL cfˆgf ljBfyL{sf aLr cToGt lk|o lyP .49 kl5 cfˆg} ;+:yf Go" P/fdf efiff lzIfs tyf ;+:s[lt lzIfssf] ¿kdf /xL kl5 lzIf0f sfo{qmdsf lgb]{zs ag] . pgn] g]kfndf zf]w ug{ cfPsf $ hgf ljb]zL 5fq5fqfx¿nfO{ cf}krfl/s zf]w lgb]{zg klg u/] eg] 8]e]nkd]G6 Pzf]l;P6\; / hf]G;xlKsG; o'lgel;{6Lsf hkfOuf] kl/of]hgfsf] nflu & jif{;Dd cGt/f{li6«o tflnd ljz]if1 /x] h;df pgsf] bfloTj k/fdz{bftf k|lzIfs ;d]tsf] lyof] . o; cjlwdf pgn] w]/}kN6 cGt/f{li6«o tflnd ljz]if1 tyf ;|f]t JolQmsf] ¿kdf cd]l/sf tyf ljZjsf cGo efudf e|d0f u/] . xfn pgL o'lgel;{6L ckm Pjl8{g, :s6Nof08df klAns x]Ny ljifodf df:6/ txsf 8fS6/ tyf g;{x¿nfO{ cWofkg u/fpg] lelhl6Ë k|f]km];/ 5g\ . 50

tflnd ljz]if1

kyk|bz{g Joj;fon] sljtf/fdnfO{ ljleGg ljifodf /fli6«o, cGt/f{li6«o :t/sf tflndx¿ lng'kbf{ pgL /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o, ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L txsf Jofj;flos tflnd ljz]if1 x'gk'u] . cfh pgL o; k]zfdf cGt/f{li6«o :t/df sfo{/t 5g\ . tflnd ljz]if1sf] ¿kdf pgn] tflndsf] l8hfOg, tflnd sfof{Gjog, tflnd d"NofÍg, k|lzIfsnfO{ tflnd, tflnd ;fdu|L tyf kf7\Øqmdsf] lgdf{0f, tflnd ;~rfng k'l:tsf lgdf{0f, cflb sfo{qmdx¿ cfˆgf] lgb]{zg / lg/LIf0fdf ;~rfng u/]sf 5g\ .51 pgL l8=P= / hf]G; xlKsG; o'lgel;{6Lsf] hkfOuf] eGg] sfo{qmdsf] tkm{af6 cGt/f{li6«o tflnd ljz]if1sf] ¿kdf g]kfn /fli6«o tflnd s]Gb|, :jf:Yo dGqfnosf] nflu & jif{;Dd sfo{/t eP / ljZj :jf:Yo ;ª\3sf] dfgs cg';f/ hkfOuf]n] tof/ kf/]sf hDdf !# j6f k':tsx¿nfO{ g]kfnsf] dfgs tyf ;+:s[lt;Ddt agfO{ g]kfnL efiffdf k'gn]{vg u/] . pgL ;do;dodf tflnd ljz]if1sf] ¿kdf cGt/f{li6«o :t/df b]zljb]zdf ;d]t cg'alGwt x'g] u/]sf 5g\ . sljtf/fd )%! ;fnb]lv g]skf Pdfn]sf] :s'n ljefudf klg tflnd ljz]if1sf] ¿kdf sfo{/t eP . kf6L{sf] …cfˆgf] ufpF cfkm}F agfpFÚ eGg] /fli6«o :t/sf] sfo{qmddf s]Gb|Lo ;ldltb]lv lhNnf, Onfsf / ufpF:t/;Ddsf g]tf / sfo{stf{x¿nfO{ ufpF ljsf; sfo{qmdsf] of]hgf lgdf{0f, sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog, sfo{qmd d"NofÍsg / sfo{qmdsf] lg/Gt/tfaf/] tflndsf] vfsf tof/ kf/]/ g]tfx¿nfO{ k|lzIfs tflnd;d]t lbP .

cg';Gwfg ljz]if1

sljtf/fd >]i7n] ;g\ !(&( b]lv …Go"P/fÚ, hf]g:gf] OÍ / cfˆg} ;+:yf …sf6{;Ú df nfdf] ;do;Dd cfa4 eO{ cg';Gwfgstf{sf] ¿kdf ;s[o /x] . To; afx]s lk|mn]G; ;]jf cGtu{t g]kfndf l:yt ;/sf/L, u}/;/sf/L tyf /fli6«o÷ cGt/f{li6«o ;ª\3;+:yfsf] nflu kl/of]hgf lgb]{zssf] txdf /xL cg';GwfgfTds sfo{x¿ u/]sf 5g\ . pgn] hd{g ef]n]lG6o;{ ;le{;, lk:sf]/ g]kfn, cd]l/sg pdg Og g]kfn, s]o/ g]kfn ci6«]lnof km/]i6«L k|f]h]S6, l/;f];{ sGhe]{;g P08 o'l6nfO{h];g k|f]h]S6, o'Pg:Sofk, o'lg;]km, /]8qm; ;f];fo6L g]kfn, k|f]klAns, g]zgn sldzg ckm kk'n]zg, cy{jfr o'P;P, kfy o'P;P, cd]l/sf, ;]e b lrN8«]g o'P;P, ;]e b lrN8«]g la|6]g, ;]e b lrN8«]g hfkfg, /]8agf{ cflb h:tf ljleGg /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o ;ª\3;+:yfsf] nflu klg cg';Gwfg u/] .52 o; ;]jf cGtu{t u'0ffTds tyf kl/df0ffTds cg';Gwfgsf ¿k/]vfsf] lgdf{0f, lkmN8df sfof{Gjog, cg';Gwfgstf{nfO{ tflnd, cg';Gwfg ;fdu|Lsf] lgdf{0f, cg';Gwfg tYofÍ ;Íng, cg';Gwfg tYofÍsf] k|zf]wg, tYofÍsf] ljZn]if0f tyf cg';Gwfg k|ltj]bg n]vg cflb u/]sf 5g\ . pgn] tLg bh{geGbf a9L cg';Gwfg sfo{ u/]sf 5g\ / tL dWo] ## j6fsf k|ltj]bg ;d]t n]v]sf 5g\ . pgL Ps ;Ifd, cGt/f{li6«o :t/sf] cg';GwfgfTds JolQmTjsf] ¿kdf kl/lrt 5g\ / ;do;dodf cg';Gwfg ljz]if1sf] ¿kdf b]zljb]zdf ;d]t cg'alGwt x'g] u/]sf 5g\ .

xfn pgL g]kfndf lsi6 d]l8sn sn]hsf /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o hg;Dks{ lgb]{zs 5g\ ;fy} pgL o;} sn]hsf cg';Gwfg ;Ífo …Og\l:6Ro'zgn l/;r{ af]8{Ú sf ;b:o ;lrj klg 5g\ .

;dfhzf:qL

sljtf/fd >]i7 ljsf; lgdf{0fsf sfo{df klg ;zQm ¿kdf /x]sf 5g\ . …Go" P/fÚ df /xFbf cf/=l;=o'=lk=sf] sfo{d"ns cg';Gwfgsf] nflu !(*#÷*$ df ;+nUg eP . o;df pgL uf]vf{, DofUbL, d':tfª lhNnfdf ;DkGg kfOn6 k|f]h]S6sf] ¿k/]vf lgdf{0f b]lv sfof{Gjog / d"NofÍg;Ddsf ;Dk"0f{ sfo{df ;+nUg lyP . ;dfhzf:qLs} ¿kdf pgn] o'Pgl8lk / ;k|f]; g]kfnsf] kl/of]hgf cGtu{t u|fdL0f pkef]Qmx¿sf nflu l;FrfO, vfg]kfgL, u|fdL0f ;8s / u|fdL0f ljsf; kl/of]hgfsf sfo{;~rfng k'l:tsfsf] lgdf{0f u/] . ljsf; lgdf{0f cGtu{t g} e"tk"j{ k|wfgdGqL nf]s]Gb|axfb'/ rGbsf] cWoIftfdf ul7t /fli6«o ljsf; kl/ifb\sf] ;b:o, e"tk"j{ pk–k|wfgdGqL jfdb]j uf}tdsf] sfo{sfndf ul7t ljsf; lgdf{0f sfo{sf lj1 cg'udg ;Nnfxsf/, e"tk"j{ :yfgLo ljsf; dGqL s]zjnfn >]i7sf] cWoIftfdf ul7t hghflt ljsf; ;ldltsf /fHodGqL :t/Lo pkfWoIf kbdf /xL gLlt lgdf{tfsf ¿kdf sfo{ u/]sf] s'/f pgsf] JolQmut ljj/0fdf pNn]v 5 . 53

/fhsLo kyk|bz{s

bf]nvfaf6 sf7df8f}F cfP/ :gfts ePkl5 sljtf/fdsf] JolQmTjn] gofF kmfF6 kfof] . O=;+= !(&$ df /fhf jL/]Gb|sf] /fHofleif]sdf b]zljb]zaf6 cfpg] ljlzi6 kfx'gfx¿sf] nflu of]Uo …6'/ ufO8Ú Joj:yf ug{ ko{6g ljefun] Joj:yf u/]sf] tflnddf ;+:j[mlt ljifosf] 5fq ePsf sljtf/fdnfO{ 5flgg ;lhnf] eof] / pgn] Tof] tflnd lnP . km:j¿k pgn] a]nfotsf o'j/fh rfN;{, ef/tsf clGtd efo;/fo n8{ dfpG6 j]6g, 8\Ø's ckm Un:6/ cflb h:tf cToGt ;Ddflgt /fhsLo JolQmTjnfO{ e|d0f u/fpg] df}sf kfP . O=;+= !(*! df sf7df8f}Fdf ePsf] ;fj{m d'n'ssf ljb]zdGqLx¿sf] …sf]nDaf] ldl6ËÚ sf ;xefuL ljleGg /fi6«sf dGqLx¿nfO{ klg e|d0f pgn] u/fP . ;do;dodf ljleGg b]zsf /fhb"tnfO{ e|d0f u/fpg'sf ;fy} :jtGq kyk|bz{ssf ¿kdf sf7df8f}F 6«feN;, olt 6«feN;, g6/fh 6«feN;, cGgk"0f{ 6«feN; cflbdf klg sfo{ u/]sf sljtf/fdsf] hLjgsf] Pp6f ;fgf] kf6f]sf ¿kdf …ufO8Ú JolQmTj klg emNsG5 .54

k'/:sf/ ;+:yfks

sljtf/fdn] …c:jLj[mt ljrf/ ;flxTo k'/:sf/Ú / sljtf/fd afn;flxTo k|j4{g cg'i7fg cGtu{t\ Pp6f ;Ddfg, Pp6f sb/kq / Pp6f afn;flxTo k|ltef k'/:sf/ :yfkgf u/]sf 5g\ eg] cfdf dgdfofsf] gfdaf6 ;'gf}nf k':tsfnoaf6 ;~rfng x'g] u/L k'/:sf/ :yfkgf u/]sf 5g\ . To:t} lktf gGb/fdsf] gfdaf6 ul/a hghflt 5fq5fqfsf] nflu 5fqj[lQ ;d]t :yfkgf u/]sf 5g\ . 55 k'/:sf/sf] ljj/0f lgDg cg';f/ 5—

c:jLj[mt ljrf/ ;flxTo k'/:sf/ M

c:jLj[mt dfGotfsf] wf/0ff cem ;zQm ¿kn] hgdfg;df k'¥ofpg] p2]Zon] sljtf/fdn] @)%$ ;fndf …c:jLj[mt ljrf/ ;flxTo k'/:sf/Ú sf] :yfkgf u/] . cfˆgf ;flxlTos j[mltsf k|sfzgaf6 k|fKt n]vs:j / k'/:sf/sf /sdn] pgn] o; k'/:sf/sf] :yfkgf u/]sf x'g\ . k'/:sf/sf] ;~rfngdf ;+:yfks cfk}m ;+nUg 5}gg\ . k'/:j[mt ul/g] JolQm 5gf}6 ;ldltdf cWoIf j[mi0frGb|l;+x k|wfg, dxf;lrj gu]Gb|/fh zdf{ / ;b:ox¿df uf]ljGb e§, cle ;'j]bL, ;f]dgfy l3ld/], o'j/fh >]i7 clg gf/fo0f 9sfn /x]sf 5g\ . xfn sf]iffWoIf kl/jt{g eO{ o;df afn s'df/L >]i7 5g\ eg] Ps hgf yk ;b:odf cd/s'df/ /x]sf 5g\ .

@)%$ ;fndf of] k'/:sf/ k"0f{lj/fdnfO{ k|bfg ul/of] eg] To;kl5 @)%% ;fnb]lv )^% ;fn;Dd qmdzM g]kfu~hsf gGb/fd nD;fn, zf/Ll/s ¿kn] ckfË v'§fåf/f ;flxTo /rgf ug]{ sjloqL emdss'df/L l3ld/], b]jLk|;fb ;'j]bL, g]kfn efiff -g]jf/L_ ;flxTosf slj k"0f{ axfb'/ j}B, nxfgsf d}lynL ;flxTosf/ rGb|z]v/nfn, w/fgsf ;flxTosf/ s[i0fk|;fb >]i7 la=P, lrtjgsf ;flxTosf/ /ljls/0f lghL{j, sf7df8f}Fsf ;flxlTos cGj]ifs lzj /]UdL, w/fgsf slj g/]z zfSo, ;+o'Qm/fHo cd]l/sfsf slj j;Gt >]i7, emfkfsf syfsf/ ejfgL If]qL / ?;sf slj dw' dfw'o{n] of] …c:jLs[t ljrf/ ;flxTo k'/:sf/Ú k|fKt u/]sf 5g\ .

;fy} /f0ffsfnLg ;ª\3if{zLn pBf]u dfl;ssf Joj:yfks Pj+ k|sfzs eLdeQm hf]zL, g]kfnL ;flxTo k|j4{gsf nflu ljb]zdf cys ;ª\3if{zLn /x]sf qmdzM a]nfotsf O{Zj/ dfgGw/ / cd]l/sfsf xf]dgfy ;'j]bLnfO{ …c:jLs[t ljrf/ l;flxTo ;DdfgÚ ;d]t k|bfg ul/Psf] 5 . o;/L kl5Nnf ;dodf cfP/ c:jLs[t ljrf/ ;flxTo u'7Ln] k'/:sf/sf ;fy} ;Ddfg lbg] qmd klg hf/L u/]sf] / ljb]zsf ;|i6fx¿df ;d]t Wofg k'¥ofPsf] b]lvG5 .

o; k'/:sf/sf] cIfosf]ifdf ?= !, !!, !!!÷– af6 ;'? ul/Psf]df xfn yk /sdx¿af6 #, )), )))÷– ;'/lIft 5 . sljtf/fdn] cfˆgf] hLjgel/ n]vgaf6 k|fKt x'g] ;Dk"0f{ n]vs:j / k'/:sf/sf /sdx¿ o;} u'7LnfO{ k|bfg u/L k'/:sf/sf] /flz a9fpg] nIo /fv]sf 5g\ . xfn k'/:sf/sf] /flz !#, )))÷– /x]sf] 5 .56

afn;flxTo k|j4{g k'/:sf/ M

afn;flxTosf] If]qdf ;d]t ;zQm snd rnfpg] sljtf/fdn] afn;flxTo k|j4{gfy{ klg k'/:sf/sf] :yfkgf u/]sf 5g\ . cd]l/sfdf k|sflzt …k|md b DofËf] l6« P08 cb/ kmf]s 6]N; k|md g]kfnÚ / g]kfnaf6 k|sflzt afn;flxlTos j[mltx¿sf] n]vs:jsf] /sd h'6fO{ ?= #, )), )))÷– sf] cIfosf]if :yfkgf u/]sf 5g\ h;nfO{ sljtf/fd afn;flxTo k|j4{g cg'i7fg, afnd+r g]kfnn] ;~rfng ub{5 . o; cg'i7fgn] x/]s jif{ afn;flxTo k|j4{gsfo{df ljlzi6 of]ubfg k'¥ofpg] Ps ;|i6fnfO{ gub ? %))) ;fy …sljtf/fd afn;flxTo k|j4{g k'/:sf/Ú, / Pp6f To:t} ljlzi6 of]ubfg k'¥ofpg] ;+:yfnfO{ …sljtf/fd afn;flxTo sb/kqÚ k|bfg ub{5 . ;fy} Ps ljlzi6 afn;|i6fnfO{ …sljtf/fd afn;flxTo k|ltef k'/:sf/Ú klg k|bfg ub{5 .

o;af6 ;j{k|yd @)%$ df afn;flxTo k|j4{g k'/:sf/åf/f zfGtfbf; dfgGw/nfO{ ;Ddflgt ul/of] eg] qmdzM )^% ;Dd 8f= r'8fdl0f aGw', /d]z ljsn, Zofdk|;fb zdf{, hgsk|;fb x'dfufO{F, s[i0fk|;fb k/fh'nL, b]js'df/L yfkf, b'uf{nfn >]i7, leS6/ k|wfg, ljZjDe/ r~rn, zf/bf clwsf/L / k|df]b k|wfgnfO{ ;Ddflgt ul/of] . To:t} sljtf/fd afn;flxTo k|ltef k'/:sf/ ;'?df wgs'6fsL emdss'df/L l3ld/]b]lv lnP/ xfn @)^% ;fn;Dd qmdzM lje"lt l;+x, lg/h anfdL, /ZdL cdfTo, Zn]idf If]qL, cl:dtf kGyL, pb]z kf08], cGhgf /fhj+zL, gLef zdf{, ljgof a:g]t, k|ltef vflnË, k|]/0ff yfkf -a]nfot_ / cf]:sf/k|;fb ;fksf]6fnfO{ lbOof] eg] sljtf/fd afn;flxTo k|j4{g sb/kq )%$ b]lv )^% ;Dd qmdzM af;' df=lj=, a'9flgns07 :s'n, lxGb"ljBfkL7, z'etf/f df=lj, gf]j]n Ps]8]dL, lrtjg df=lj, ?d 6' /L8, /L8 OG6/g]zgn, l;ljg, /Tgk':ts e08f/, ef]lnsf] g]kfn afnRofgn, afn;+;f/, 6]Dk; OG6/g]zgn, / s]6fs]6L Go"h 86sdnfO{ lbO;lsPsf] 5 . sb/ kq / afnk|ltef k'/:sf/ jif{df b'O{j6f;Dd klg lbg] ul/Psf] a'lemG5 .

gGb/fd hghflt 5fq5fqf pTyfg 5fqj[lQ M

…cfˆgf] hGdynf] ;Demf}FÚ eGg] @)%% df cfof]lht sfo{qmdsf] ;fOt kf/L cf]vn9'Ëf uPsf cj;/df sljtf/fdn] >L nfnLu'/fF; OËln; :j'mn, cf]vn9'Ëfdf lktfsf gfddf …gGb/fd >]i7 hghflt 5fq5fqf pTyfg 5fqj[lQÚsf] :yfkgf u/] . hghfltd"nsf c;xfo 5fq5fqfnfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] p2]Zon] :yflkt pko'Qm 5fqj[lQsf] cIfosf]if @), )))÷– -aL; xhf/_ /x]sf] 5 . of] k'/:sf/ /flz pgn] :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno cGtu{t /fHodGqL ;/xsf] hghflt ljsf; ;ldltdf pkfWoIf kbsf] /fhlglts lgo'lQmaf6 kfOPsf] ;Dk"0f{ dfl;s tnj k|bfg u/L :yfkgf u/]sf x'g\ .

dgdfof ;'gf}nf :d[lt ;f+:s[lts ;Dj4{g k'/:sf/ M

sljtf/fdn] cfdfsf] >f4:j¿k x/]s jif{ Ps jl/i7 ;+:s[ltsdL{nfO{ ;Ddfg tyf k'/:s[t ug]{ p2]Zon] ;'gf}nf] k':tsfnosf] cIfosf]ifdf /xg] u/L !, #@, ))) a/fa/sf] hUuf bfg lbPsf 5g\ . o; cIfosf]ifsf] :yfkgf lj=;+= @)%( df ePsf] xf] . lj= ;+=)^$ ;fnsf] of] ;Ddfg a]nfotdf a;L g]kfnL ;+:s[ltsf] k|j4{g u/]afkt dgLif >]i7nfO{ k|bfg ul/Psf] 5 . 57

cfly{s b[li6n] pgL dWodjuL{o b]lvP tfklg g]kfnL ;flxTosf] pGgltsf] nflu k'/:sf/ :yfkgf u/L k|ltefx¿nfO{ k|f]T;flxt ug'{ cToGt ;fGble{s / k|z+;gLo 7x5{ . 58


kl/R5]b—tLg

sljtf/fdsf] n]vgofqf

8f= sljtf/fd >]i7sf] ;flxlTos ofqf

8f= sljtf/fd >]i7n] ;flxTo / ;flxTo]t/ b'j} kmfF6df snd rnfPsf 5g\ / Voflt klg sdfPsf 5g\ . logn] g]kfnL ;flxTosf] sljtf, uLt, gf6s, syf, pkGof;, lgaGw, ;+:s[lt ;flxTo, afn;flxTo cflb ljljw ljwfdf pNn]vgLo of]ubfg lbPsf 5g\ eg] ;lxTo]t/ kmfF6df ;d]t k|l;l4 sdfPsf 5g\ . gf} jif{sf] pd]/df g} cfˆgf] snd n]vgsf] If]qdf rNg rfn]sf] s'/f pNn]v ug]{ ;flxTosf/ >]i7n] @)!% ;fnsf] cfd lgjf{rgdf g]kfnL sfFª\u|];sf pDd]bjf/sf] kIfdf r'gfjL uLt n]v]/ ufPsf] ;Demgf ce}m tfh} /x]sf] pNn]v ub{5g\ tfklg pgsf] k|yd /rgf eg] @)!& ;fnb]lv dfq pknAw 5 .59 @)!& b]lvsf] pgsf] ;flxlTos ofqfnfO{ df]6fdf]6L ¿kdf tLg r/0fdf ljefhg ug{ ;lsG5 .

sljtf/fdsf] ;flxlTos ofqfsf] k|yd r/0f ;fwgfsfn jf cEof;sfn dfq xf] . bf];|f] r/0f c:jLj[mt ;flxTosf] 3f]if0ff, a'6«kfln;df ;+nUgtf cflb ljb|f]xsfnLg cj:yf xf] eg] t];|f] r/0f k':ts k|sfzg sfn jf pj{/ sfn xf] . k|j[ltut / n]vgut b'j} b[li6sf]0fn] sljtf/fdsf] ;flxlTos ofqfnfO{ lgDdfg';f/ tLg r/0fdf afFWg' pko'Qm x'G5 .

k|yd r/0f @)!& – @)@% -cEof;sfn_

låtLo r/0f @)@^ – @)#% -ljsf;sfn_

t[tLo r/0f @)#^ jt{dfg;Dd -pmj{/sfn_

k|yd r/0f -@)!& – @)@%_

cfˆgf] n]vgdf :yfgLo g]jf/L gfrufg, ;+:j[mlt, k'/f0f, :j:yfgLsf syf cflbn] k|f/lDes ;+:sf/ lbPsf] atfpg] sljtf/fdsf] n]vg k|j[lQnfO{ cWoog ubf{ k|yd r/0fdf sljtf/fdsf] n]vsLo k|ltef c1ft jf lj:d[t lyof] . hLjg h~hfn / lzIf0f k]zfdf clg ljljw ;fdflhs kl/j]zn] pgnfO{ ;';'Kt /xg afWo u/fPsf] s'/f pgsf bf]nvf a:bfsf cg'e"ltaf6 :ki6 x'G5 . k|yd r/0f n]vssf] cfEofl;s sfn jf ;fwgf sfn dfq xf] eGg' plrt 7x5{ . o; cjlwdf pgn] s'g} klg k':tsfsf/ j[mltx¿ lbPsf 5}gg\ . s]jn s]xL k'm6s/ /rgfx¿ dfq lbPsf 5g\ .

sljtf/fdsf] ;flxlTos ofqfsf] k|yd r/0fnfO{ >L u0f]z u/fpg] k|yd /rgf …sfnÚ zLif{s sljtf xf] . o; sljtfnfO{ pgn] d]/f c:jLj[mt dfGotfx¿df lnlka4 u/]sf 5g\ . o; sljtfnfO{ u'? eLdk|;fb >]i7sf] b]vfl;vL u/]/ n]lvPsf] s'/f JoQm ub{5g\ . k|yd k|sflzt sljtf …l;Gb"/Ú lyof] / of] w/fgdf …k|]/0ffÚ eGg] klqsfdf 5flkPsf] lyof] . o;} cfEofl;s sfnsf] pgsf] csf]{ sljtf xf] – …slj rSsf s'Dxfn]sf]Ú hf] efg' dfl;sdf k|sflzt ePsf] lyof] / pgn] o;nfO{ d]/f c:jLj[mt dfGotfx¿df k'gM k|sflzt u/]sf 5g\ . pgn] o;nfO{ ;j{yf gf}nf] k|of]udf /lrPsf] u|flkms sljtf xf] eg]sf 5g\ . o;} r/0fdf /lrPsf pgsf …sf]7f af]N5Ú / …b'O{{ dÚ gfds b'O{{ syfx¿ klg 5g\ .

pgsf pko'{Qm syfx¿ n3'syfs} cfsf/df 5g\ / log} syfx¿nfO{ kl5 @)#* ;fndf …k|nfkÚ syf;ª\u|xdf ;d]t ;dfj]z u/]sf 5g\ .60 k|yd r/0fsf n]v /rgfx¿df n]vs cfˆgf dfGotfx¿lt/ cled'v eOg;s]sf] s'/f pgsf /rgfsf ljifoj:t' lzNk z}nL, cfsf/k|sf/n] k|:6\ØfpF5g\ . k|sfzgsf b[li6n] pNn]Vo r/0f geP tfklg k|yd r/0f sljtf/fdsf nflu k[i7e"ld tof/ ug]{ r/0f / cfufdL ;flxlTos If]qdf k|j]z ug]{ k"j{ tof/Lsf] r/0fsf ¿kdf b]vf k/]sf] 5 .

låtLo r/0f -@)@^ – @)#%_

cf]vn9'Ëfsf] n]vg–k|]/0ff, w/fgsf] ;flxlTos jftfj/0f / sf7df8f}F cfudgkl5 k/z' k|wfg h:tf cu|h ;flxTosf/ / z}n]Gb| ;fsf/ h:tf ;dsfnLg ;flxlTosx¿;Fusf] p7a;n] sljtf/fddf ;flxlTos n]vgdf Pp6f csf]{ 3'DtL jf df]8 b]vfk5{ .61 o;} ;dob]lv pgLleqsf] ljb|f]xfTds Hjf/ef6fn] :jo+;Fu ljb|f]x u/]/ cleJoQm x'g vf]Hbf pgs]f n]vg qmd / k|j[ltdf ;d]t gjLgtf b]lvG5 . kl/0ffdtM @)@^ ;fnb]lv pgsf] ;flxlTos ofqfsf] bf];|f] r/0f k|f/De x'G5 . k|j[ltut b[li6n] x]bf{ o; r/0fnfO{ ljb|f]xsfn / ;flxlTos d"NojQfsf b[li6n] pTsif{sfn klg eGg ;lsG5 .

o; r/0fdf cfP/ pgsf] n]vgL ;flxlTos cfGbf]ngsf] ;+jfxs aGb5 . cfGtl/s ljb|f]xL r]tgf …c:jLj[mt hdftÚ gfds cfGbf]ngsf dfGotf;Fu cfa4 lj=;+= @)@^ ;fndf pgsf] Pp6f syf -:s]r_ ….. dGq ..Ú @ df k|sflzt x'G5 . gjLg z}nLdf n]lvPsf] x'gfn] o; syfnfO{ k|f/Ded} …:s]rÚ sf] ;+1f lbOPsf] 5 . o; ….. dGq ..Ú @ sf ;Dkfbs åo z}n]Gb| ;fsf/ / k/z' k|wfg lyP . o;} ;fnsf] h]7 dlxgfdf g]kfne"if0f Gof}kfg]sf] ;DkfbsTj, k|sfzsTj / sljtf/fdsf] cltly ;DkfbsTjdf ;~hLjgL–! k|sflzt x'G5 . oxL ;~hLjgL–! af6 sljtf/fd …c:jLj[mt hdftÚ sf] c:jLj[mt ;flxTo 3f]if0ff ub{5g\ . o;df c:jLj[mt ;flxTosf] k|tLssf] ¿kdf lqz'nsf] lrGx lbOPsf] 5 / vt/fsf] lrGx -vf]k8L dfly b'O{{j6f gnLxf8sf] qm;_ ;d]t k|tLssf ¿kdf lnOPsf] 5 . sljtf/fdn] …c:jLj[mt hdftÚ sf] kl/ro lbFb} q'm4 cl:y/, clgof]lht, ;Gt, a}/fuL, cleof]lht, c:j:y, pQ]lht, cg'Q/bfoL, c;fdflhs, j}olQms, lrGts, ;zQm, h}ljs, cgf;Qm, c;Dk[Qm, /fIf;L, b}jL, dfgjL eg]sf 5g\ eg] ljifoj:t'df ljifs'l07t, clUg–oyfy{, gfËf] r]tgf, s/0fLsyfx¿, 5f8f ljrf/ / cg'ej /xg] pNn]v u/]sf 5g\ . o;} cÍdf sljtf/fdsf] …xdnf aflx/sf ct[lKtÚ syf k|sflzt x'G5 . o; syfsf] ljifoj:t' of}g dgf]j}1flgs /x]sf] 5 .62

sljtf/fdn] c:jLj[mt ;flxTosf] 3f]if0ff …;~hLjgL–!Ú af6 u/] tfklg c:jLj[mt ;flxTosf] cleJolQmsf] d"ndfWod eg] dGqnfO{ g} atfpF5g\ . @)@^ ;fnsf] ….. dGq .. %Ú df sljtf/fdsf] …askqÚ zLif{ssf] n]v k|sflzt x'G5 . j}rfl/s ¿kdf sljtf/fdsf] c:jLj[mt ;flxTo ;DaGwL pknAw eP;Dd k|yd n]v oxL xf] . o;df pgn] cfˆgf] c:jLj[mlt eg]sf] jf:tljstf of :jfefljstf dflysf] hf]8 xf] egL pNn]v u/]sf 5g\ .63 lj=;+= @)@* ;fndf sljtf/fd / z}n]Gb| ;fsf/sf] ;+o'Qm ;DkfbsTj / k|sfzsTjdf .. dGq .. sf] 5}7f}F cÍ k|sflzt x'G5 . o;} cÍnfO{ k|sfzsåon] ;fdlos ;Íngsf ¿kdf ……lj:yflkt cg'xf/x¿ÚÚ gfd lbO{ k':tsfsf/ ¿kdf k|sflzt u/] . of] sljtf/fdsf] k|yd k':tsfsf/ j[mlt xf] . o; j[mltdf sljtf/fdsf kfFrj6f /rgf / Pp6f e"ldsf u/L hDdf ^ j6f n]v /rgfx¿ /x]sf 5g\ . tL x'g\ -!_ xflh/L -e"ldsf_, -@_ lj:yflkt lkF9L / c:jLj[mt ;flxTo, -#_ askq, -$_ s}bLsf] 5f]/f, -%_ oflGqs /fIf; . oL ;a} /rgfx¿df sljtf/fdn] c:jLj[mt ;flxTosf] d"t{ cleJolQmnfO{ ;zQm ¿kdf k|:6 kf/]sf 5g\ .64 sljtf/fdsf] ;flxToofqfsf] bf];|f] r/0fsf] c:jLj[mt ;flxTosf] cleJolQm tTsfnLg g]kfnL ;flxTo k/Dk/fdf gf}nf] ljb|f]xsf ¿kdf clÍt 5 .

låtLo r/0fsf] pgsf] csf]{ ljb|f]xsf] sbd xf]– …a'6kfln; cfGbf]ngÚ df ;+nUgtf . g]kfnL ;flxTo cfGbf]ngdf …c:jLj[mt hdftÚ kl5 nuQ} @)#! ;fndf b]lvPsf] cfGbf]ng xf]– a'6kfln; . tTsfnLg ;dodf ;fdflhs ;Íngsf] k|sfzgdf k|ltaGw lyof] . To; kl/l:yltdf l56f] / 5l/tf] c;Gt'li6sf] dfWod lyof]– a'6kfln; . …;flxTosf nflu a'6kfln;Ú, …gjo'jf n]vgsf k':ts k|sfzgfy{ a'6kfln;Ú, h:tf krf{x¿ 5fkL gofF ;8ssf] dlxnf ;Ë7gsf] laqmL e08f/sf] klZrdkl§ a;]/ sljtf/fd nufot cGo ;fyLx¿n] @)#! c;f]h !@ ut] a'6kfln; u/] . !# ut] lq=lj=lj= df klg a'6kfln; ul/of] . a'6kfln;af6 ;Íng ePsf] ?= &))÷– df]xg l3ld/] / w|'j ;fksf]6fsf] ;+o'Qm gfddf a}Fsdf /flvPsf] 5 / cfh;Dd klg /flvPs} 5 .65

o;/L ljb|f]x, cfGbf]ng, c:jLj[mltnfO{ cleJolQm lbg] sfo{ sljtf/fdåf/f o; cjlwdf ePsf x'gfn] of] cjlw 5'§} cWoog u/L låtLo r/0f cGtu{t /flvPsf] xf] .

t[tLo r/0f – @)#^ – jt{dfg;Dd -pj{/ jf :yfkgfsfn_

sfljtf/fdn] ;flxlTos cfGbf]ng / ljb|f]xsf cleJolQm dfq kf]v]sf 5}gg\, @)#^ kl5 pgL k|z:t /rgfx¿ hGdfO{ lg/jlR5Gg k|sfzgtk{m pGd'v b]lvG5g\ . o; ljwfnfO{ 5f8]/ uB cGtu{t k|aGw, syf, pkGof;, gf6s cflbnfO{ plQs} ;zQm 9Ën] k|sfzg ug{ k'U5g\ . o;} cfwf/nfO{ ;fGble{s dfGb} @)#^ ;fnb]lvsf] sljtf/fdsf] ;flxlTos ofqfnfO{ t[tLo r/0fs]f ¿kdf juL{s/0f ul/Psf] xf] . o; r/0fdf sljtf/fdn] % j6f k':ts k|sfzg u/]sf 5g\ . @)#^ b]lv @)#* ;fn;Dd kfFrj6f k':ts k|sfzg u/]kl5 pgL @)$% ;Dd k|sfzgsf b[li6n] pgL cb[Zo b]lvG5g\ . @)$% sf] ;xn]vgsf] …cjtf/ lj36gÚ ;Fu} k]ml/ sljtf/fdsf] k':ts k|sfzg l;nl;nf rfn' x'G5 . o; Ps bzsdf cf7j6f k':ts k|sfzg u/]sf 5g\ eg] csf]{ bzs @)^% ;Dd yk !$ k':ts k|sflzt x'g k'u]sf 5g\ . o;/L t[tLo r/0f cGtu{t e'mlNsb} c:tfpFb} k'gM e'mlNsb} ug]{ k|j[lQ b]lvPsfn] o; r/0fnfO{ k"jf{4{ / pQ/f4{ u/L b'O{{ r/0fdf /fv]/ x]g'{ ;fGble{s x'G5 .

k"jf{4{ @)#^ – @)$$

pQ/f4{ @)$% – jt{dfg .

pko'{Qm ljefhgdf k"jf{4{eGbf pQ/f4{ a9L ;zQm b]lvPsf] 5 . k"jf{4{df syf, ;flxTo / afn;flxTonfO{ n]vsn] cufl8 a9fPsf 5g\ eg] pQ/f4{df syf afn;flxTo dfq xf]Og, pkGof;, gf6s, rnlrq gf6\Ø k6syf, cg'jfb / ;flxTo ;DaGwL wf/0ffnfO{ ;d]t cleJolQmsf] dfWod agfPsf 5g\ .

sljtf/fdsf] l;h{gzLntf cBflk ultzLn 5 . gofFgofF k':tsx¿ k|sfzgfy{ tof/Ldf a;]sf 5g\ . gofFgofF j[mlt k|j[lQ b]lv+b} guP;DdnfO{ pko'{Qm r/0f ljefhg ;fy{s b]lvG5 .


sljtf/fdsf] afn;flxTo n]vgsf] ofqf

afn;flxTo eg]sf] afnaflnsf;Fu ;DalGwt ;flxTo xf] . d"ntM afnaflnsfnfO{ nlIft ;d'bfo agfO{ /lrPsf], afnaflnsfsf ;d:ofnfO{ ;fGble{s agfP/ n]lvPsf] / :jo+ afnaflnsfåf/f /lrPsf] ;flxTo ;d]t afn;flxTosf] kl/lwdf kb{5g\ .

;[li6sf] ;jf]{Qd l;h{gfsf ¿kdf /x]sf afnaflnsfx¿ /fi6«sf pHHjn eljiosf cfwf/ x'g\, ;dfhsf ;'Gb/ ;kgf x'g\ clg ljZjnfO{ g} gjLg :j¿k / ;+/rgf k|bfg ug]{ dxTTjk"0f{ kfOnf klg x'g\ . To;}n], afnaflnsfx¿nfO{ b]z, sfn / kl/j]z cg'j"mntfsf] z}lIfs kf7\Ø;fdu|Lsf cltl/Qm ljljw sfn ;flxlTos ;fdu|Lsf] klg cfjZos x'G5 . slnnf] dl:tis ePsf afnaflnsfx¿nfO{ s]jn kf7\Øk':tssf] sL/f gagfO{ pgLx¿sf] 1fgsf] If]qnfO{ km/flsnf] agfpg klg afn;flxTosf] dxTTjk"0f{ e"ldsf x'G5 . jf:tadf kf7\Øk':tsn] lbg g;s]sf] 1fg afn;flxTon] lbG5 . kf7\Øk':tsn] lbg] ;"rgf / 1fg lzIffsf] Ps efu dfq xf] . lzIffsf] csf]{ efu dxTTjk"0f{ 5– Tof] xf], afnaflnsfx¿sf] slnnf] dl:tisnfO{ l;h{gzLn agfpg' . of] uxg sfo{ afn;flxTon] dfq ug{;Sg] tYo lglj{jfb 5 .66

afnsx¿sf] :t/n] ;/ntfsf ;fy u|x0f ug{;Sg] / pgLx¿nfO{ hLjgd"ns Pj+ hLjgf]kof]uL lzIff lbg] p2]Zon] n]lvPsf] n]v /rgf g} afn;flxTo x'g\ . afn dgl:ylt k|f}9 dgl:ylteGbf leGg ePs} x'gfn] pgLx¿nfO{ ;f]xL cg'¿ksf] ;flxlTos /rgfsf] cfjZostf k5{ . afn;flxTo cGo ;flxToeGbf s]xL leGg x'G5 . afn;flxTo ;Dk"0f{ ¿kn] afn;flxTos} lglDt pgLx¿sf] af}l4s:t/, dgf]lj1fg tyf cGo cfjZostfnfO{ Wofgdf /fv]/ n]lvG5 .67 afnaflnsfx¿df x'g] lh1f;fnfO{ zfGt kfg]{, pgLx¿sf] l;h{gfTds k|ltefnfO{ k|:k'ml6t u/fpg], Pj+ dgf]/~hg ;d]t k|bfg ug]{ sfo{df afn–;flxTo Ps ;an, ;Ifd / ;zQm dfWod ePsfn] o; ljwfsf] cfˆg} lsl;dsf] ljlzi6 klxrfg /x]sf] 5 .68

sljtf/fdsf] afn;flxTo n]vgsf] ofqf pgsf] ;flxlTos ofqfsf] bf];|f] r/0f;Fu} k|f/De x'G5 . pgsf] afn;flxTosf] k|yd k':tsfsf/ k|sflzt j[mlt …jgb]jLÚ -afn pkGof;–@)#^_ xf] . sljtf/fdn] cfk"m afn;flxTolt/ pGd'v tyf clek|]l/t x'g'sf] sf/0faf/] …d]/f c:jLj[mt dfGotfx¿Ú df ;ª\lIfKt ¿kdf pNn]v u/]sf 5g\ . pgL afns x'Fbf afnf]kof]uL ;flxTosf] cefj lyof] . kf7\Øqmdsf k':ts / bGTosyf afx]s s]6fs]6Ln] k9\g] ;fdu|L lyPgg\ . ;doqmd;Fu} nf]ssyfsf k':tsx¿ / ef/taf6 lelqg] lxGbLefiffsf afnlrqsyfx¿ b]lvP t/ afnsx¿nfO{ cfhsf] cfjZostf cg'¿k ;fdflhsLs/0f ug]{ jf cfpFbf ;f+;fl/s xfFs lj?4 p7\g ;Ifd agfpg k|of;/t k':tsx¿sf] k|foM cefj lyof] . oxL cefj sd ug]{ k|of;:j¿k pgn] afn;flxTolt/ cfk"mnfO{ nufPsf x'g\ .69 bh{g g3fP/ afn;flxTosf /rgf g]kfnL afn;flxTonfO{ lbg] sljtf/fd afn;flxTosf] If]qdf cToGt ;'kl/lrt 5g\ . pgsf] …sldnfsf] syfÚ / …cgf]7f] ofqf… afn;flxTosf] k':ts :gfts txdf P]lR5s g]kfnL afn;flxTo cGtu{t kf7\Øk':tssf] ¿kdf ;dfj]z ePsf 5g\ . n]vssf] …k|md b Dofª\uf] 6«L P08 cb/ kmf]s6]N; k|md g]kfnÚ gfds cË|]hL efiffdf n]lvPsf] afnnf]ssyf ;ª\u|xsf] k':ts cd]l/sfsf] sf]nf]/f8f] /fHodf k|f=lj= tyf df=lj=txsf ljBfyL{ tyf lzIfsx¿sf nflu ;Gbe{ u|Gysf] ¿kdf ;d]t 5gf}6 ePsf] kfOG5 .70 afnpkGof;sf] If]qdf sljtf/fdn] j}1flgs r]tgf k|j]z u/fP/ ;dofg's"n afn;flxTosf] cfjZostfsf] dxTTj af]w u/fPsf 5g\ .71

kl/R5]b – rf/


sljtf/fdsf] syfsf] cWoog


g]kfnL syf;flxTosf] ljsf;qmdsf] ;ª\lIfKt rrf{

lglZrt k|sf/sf] ;+/rgfdf cfa4 / ;Lldt cfotgel/sf] ;do / :yfgleq lj:tfl/t jf efjfleJo~hs ;ª\lIfKt cfVofgfTds ¿knfO{ syf elgG5 .72 syf zAb g]kfnL hglha|f]df /fd|/L 3'nldn ePsf] zAb xf] . efiffsf] lgdf{0f nuQ} dflg;x¿n] al;ljofnf] ug{ xf];\ jf cfˆgf lbgel/sf tLtfdL7f cg'ejnfO{ JoQm ug{ xf];\ syfsf ¿kdf /dfOnf–/dfOnf s'/f eGg] / ;'Gg] k/Dk/f cToGt k|frLg ;dob]lv g} x'Fb} cfof] eGg] cg'dfg ul/G5 . sy\ wft'df cr\ k|Too nfu]/ sy\ ag]kl5 6fk k|Too nfuL cf ePkl5 sy\±c±cf Ö syf zAb tof/ x'G5 .

syfsf k|frLgtd\ ¿kx¿ vf]Hb} hfFbf j]b;Dd k'Ug ;lsG5 / od odLsf] syf o;sf] Pp6f ;fgf] pbfx/0f xf] . g]kfnL syfsf] ljsf;sf] k"j{k[i7df j]b, pklgifb\, /fdfo0f, dxfef/t, d'Gw'd, af}4 hfts syf tyf k~rtGq syf cflbsf syfx¿n] dxTTjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]n]sf 5g\ . To;}u/L klZrdL ;flxTodf Ozfk"j{ #))–$)) aLrsf] …b'O{ bfh'efOÚ nfO{ g} syf;flxTosf] k|yd lnlvt ¿k dflgPsf] 5 eg] afOan 8]sfd]/f s]G6/j/L 6]N; x'Fb} !( ;f}F ztfAbLdf cfP/ syfsf] lasl;t ¿k b]vf k5{ . j}lbsaf6 qmdzM nf}lss o'u x'Fb} cfpFbf nf]ssyfsf] klg cfˆg} ljlzi6 dxTTj 5 t/ nf]ssyfnfO{ lnlvt ;flxTo cGtu{t glnOPsfn] g]kfnL syfsf] dfgsljGb'df k'Ug lj=;+= !*@& ;Dd kv{g'k5{ .

g]kfnL syf;flxTosf] ljsf;qmd

;dfnf]rsLo b[li6n] g]kfnL syf;flxTosf] k|f/De lj=;+= !*@& b]lv dflgPsf] 5 . . w]/}h;f] ;dfnf]rsx¿n] lj=;+= !*@& sf] zlQmjNnj cof{nåf/f cg'lbt dxfef/t lj/f6kj{nfO{ g} k|yd g]kfnL syf dfg]sf 5g\ . g]kfnL syfsf] sfnljefhgnfO{ lgDgcg';f/ juL{s/0f ug{ ;lsG5 .

k|fylds sfn -lj=;+ !*@&–!(%&_

dfWolds sfn -lj=;+ !(%*–!(()_

cfw'lgs sfn -lj=;+ !((!– xfn;Dd_

k|fylds sfn -lj=;+ !*@&–!(%&_

o; sfndf ;+:s[t cË|]hL lxGbL, pb"{ kmf/;L cflb efiffaf6 cg'lbt syfsf ¿kx¿ g} g]kfnL syf;flxTodf b]vf k/]sf 5g\ . pbfx/0fsf ¿kdf lj/f6kj{, lxtf]kb]z, j[xt\syf 6Lsf, d'G;Lsf tLg cfxfg, cflbnfO{ k|:t't ug{ ;lsG5 . pko'{Qm /rgfx¿n] g}lts pkb]z :j:y dgf]/~hg k|bfg ub}{ wfld{s cf:yf ;d]t hufO{ dfWolds sfnLg g]kfnL syf;flxTosf] k"jf{wf/sf] ¿kdf dxTTjk"0f{ of]ubfg lbPsf 5g\ .

dfWolds sfn -lj=;+ !(%*–!(()_

!(%* sf] g]kfnsf] Ps dfq /fli6«o ;dfrf/kq …uf]/vfkqÚ sf] k|sfzg;Fu} g]kfnL syf;flxTosf] dfWolds sfn k|f/De x'G5 vf;u/L ljleGg kqklqsf h:t} uf]/vfkq, uf]/vf ef/t hLjg, rlGb|sf, uf]vf{nL, uf]/vf ;+;f/ k|sflzt x'g' / tLgdf ljljw ljifoj:t'sf syf k|sflzt x'Fb} hfg'n] syfdf cem gofFkgsf ;fy} s]xL eflifs / ljifoj:t'ut kl/kSjtf;d]t ylkFb} hfG5 . o; ;dosf k|j[lQx¿df k|/lDes sfnsf wfld{s, g}lts / dgf]/~gtfTds efjgfsf ;fy} g]kfnL ;flxTosf] dfWolds sfnLg ltn:dL, hf;";L, tyf >[Ëfl/s k|j[lQ ;d]t ylkG5g\ / cfw'lgs sfnsf] k"j{ k|of;:j¿k df}lnstfsf ;fy ;d]t syf n]lvg'sf sf/0fn] cfw'lgs sfnsf] lgdf{0fdf 7"nf] d2t k'u]sf] kfOG5 .

cfw'lgs sfn -lj=;+ !((!– xfn;Dd_

k|fylds tyf dfWoldssfnLg k|j[lQx¿nfO{ qmdzM 5f]8\b} ;fdflhs w/ftn tyf g]kfnL df6f] ;'xfpFbf] syfnfO{ cfwf/ agfO{ !((@ lj=;+= ;Fu} zf/bf klqsfdf u'¿k|;fb d}gfnLsf] …gf;f]Ú syfsf] k|sfzgkZrft\ g]kfnL syf;flxTo cfw'lgsfndf k|j]z ePsf] dflgG5 . cfw'lgs sfnsf] Jofks cWoog ljZn]if0f ePsf] x'gfn] ;dfnf]rsx¿n] ljleGg tl/sf, k|lqmofn] ljZn]if0f / ljefhg u/]sf] kfOP tfklg :y"n¿kdf o; sfnnfO{ !((! b]lv @)!( ;Dd oyfy{jfbL o'u / @)@) b]lv jt{dfgsf] kl/j]z;DdnfO{ …gjo'uÚ egL g]kfnL ;flxTosf] ;ª\lIfKt Oltxf;df pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .

oyfy{jfbL o'u -!((@–@)!(_ M g]kfnL ;flxTosf] oyfy{jfbL o'unfO{ df]6fdf]6L ¿kdf -s_ ;fdflhs oyfy{jfbL wf/f, -v_ dgf]j}1flgs oyfy{jfbL wf/f, -u_ ;dfhjfbL oyfy{jfbL wf/f ljefhg ul/Psf] 5 .

-s_ ;fdflhs oyfy{jfbL wf/f M u'¿k|;fb d}gfnLn] zf/bfdf …gf;f]Ú syf k|sflzt u/]b]lv g} g]kfnL syf;flxTodf cfw'lgstfsf ;fy} ;fdflhs oyfy{jfb klg k|f/De ePsf] dflgG5 . o; o'u / wf/fsf g]t[Tjstf{ syfsf/ d}gfnLn] hflu/] hLjgsf cfˆgf cg'ejdf cfPsf, b]lvPsf, ;'lgPsf u|fdL0f kl/j]zsf 36gfx¿nfO{ ;d]6\b} syfsf dfWodaf6 g]kfnL ;dfhsf oyfy{ lrq0f u/L k|j[lQut dfGotfsf ¿kdf cufl8 a9fPsf x'gfn] o; wf/fnfO{ ;fdflhs oyfy{jfbL wf/f elgPsf] xf] . o; wf/fdf d}gfnL nufot eLdlglw ltjf/L, /d]z ljsn afns[i0f ;d nufotsf syfsf/x¿n] ;zQm of]ubfg lbPsf 5g\ .

-v_ dgf]j}1flgs oyfy{jfbL wf/f M dflg;x¿sf dfgl;s kl/j]z, xnrn / pTs07fx¿nfO{ ;Dk|]if0fLotfsf ;fy JoQm ul/g] ;Tk|of;sf sf/0f o; wf/fnfO{ dgf]j}1flgs oyfy{jfbL wf/f elgPsf] xf] . g]kfnL syf ;flxTodf ;j{k|yd dgf]lj1fg k|j]z u/fpg] >]o syfsf/ ljZj]Zj/k|;fb sf]O/fnfnfO{ hfG5 . pgn] k|mfo8]nL dgf]lj1fgaf6 k|efj u|x0f ub}{ lj=;+= !((@ sf] zf/bfdf …rGb|jbgÚ syf 5kfO g]kfnL syf;flxTodf dgf]lj1fg leq\ØfPsf x'g\ .73 dflg;n] ug]{ k|To]s lqmofsnfksf k5fl8 p;sf r]tg–cr]g dgsf 1ft–c1ft, bldt–cbldt OR5fx¿sf] k|To]If–ck|ToIf lgb]{zg /x]sf] x'G5 eGg] d"n clek|fo o; wf/fsf] /x]sf] 5 . o; wf/f cGtu{tsf cGo s]xL k|l;4 ;flxTosf/x¿df uf]ljGbaxfb'/ dNn uf]7fn], ljho dNn, k':s/ nf]xgL, b]js'df/L yfkf cflbnfO{ lng ;lsG5 .

-u_ ;dfhjfbL oyfy{jfbL wf/f M lj=;+= @))& ;fnsf] /fhgLlts kl/jt{g;Fu} g]kfnn] pGd'lQmsf] Zjf; km]g]{ jftfj/0f kfP/ ;dfhsf ¿l9 ultljlwdf kl/jt{gsf gjLg nx/ b]vfkg{ yfn]kl5 ;flxlTos jftfj/0fdf klg gofFkg b]lvg' :jfefljs} /XØf] . ;flxlTos ;+:yf kqklqsfsf ;fy;fy} ;flxTodf gjLg d"No / dfGotf ;d]t cl:tTjdf cfP o;} qmddf ;dfhjfbL, k|ultjfbL ljrf/wf/fnfO{ cfTd;ft ub}{ snd rnfpg]x¿sf] jfx'Nosf sf/0f ;f]xL k|j[lQ ;d]tnfO{ cfwf/ dfgL ;dfhjfbL oyfy{jfbL wf/f cl:tTTjdf cfP . o; qmdsf s]xL k|ltli7t x:tfIf/x¿df afns[i0f kf]v/]n, r'8fdl0f /]UdL, l8=lk= clwsf/L, ejfgLk|;fb l3ld/], cflbnfO{ uGg ;lsG5 . o; wf/fn] ul/a ju{sf] bogLo lrq0fsf ;fy} tNnf] ju{k|lt ;xfg'e"lt /fVb} dfS;{jfbL cjwf/0ffdf ljZjf; u5{ .

gjo'u -@)@)–@)#%_ M @)!& sf] /fhgLlts k6fIf]k;Fu} g]kfnL syf;flxTodf cem gjLgtd k|j[lQx¿ b]vf k/] . k|ltaGwfTds ;dodf oyfy{jfbL pGd'lQm 56k6fpg yfNof] / syf;flxTodf ;d]t 56k6fx6sf hl6ntf, b'?xtf b]lvg yfn] . gjk':tfsf oL syfsf/x¿sf] dfgl;s pT;fxaf6 l;lh{t syfTds kl/j]z g} oyfy{df …gjo'uÚsf] ¿kdf lrlgg uof] .74 lj=;+= @)!* b]lv @)#% ;Ddsf] syfn]vgnfO{ tLgj6f kmfF6df ljefhg ul/Psf] 5 . klxnf] kmfF6 xf]– @)!* k"j{b]lv g} n]lvFb} cfPsf] of}gd"ns syfn]vgsf] kmfF6 . bf];|f] kmfF6 xf]– k|of]ujfbL syfn]vgsf] kmfF6 / t];|f] kmfF6 xf]– ;dfhjfbL oyfy{jfbL syfn]vgsf] kmfF6 .75 @)@) sf] bzsd} k/Dk/fut n]vgsf] lj?4df t];|f] cfofd, /fNkmf, cdn]v, c:jLs[t hdft, a'6kfln; cflb cfGbf]ng b]vf k/] . vf; u/L csyfTds syf n]Vb} zAb, jfSou7g cflbdf gofF k|of]u u/L gofF ljrf/ x¿nfO{ k|:t't ug]{ hdsf]{ o; o'usf n]vsx¿df /x]sf] 5 . w|'jrGb| uf}td, vu]Gb| ;ª\u|f}nf, kfl/hft, efpkGyL, z}n]Gb| ;fsf/, dg'j|fhfsL, sljtf/fd, jgdfnL lg/fsf/, d~h' sfFr'nL cflb o; o'usf k|ltlglw syfsf/x¿ x'g\ . k/Dk/feGbf leGg lzNkz}nL / ljifoj:t'sf k|of]usf sf/0f @)@) sf] bzsb]lv @)#% sf] cjlwnfO{ k|of]ujfbL r/0fsf] ¿kdf ;d]t juL{s/0f ug]{ u/]sf] kfOG5 .

;d;fdlos o'u -@)#^–xfn;Dd_ M @)#) sf] bzsb]lv xfn;Ddsf] cjlwnfO{ ;d;fdlos r/0fsf] ¿kdf ;dfnf]rs /fh]Gb| ;'j]bLn] :gftsf]Q/ g]kfnL syfdf pNn]v u/]sf 5g\ .76 o; ;dosf s]xL syfsf/x¿df– sljtf/fd, vu]Gb| ;ª\u|f}nf, /fh]Gb| k/fh'nL, gf/fo0f 9sfn, uf]kfn k/fh'nL, nufot cGo y'k|} k|ltefx¿sf] gfd lng ;lsG5 . o; cjlwsf syfn] hLjgsf ;fdlos d"NonfO{ :yfkgf ug]{, ;fdflhs hLjgsf ljs[lt lj;Ëltsf] cfnf]rgf / syfn]vgdf gjLg cfofd o; ;dosf] d"n kIf /x]sf] ;fy} syfleq csyfTdstfsf] ;d]t k|of]u ePsf] kfOG5 .


g]kfnL syf ;flxTodf sljtf/fdsf] :yfg lgwf{/0f

sljtf/fd @)@! ;fnb]lv n]lvPsf syfx¿sf ;fy …sfnf] syfÚ syf;ª\u|x, ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzg @)#^, …k|nfkÚ syf;ª\u|x, ;femf k|sfzg @)#*, …d'lQmk|;Ësf c:jLs[t syfx¿Ú, ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzg @)$& syfx¿df d'lQmsf] t8kg cl:js[ttf k|ultjflbtfsf] kIfkf]if0f ub}{ k/Dk/fut ¿kdf :yflkt ;fdflhs ;flxlTos /fhgLlts, ;f+:s[lts Pj+ wfld{s ljrf/x¿sf lj?4df c:jLs[t hdftsf] ljb|f]xtfTds /fFsf] lnP/ cfh;Dd klg lg/Gt/ ;lqmo /lx/x]sf 5g\ . sljtf/fdsf] ;flxTo ofqfsf] sfn ljefhgsf cfwf/df x]bf{ klg pgL kmf6km'6 ¿kdf syfn]vg …gjo'uÚ b]lv g} ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ . …sfnf] syfÚ ;ª\u|xsf syfx¿ @)#^ ;fnk"j{ g} km'6s/ ¿kdf k|sflzt 5g\ . @)#^ k"j{sf] syf n]vg syf ;flxTodf k|j]z ug]{ k"j{ tof/Lsf] ¿kdf b]lvG5 eg] @)#^ ;fnb]lv pgL k':tsfsf/ s[lt lnP/ syf If]qdf pbfpF5g\ . To;}n] pgsf] syf ;flxTodf cfudg …;d;fdlos o'uÚ -@)#^– xfn_ df g} cflwsfl/s¿kdf b]lvPsfn] pgnfO{ …;d;fdlos o'uÚsf syfsf/sf ¿kdf pNn]v ug'{ ;fGble{s x'G5 .


sfnf] syfÚ syf;ª\u|xsf] cWoog

syfsf/ sljtf/fdsf] syf;ª\u|x …sfnf] syfÚ @)#^ ;fndf ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzg, sf7df8f}Fåf/f k|sflzt s[lt xf] . Pp6f k|tLs kfq …sÚ lnP/ …sfnf] syfÚ sfnf] uftfdf g]nn] hsl8Psf] sÍfn;fy g]kfnL syf;flxTodf b]vf k/]sf] 5 . lstfasf] afXØ cfj/0f x]g]{ lalQs} !) jif{cl3sf] ax'rlr{t c:jLs[t hdftsf] emNofF:; ;Demgf cfpF5 egL ljj]rsx¿n] cfˆgf] efjgf o; s[ltsf af/]df JoQm u/]sf 5g\ .77 o; syf;ª\u|xdf z'sb]j, d'lQmk|;Ë, bf]sfg, s}bLsf] 5f]/f], /fj0ffo0f, oflGqs oGq0ff, eu'jf, hflu/], hLjgbfg, k|:t't x'gf];\, xl/e'Ë] /fhf / etfe'Ë] sfhL, aofg, cfsfzjf0fL, z'e]R5f, v'lnKjfF6 ;]lG6d]G6, ljrf/ ltn:d cflbh:tf nfdf / 5f]6f u/L hDdf !^ j6f syfx¿ ;dfj]z 5g\ . k|:t't s[ltsf] zLif{sdf k|o'Qm sfnf] zAbn] g} hLjg hut\\sf cFWf]/f / cf]em]ndf k/]sf kIfx¿df k|sfz kfg]{ p2]Zo lnPsf] o; s[ltn] klg n]vssf c:jLs[ltut dfGotfx¿ g} Rofk]sf] k|:6 x'G5 .78 ljifout tyf k|j[ltut b[li6n] …sfnf] syfÚ sf syfx¿ lgDgfg';f/ 5g\ .


ljifout cfwf/df sljtf/fdsf syfx¿

d'Vo ¿kn] tLgj6f syf;ª\u|x k|sflzt ug]{ sljtf/fdsf] …sfnf] syfÚ sf !^ j6f syfx¿nfO{ ljifoj:t'ut b[li6n] lgDgfg';f/ juL{s/0f ug{ ;lsG5 .

;fdflhs M d'lQmk|;Ë, bf]sfg, hLjgbfg, s}bLsf] 5f]/f], eu'jf, k|:t't x'gf];\, aofg, z'e]R5f,

v'lnKjfF6–;]lG6d]G6

j}1flgs M oflGqs oGq0ff

kf}/fl0fs M z'sb]j, /fj0ffo0f, cfsfzjf0fL

/fhgLlts M xl/e'Ë] /fhf / etfe'Ë] sfhL, s}bLsf] 5f]/f]

lj>[Îlnt M ljrf/ ltn:dL

k|foM cr]tgaf6 :jtM:km"t{¿kdf k|]l/t eO{ cfTdk/s z}nLdf n]Vg dg k/fpg] sljtf/fdsf syfx¿ n]vsn] lglb{i6 ljifoj:t'nfO{ ;dft]/ n]v]sf] cg'ej x'Fb}g . pko'{Qm syfx¿ ;+of]ujz ljljw ljifoj:t'df cfwfl/t x'g k'u]sf x'g\ .


k|j[lQut cfwf/df …sfnf] syfÚ sf syfx¿

x/]s n]vs jf n]vgx¿ lgof]lht jf clgof]lht ¿kdf s'g} g s'g} k|j[lQdf cfwfl/t x'G5g\ . sljtf/fd klg o;sf ckjfbdf /xg ;Sb}gg\ . pgL c:jLs[t hdftsf ;+:yfksdWo]sf k|d'v Ps x'g\ . pgsf] …sfnf] syfÚ sf ;Dk"0f{ syfx¿ o;} c:jLs[t ljrf/sf k|j[lQdf cfwfl/t 5g\ . pgL ;dfhsf wfld{s /fhgLlts, ;flxlTos nufotsf k/Dk/fut¿kdf rlncfPsf ¿l9 wf/0ffx¿sf ljifodf ;dlk{t eP/ nfUg' eg]sf] s]xL gofF s'/f vf]Hg] cfˆgf] IfdtfnfO{ xTs8L nufpg' xf] eGg] dfGotf /fV5g\ . To;}n] pgsf syfx¿df k/Dk/fut ¿kdf /x]sf] k|To]s ljifoj:t'x¿sf] ?l9sf] lj?4df c:jLs[ltut k|j[lQx¿ e]l6G5g\ . syfx¿df cfˆgf dfGotfut k|j[lQx¿sf] k|of]udf n]vs k"0f{ ;r]t 5g\ .

sfnf] syfÚ syf;ª\u|xsf] k|ltlglw syf …z'sb]jÚsf] cWoog


syfj:t'

syfdf /xg] k|d'v tTTjdWo] Ps syfj:t' xf] . @)@( ;fndf k|yd k6s dw'ks{df k|sflzt eO{ @)#^ ;fndf …sfnf] syfÚ df ;ª\u|lxt k|:t't …z'sb]jÚ syfsf] syfj:t' kf}/fl0fs ljifoaf6 l6lkPsf] 5 . >Ldb\efujt dxfk'/f0fsf] k|yd:sGw cGtu{t rt'y{ cWofodf rf}yf] / kfFrf}F Znf]sdf jl0f{t j:t' g} o; syfsf] d'Vo ljifoj:t' /x]sf] 5 .79

>Ldb\efujt\ dxfk'/f0fdf k|:t't j]bJof; / z'sb]j syfj:t'sf d'Vo kfq x'g\ . z'sb]j 3/kl/jf/ dftflktf s]xL jf:tf gu/L pQ/ lbzftkm{ p8\b} uO/x]5g\ . lktf j]bJof; …5f]/f 5f]/fÚ eGb} k5\ØfO{ /x]5g\ . ;f+;fl/stfdf kms{gsf nflu cg]sfF}F cfbz{o'Qm Znf]sdo pkb]zx¿ lbO/x]5g\ t/ klg z'sb]jsf] ;f}Do cfs[lqdf s'g} kl/jt{g kfOGg . z'sb]j hfFb} ubf{ af6f]df Pp6f tnfpdf ;ftj6L gjof}jgf gUgfj:yfd} :gfg ul//x]sf x'G5g\ . o'jtLx¿ z'sb]jnfO{ gUgfj:yfd} lg;Íf]r gd:sf/ u5{g\ eg] j]bJof; b]Vgf;fy nHhfn] xtf/xtf/ n'uf nufO{ ;fd" k/]/ 9f]U5g\ . Jof;hL o'jtLx¿sf] o:tf] rfnf b]vL crlDdt eO{ ufnL u5{g\ . o'jtLx¿ cfsfz dfu{df p8\b} lvTsf 5f]8L xfF:g yfN5g\ . o'jtLx¿sf af/]df ljrf/ ubf{ logLx¿ kSs} klg b]jk/L g} x'gk5{ eGg] 7fgL pgLx¿ z'sb]j;dIf gfË} x'Fbf klg gnhfO{ b08jt\ u/]sf t/ cfkm";Fu rflxFF n'uf nufP/ dfq k|:t't ePsfaf/] ltgLx¿;Fu k|Zg ;f]W5g\ . z'sb]j gfËf] / ggfËf] e]beGbf w]/} dfly 5g\ . pgsf ;fd" gfËf] / ggfËf] ¿kdf k|:t't x'g'df s'g} cGt/ 5}g . pgL gfËf] z/L/df klg gfËf] a|Dx b]Vg ;S5g\ t/ tkfO{F k'/f0fsf ;|i6f x'g'x'G5 . tkfO{Fsf k'/f0fsf u|Gyx¿sf ef/n] tkfO{Fsf] ultdf ;':tL cfO/x]5 . tkfO{F cfˆgf 7]nLx¿ la;fP/ gfËf]¿kdf k|:t't x'g'xf];\ / k/a|Dxdf nLg x'g'xf];\ o; l:yltdf dfq tkfO{F / z'sb]jdf ;dfgtf cfpg]5 egL k/Lx¿ j]bJof;nfO{ pkb]zfTds s'/fx¿ eG5g\ . k/Lx¿sf] lbJoefif0fåf/f cg'eljt WofgdUg j]bJof;nfO{ crfgs ;d:t gfËfj:t'x¿df z'sb]j / lbJotfsf] bz{g x'G5 . t/ pgsf] WofgdUgtfn] bL3{tf lng kfpFb}g . Wofg eË x'gf;fy cfˆgf] gfËf] z/L/ ;Dem]/ pgL cfkm}F v'Drg nfU5g\ / k'gM k'/f0fsf u|Gyx¿ Aff]sL …z'sb]j Û, z'sb]j ÛÚ s/fpFb} pQ/lt/ nfU5g\ . ;d:t vf]nfgfnf, zx/, ufpF …z'sb]j Û, z'sb]j ÛÚ n] u'~hfodfg x'G5 / cfh;Dd klg eO{ g} /x]sf] 5 .

o;/L z'sb]jsf] gUgtfnfO{ oyfy{, :jfefljstfsf] ¿kdf / j]bJof;sf] ljleGg ;+:sf/ut, cfbz{ut ljåtfnfO{, k/Dk/fut dfGotfnfO{ c:jfefljstfsf] ¿kdf 6'ËØfpFb} k|:t't syfsf] pk;+xf/ ul/Psf] 5 .

kfq

kfqnfO{ rl/q klg elgG5 . kfqx¿ ;dfhsf JolQmx¿sf] rl/qut / :jefjut cg's/0fsf nflu k|of]u ul/g] tTTj x'g\ . syfgstfdf k|efjsfl/tfsf] nflu ljifoj:t' / kfq aLr cGof]Gofl>t ;DaGw x'g' cfjZos x'G5 .80 kf}/fl0fs ljifoj:t'df cfwfl/t o; …z'sb]jÚ syfsf d'Vo kfq z'sb]j x'g\ . pgL s]xL gaf]n] tfklg syfsf/n] vf]h] cg'¿ksf] efj lbg] rl/q x'g\ . csf{ kfqdf j]bJof; k5{g\ . z'sb]j / j]bJof; k'?ifkfq x'g\ eg] cK;/fx¿nfO{ :qLkfqsf] ¿kdf pEofOPsf] 5 . syfsf/n] z'sb]jnfO{ c:jLs[t dfGotfsf] :jefjjfbL lrGtg cg';f/ pkl:yt u/fPsf 5g\ . :jfefljs cfofd cyf{t\\ k|fs[lts lgodcg';f/ rNg] l;4fGtnfO{ g} pgL :jefjjfb eG5g\ . z'sb]j k"0f{tM k|fs[lts 5g\ . ef}lts ¿kn] klg k"0f{ gUg 5g\ . ;f+;fl/stfsf] cyf{t\\ cf8Da/sf] nfh, sfd'stf cfzlQmsf] pgdf n]z klg kfO{Fb}g . csf{tkm{ j]bJof;nfO{ c:jfefljstf / s[lqdtfsf] cy{df k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 . cfhLjg cWoog u/L c7f/ k'/f0f >[hgf ug]{ cfTd1fgL j]bJof; cfkm}F ;f+;fl/stfaf6 d'Qm 5}gg\ . pgLåf/f lgld{t ;+:sf/x¿n] pgnfO{ g} aGwgdf /fv]sf sf/0fn] pgL 5f]/fsf] dfofdf cfzQm eP/ cGwfw'Gw s'b]sf x'g\ / pgL pgs} 5f]/fsf] ;dfgfGt/;Dd klg k'Ug ;s]sf 5}gg\ eGg] cy{df n]vsn] j]bJof;sf] rl/q cl3 ;f/]sf x'g\ . syfsf/n] :jefjjfbL lrGtgsf] k|tLsdf z'sb]j / k/Dk/fut cfbz{jfbL lrGtgsf] k|tLsdf j]bJof;nfO{ pEofO :jefjjfbL lrGtgsf] ljho / k/Dk/fut cfbz{jfbL lrGtgsf] k/fho ePsf] s'/f n]vsn] pko'{Qm kfqsf dfWodåf/f hgfpg vf]h]sf 5g\ . syfdf k|o'Qm kfqx¿ k|ltlglw kfq x'g\ / ltg} kfqdfkm{t\ pgn] cfˆgf j}rfl/s lj/f]w c;Gt'li6 JoQm ug]{ u/]sf] s'/f …sfnf] syfÚ syf;ª\u|xsf] e"ldsfdf pNn]v u/]sf 5g\ .81

lzNk

/rgfdf k|of]u x'Fbf cfpg] ljljw cfjoljs ;LknfO{ lzNksf] ¿kdf lnOG5 . ljljw ljwfsf cfcfˆg} ;Lk / lzNk x'G5g\ . syfsf/ cfkm"n] ljwfxLgljwf cyf{t\\ ljwfut lj>[Întfdf cfwfl/t /xL n]Vg] u/]sf] s'/f JoQm u5{g\ .82 k|:t't syf nfdf / 5f]6f u/L !@ cg'R5]bdf ljeQm 5 . pgsf] zAbrog / efiff cToGt ;/n / k|jfxfTds 5 . of] syfsf/sf] :jefjjfbL dfGotf cg'¿k g} 5 . syfdf j]bJof; / o'jtLsf aLr ;+jfb l;h{gf ePsf]n] k|:t't syfdf ;+jfbfTds z}nLsf] ;d]t k|of]u 5 . zAbrogdf k"0f{M tT;d zAbb]lv g]kfnL em/f{ zAbx¿ ;d]t ;xhtf;fy k|of]u ul/Psf 5g\ . a5L{ h:t} tLvf / :ki6 zAbx¿df sljtf/fd cfˆgf ;6Ls egfOx¿ ;f]em} /fVg ?rfpF5g\ .83 sf}t'xn kIf cToGt ;zQm 5 . j0f{gfTds, ;+jfbfTds / k|jfxfTds z}nLdf cleJoQm k|:t't syfsf] /rgf;Lk syfljwf cg'¿k 5 .

b[li6laGb'

s;sf] syf s;n] elg/x]5 < eGg] s'/f 5'6\Øfpg] syfsf tTTjdWo]sf] Ps b[li6laGb'xf] . syfsf/ / kf7saLr efj, ljrf/ / bz{gsf] kf/:kl/s ljlgdosf] cfwf/ g} b[li6laGb'xf] .84 syfdf d'VotM k|yd k'?if b[li6laGb'/ t[tLo k'?if b[li6ljGb'sf] k|of]u ul/G5 eg] slxn]sfxLF låtLo k'?if b[li6laGb';d]t k|of]u ul/G5 . k|:t't …z'sb]jÚ syfdf n]vsn] t[tLo k'?if b[li6ljGb'sf] k|of]u u/]sf 5g\ . t[tLo k'?ifsf] j0f{g ug]{ z}nLdf z'sb]j, Jof; / o'jtLx¿nfO{ syfsf/n] o;/L k|:t't u/]sf 5g\– …== ==k[YjLdf ;fthgf t?gLx¿ Pp6f tnfpdf gfË} g'xfpFb} lyP . pgLx¿n] z'sb]jnfO{ gfË} l:yltdf gtd:ts eP/ 9f]u] t/ ha a"9f] j]bJof;nfO{ b]v], ;a}hgf n'uf nufP/ dfq ;fd' k/]/ 9f]u] .Ú pm, Tof], pgL, ltgL nufot s'g} JolQmjfrs gfdsf] k|of]u u/L kfq /flvg] k|ljlw g} t[tLok'?if b[li6ljGb'sf] k|ljlw xf] . syfsf/ kfqsf efjgfx¿nfO{ t[tLo k'?if b[li6ljGb'af6 JoQm ub}{ cfkm" k"0f{ t6:y 5g\ .

efj ÷p2]Zo

/rgfsf] ue{df n's]/ /x]sf] kf7snfO{ lbOg] ;Gb]z g} efj jf p2]Zo xf] . csf]{ egfOdf syfsf/n] syfdfkm{t\ eGg vf]h]sf s'/f / syfn] lbg vf]h]sf] ;Gb]z g} syfsf] p2]Zo jf efj xf] .85 …z'sb]jÚ syf n]vssf] :jefjjfbL dfGotf JoQm ug]{ ;zQm syfdWo]sf] Ps xf] . n]vssf] :jefjefbL dfGotfnfO{ c:jLsf/ ug]{x¿sf lj?4df kf}/fl0fs wd{u|Gysf] syf k|:t't ub}{ n]vs :jefjjfbL bz{gsf] jsfnt ug{ k'U5g\ . n]vsn] z'sb]jnfO{ :jefjsf] k|tLs / pgsf afa' j]bJof;nfO{ cf8Da/sf] ¿kdf k|:t't u/]sf] s'/f …d'lQmk|;Ësf c:jLs[t syfx¿Ú sf] e"ldsfdf k|:6 kf/]sf 5g\ .86 z'sb]j k"0f{tM k|fs[lts 5g\ pgdf ;f+;fl/stfsf] c;/ 5}g . o;sf] sf/0f s'g} klg ;+:sf/sf] c;/ gx'g' xf] . t/ j]bJof;n] gLlt, lgod, dof{bf, df]If, cg'zf;gsf TolQsf u|Gyx¿ l;h{gf ul/;Sbf klg cfTd1fg v'Ng g;Sg', 5f]/fsf] df]xdf df]If dfu{, cfˆgf] nIf g} e'Ng k'Ug', h:tf sdhf]/Lx¿ pgLåf/f l;lh{t ;+:sf/x¿s} sf/0f cfPsf x'g\ . cfkm}Fåf/f l;lh{t sltko ;+:sf/sf sf/0f hGd]sf bldt s'07fx¿n] hLjgnfO{ hLjgof]Uo /xg lbFb}gg\ . t;y{, dflg;n] c:jfefljs ;+:sf/ l;h{gf u/L cK7]/f]df afFRg'sf] ;f6f] k|fs[lts k4ltcg';f/ lgZrn, lgZ5n, :jR5Gb / :jtGq hLjg k4ltdf /xL hLjgofkg ug'{k5{ eGg] ;Gb]z …z'sb]jÚ syfn] lbPsf] 5 . k|:t't syfdfkm{t\ cfˆgf] ljrf/ ;Dk|]if0f ug{ n]vs k"0f{ ;kmn 5g\ .


k|nfkÚ syf;ª\u|xsf] cWoog

syfsf/ sljtf/fdsf] bf];|f] syfTds s[lt xf], …k|nfkÚ syf;ª\u|x . of] s[lt @)#* ;fndf ;femf k|sfzgaf6 k|sflzt 5 . syfsf/n] @)@! b]lv @)#& ;Dd n]vL ljleGg kqklqsfdf k|sflzt syfx¿ o; ;ª\u|xdf ;Ílnt 5g\ . o; s[lqdf t[i0ff, cfFvf k9g', b'O{{ d, sf]7f af]N5, gofF lhGbuL, dfOnL, >[Ëf/ sf]7fdf, ct[lKt, @)@^–!!–@&, cGt/1fg, b]j/sf] h'Fuf, efG;]gLnfO{ s'bf{, l;Fufg] dbf{, /fdb]pm sDKn]S;, la;{g} g;lsg], k|lti7fbf;, c:jTyfdf pjfr, lulglku, dfi6/;fx]a, 3G6L, s's'/sf] syf, cfuf] h:tf nfdf tyf 5f]6f u/L hDdf @@ j6f syfx¿ 5g\ . ;a}eGbf 5f]6f] syf …sf]7f af]N5Ú xf] eg] nfdf] syfdf …s's'/sf] syfÚ pNn]vgLo 5 . o; s[lqdf …sfnf] syfÚ / …d'lQmk|;Ësf c:jLs[t syfx¿Ú sf h:tf c:jLs[t syf geO s]xL dfqfdf :jLs[t x'g] vfnsf syfx¿ ;femf k|sfzgaf6 k|sfzgfy{ ;Ílnt ul/Psf] s'/f syfsf/ pNn]v u5{g\ .87 ljwfut cg'zf;geGbf km's]/ n]Vg ?rfpg] sljtf/fdn] of] s[lt syf csyf h] eP klg cfˆgf] …k|nfkÚ rflxFF ;fFRr} ePsf] / 5fKbf ljwf tf]Sg] qmddf syf eGg' k/]sf] egL s[ltsf] e"ldsf pNn]v u/]sf 5g\ .88

ljifout cfwf/df …k|nfkÚsf syfx¿

;fdflhs M la;{g} g;lsg], s's'/sf] syf, cfuf], b'O{{ d, sf]7f af]N5, >[Ëf/ sf]7fdf, @)@^–!!–@&, l;Fufg] dbf{, k|lti7fbf;, df:6/ ;fx]a .

kf}/fl0fs÷cfWoflTdsM cGt/1fg, 306L, c:jTyfdf pjfr .

j}1flgsM lulglku, c:jTyfdf pjfr .

of}g M t[i0ff, cfFvf k9\g', gofF lhGbuL k'/fgf] ;':s]/f, dfOnL, ct[lKt, b]j/sf] h'Fuf, efG;]gLnfO{ s'bf{, /fdb]pm sDKn]S; .

pko'{Qm syfx¿dWo] ;fdflhs syf dfkm{t\ ;dfhsf hNbfaNbf kIfx¿sf lrq0fsf ;fy} ljs[lt lj;Ëltsf lj?4df x"Íf/ u5{g\ . oxfF …la;{ g} g;lsg]Ú syfdf n]vsn] ;fdflhs ¿l9sf sf/0f cfˆgf] efOsf] csfn d[To' ePsf] 36gfnfO{ cToGt dfld{s 9Ën] syfTds ¿kdf JoQm u/]sf 5g\ eg] …cfuf]Ú syfdf ;dfhn] lgdf{0f u/]sf] e"t k|]t t;f{pg]sf lj?4df ;xh Joª\Uo u/]sf 5g\ . cfBflTds syf …3G6LÚ df n]vs dlGb/ k"hfcfhf cflbsf af/]df tLgj6f kfq pEofO{ gsf/fTds, ;sf/fTds / ;dGjofTds wf/0ffx¿ k|:6\ØfpF5g\ . of}gd"ns …ct[lKtÚ cflb syfx¿df n]vs k|mfo8sf] of}gdgf]lj1fg;Fu glhlsg k'u]sf 5g\ . o; ;ª\u|xsf] Ps dfq lj1fg syf lulglku xf] . ;fy} c:jTyfdf pjfr kf}/fl0fs syfnfO{ ;d]t pgn] lj1fgsyfdf 9fn]sf 5g\ .


k|j[lQut cfwf/df …k|nfkÚsf syfx¿

sljtf/fdsf …k|nfkÚ syf;ª\u|xsf syfx¿ g]kfnL syfsf] ljsf;qmddf …gjo'uÚ ;Fu ;DalGwt 5g\ . n]vssf d"ntM syfTds k|j[lQx¿ k|of]ujfbL / of}gd"ns b]lvG5g\ . pgL sltko syfx¿df zLif{s rogb]lv lnP/ zAb, jfSo cflbdf gofFkgsf] k|of]u ug{ ?rfpF5g\ . @)@^–!!–@& o:t} Pp6f zLif{ssf] gd"gf xf] . of}gsf dfgl;stx;Dd k'uL To;sf] HjnGt kIfx¿sf] hLjGt lrq0f ug]{ k|j[lQ ;d]t …k|nfkÚ sf syfx¿df kfOG5g\ . sYoj:t'sf] cfGtl/s ;"Idtfdf 8'j]/ efj JoQm ug]{ k|j[lQ syfsf/df /x]sf] 5 . z}nLut b[li6n] zf:qLo ljwfut wf/0ffeGbf Ps sbd cl3 a9\b} csyfTdstfdf /Db} cfTdk/s z}nLdf :jtGq ljr/0f u/L syf /rgf ug'{ sljtf/fdsf] k|j[lQ xf] .


…k|nfkÚ syf;ª\u|xcGtu{t k|ltlglw syf …cfuf]Ú sf] cWoog

…cfuf]Ú syf …k|nfkÚ syf ;ª\u|xsf] clGtddf ;ª\u|lxt syf xf] . @)@! V]lv @)#& ;Ddsf syfdWo]sf] @)#& ;fndf /lrt k|:t't syf syfsf/sf] snd vfl/O;s]kl5sf] cToGt kl/dflh{t syfsf] ¿kdf b]vf k/]sf] 5 .

syfj:t'

o; syfsf] syfj:t' e"t, k|]t, t;f{pg] cflbsf 8/n] ql;t dfgl;stf af]s]sf] …dÚ kfqsf] /fltsf] ;dodf d;fg3f6 x'Fb} hfg';Fu ;alGwt 5 . …dÚ kfq d;fg3f6lt/ al9/x]sf] x'G5 . cg]sfF}F 8/qf;n] p;sf] cfË 9Ss km'n]/ cfpF5 t/ klg oL ;a cGwljZjf; dfq x'g\ egL rf/}lt/ cfFvf 3'dfpFb} cufl8 al9/x]sf] x'G5 . …dÚ kfqsf] dgl:yltdf cg]sfF]}F ts{gfx¿ cfO/x]5g\ . 3/lt/ kmsf}{+ eg] klg kl5 kms{Fbf t;f{pg]n] 8/fPsf] yfxf kfO{ l6lk g} xfN5 eGg] a'9fkfsfx¿sf] egfO ;DemG5 / cfkm}F lg8/ eP em}F u/]/ cl3 al9 g} /xG5 . …dÚ kfq r'/f]6 gvfg] ePsfn] cfuf] klg gaf]s]sf] / kl08t gePsf] x'Fbf r08L klg gcfpg] x'gfn] k}tfnf d'lgsf] df6f]n] xfGbf e"t efU5 eg]sf] ;'g] cg'¿k ;f]xL df6f] xftdf lnP/ d'6'sf] 9's9'sLsf] Jou|tf;Fu} cem t]h ultdf cl3 a9\5 .

p;sf cfFvf rf/}lt/ ;zlÍt eO{ lg/LIf0f ub}{ cl3 al9/x]sf x'G5g\ . …dÚ kfqn] cFWof/f]d} s]xL k/ rndn ub}{ u/]sf]] sfnf]sfnf] cfs[lt b]V5 . pm a]xf]; x'g vf]Hb} cfkm"nfO{ lg8/ k|dfl0ft u/]/ Tot}lt/ afWotfjz ultzLn x'G5 . …dÚ kfq xftdf af]s]sf] df6f] r]tfjgL :j¿k To; cfs[ltlt/ b]vfpF5 t/ Tof] 6;sf]d; x'Fb}g . pm cfˆgf] kfOG6 vf]n]/ gUg of}gfË To; cfs[ltnfO{ b]vfpF5 . …e"tk|]t eufpg] ;a} pkfo c;kmn ePkl5 gfË} eP/ b]vfpg'k5{Ú eGg] a'9fkfsfx¿sf] egfOcg';f/ p;n] o;f] u/]sf] xf] . 8/qf;n] d[tkfoM eP tfklg ;fx; a6'Nb} pm cfˆgf sjrx¿ t;f{pg]lt/ t]:of{pFb} cfkm"n] t;f{pg]nfO{ efUg] df}sf lbO/x]sf] efg kfg{ vf]lh/xG5 t/ s]xL gnfu]kl5 cdf]3c:q :j¿ksf] Tof] df6f]n] xfGg vf]Hb5 . To;} a]nfdf To; cfs[ltn] dfgj :j/df …x6\x6\Ú eGb} ‰jf/{ ;nfO{ sf]b{5 . …dÚ kfqn] t;f{pg] 7fg]sf] Tof] 5fFof t Pp6f a"9f] dflg; kf] /x]5 . To;n] klg …dÚ kfqnfO{ e"t ;Dem]/ gUgtfsf] c:q t]:of{Psf] /x]5 / Toltn] klg gk'u]/ ;nfO{ klg sf]/]sf] /x]5 . a"9f] dflg; klg …dÚ kfqnfO{ …/flt x'Fbf] cfuf] lagf d;fglt/ stf lxF8\Øf}Ú eGb} xtf/xtf/ Ohf/ afWg yfN5 . …dÚ kfqn] cfkm}F d;fgkfl/ uP/ pt} ;'Tg'kg]{ ePsfn] /flt x'Fbf] lxF8]sf] t/ cfuf]sf] cefjdf ca hfg g;Sg] s'/f a"9fnfO{ eGb} ToxLFaf6 kms{G5 . o;/L jf:tjdf e"t;Fu geP/ dflg; g} dflg;;Fu 8/fPsf /x]5g\, e"t tyf t;f{pg]x¿ t xfdLn] g} l;h{gf u/]sf e|dx¿ Dffq /x]5g\ / cfuf] cyf{t\ k|sfz cyf{t\ 1fgsf] k|ToIfLs/0fn] ¿l9ut e|dx¿ x6fpg ;xfotf k'¥ofpF5 eGg] cfzo JoQm ub}{ xf:o / Joª\Uo;fy syf 6'lËG5 .

kfq

…k|nfkÚ df ;ª\u|lxt …cfuf]Ú syf kfqljwfgsf b[li6n] gf}nf] k|sf/sf] 5 . of] klg n]vssf] cfkm}Fdf Pp6f k|of]u xf] . oxfF ljleGg k|sf/sf ;tc;t\, l:y/–ultzLn, gfos vngfos, cflb k|j[lQsf kfq geO Pp6f …dÚ kfq dfq k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . syfsf] pk;+xf/lt/ Pp6f a"9f] dflg; e|dlgjf/0fsf lglDt k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . …dÚ kfqsf] dgdl:tisdf /x]/ xd]zf tf8gf lbg ;kmn t;f{pg] cyjf e"t kfqnfO{ klg u0fgf ubf{ rl/qnfO{ o;/L klg x]g{ ;lsG5 –

oyfy{ kfq

! …dÚ kfq

@ a"9f] dfG5]

#= sfNklgs -t/ cfjZos_ kfq e"t

pko'{Qm oyfy{ kfq ;du|df syfdf b]lvPsf 5g\ eg] sfNklgs kfq rflxFF ck|ToIf¿kdf /xL oyfy{ kfqnfO{ ;tfpg] ePsfn] oyfy{ kfqnfO{ ;t\ kfq / sfNklgs kfqnfO{ c;t\ kfqsf ¿kdf klg cYof{pg ;lsG5 . syfsf] d'Vo rlf/q …dÚ kfq xf] . …dÚ kfq e"tb]lv 8/fP/ kms{gfn] ;dfhsf JolQmx¿ klg cGwljZjf;sf] hfnf] lrg{ g;sL To;}df lklN;g afWo 5g\ eGg] cfzo JoQm x'G5 . To;}n] …dÚ kfq k|ltlglw kfq xf] . …dÚ kfqsf dgdf t;f{pg] s]jn Ps e|d xf] eGg] wf/0ff cfP klg j+zfg'ut qmddf …dÚ kfqsf] cr]tg dgdf /f]lkPsf] cGwljZjf;o'Qm qf;nfO{ lr/]/ cufl8 a9\g g;sL ;dlk{t eO{ kms{gfn] pm ultzLn rl/qsf] kfq geO l:y/ rl/qsf] kfqsf] ¿kdf lrlqt 5 eg] a'9f] dfG5]df cfuf]¿kL 1fg x'g' eg]sf] p;df hLjg r]tgf knfpg' xf] . of] p;sf] rl/qsf] ultzLn kIf klg xf] . of] ultzLntf d'Vo kfqd} cfOlbPsf] eP cem ;fGble{s x'g] lyof] . …dÚ kfqsf] hLjg r]tgfdf cGwljZjf; el/k"0f{ 5 . p;n] kl5 hfg]–a'em]sf] dfGotfn] :yfg kfpg ;Sb}g To;}n] …dÚ kfq k/Dk/fut hLjgr]tgf ePsf] kfq xf] . ;du|df Pp6f dfq vf; kfq eP/ klg k|:t't syf åGå, sf}t'xn / k"0f{ syfTdstfdf cfwfl/t eO{ ;nn aUg ;kmn 5 . n]vssf kfqx¿ cfbz{jfbL rl/q geO{ oxfF oyfy{jfbL z}nLdf k|:t't 5g\ .

lzNk

/rgfsf] ;+/rgfTds :y"n kIf g} z}nL jf lzNk xf] . …cfuf]Ú syf $ÚÚx%ÚÚ x &ÚÚ cfsf/sf] % k[i7df clÍt 5 . cfotgsf b[li6n] k|:t't syf Ps a;fOdf kl9;lsg] kl/efiffcg'¿k g} 5 . zLif{s cToGt} k|tLsfTds 5 . cfuf]nfO{ r]tgf jf ultzLntfsf] ¿kdf lnOPsf] 5 . efiffut b[lisf]0fn] x]bf{ oyfy{ aSg'kg]{ qmddf n]vs, h:tf zAb klg k|of]u ug{ lxlRsrfpFb}gg\ . zAbdf kl/is[ttfeGbf klg cleJolQm rflxFF ltVv/ xf];\ eGg] b[li6sf]0f pgsf syfsf efiffdf kfOG5 . pgsf /rgfdf ;flxTozf:qn] kl/eflift u/]sf] u|fDobf]if klg obfsbf kfOg] ub{5 . …;fnf r'/f]6 vfg ;lsPgÚ u|fDobf]ifsf] Pp6f gd"gf x'g ;S5 . g]kfnL em/f{ zAb k|of]u u/L 7fpFd} cfOnfu]/ eGg' pgsf] ljz]ift} xf] eg] tT;db]lv lnP/ cfuGt's;Dd ;a} k|sf/sf zAbsf] k|of]u pgsf /rgfdf kfOG5 . …k|nfkÚ syf;ª\u|xsf syfx¿ cGo syfx¿sf t'ngfdf lzi6 eP cg'¿k pgn] …cfuf]Ú syfdf klg eflifs lzi6tfnfO{ Rofk]sf 5g\ . e"tsf] 8/n] kfOG6 vf]n]/ e"ttkm{ of}gfË t]:of{pFb} lxF8]sf] k|;ËnfO{ n]vs lzi6 efiffdf o;/L eG5fg\ – …bf}8Fbfbf}8b} l56f]l56f] kfOG6sf 6fFsx¿ Vff]n]F To;kl5 Ps xftn] kfOG6 ;dfpFb} Tof] gUgtf To;nfO{ b]vfpFb} bf}8g'kg]{ eof] .Ú o;/L ljleGg lzNkz}nLut b[li6sf]0fn] sljtf/fdsf] …k|nfkÚ syf Ps ;r]t /rgfsf] ¿kdf k|:t't x'G5 . k|:t't syf j0f{gfTds z}nLdf n]lvPsf] 5 .

b[li6ljGb'

k|:t't …cfuf]Ú syf …dÚ kfqsf] Psf]xf]/f] …k|nfkÚ ePsf]n] k|yd k'?if b[li6ljGb'df /lrt syf xf] eGg ;lsG5 . syfleqsf] kfqxLgtfnfO{ x]bf{ stfstf cfTdk/s lgaGw h:tf] dx;'; x'g k'u] tfklg 36gfsf] ;"Id ljsf;qmd / sf}t'xn tyf dfgl;s åGåsf] l;h{gfn] /rgfnfO{ syf agfPsf 5g\ . syfsf/sf] k|yd k'?if z}nLsf] ;fgf] gd"gf o:tf] 5 – …d s:tf] km;fbdf k/]F Pp6f w/fkdf k/] h:t}, cufl8 a9f}F eg] t;f{pg]sf] ;fdgf ug'{kg]{ / kmsf}{F eg] t;f{pg]åf/f 5f]lkg] 8/ === .Ú n]vs st}st} t[tLo k'?if b[li6laGb'klg k|of]u ug{ k'U5g\ . sfNklgs kfq t;f{pg]k|lt syfsf/ o;/L af]N5g\– …Tof] -t;f{pg]_ cem} klg aLr af6}df l:y/ eP/ plePsf] lyof] ===Ú, OToflb . syfdf Ps dfq jfSodf a"9f] dfG5] / …dÚ kfqsf aLrsf] ;+jfbdf låtLo k'?if b[li6laGb'klg km]nf k5{ . ;du|df tLg}j6f b[li6ljGb'x¿ lj>[Îlnt¿kdf b]lvP tfklg k|:t't syf d"n¿kdf k|yd k'?if b[li6ljGb'df g} /lrt 5 .

efj÷p2]Zo

s'g} klg /rgfsf] /rgfut tTTjdWo]sf] ;a}eGbf dxTTjk"0f{ tTTjsf] ¿kdf efjkIf jf p2]ZokIf b]vf k5{ . /rgfsf] p2]ZokIfsf] cWoog ljZn]if0f o;} zLif{s cGtu{t ul/G5 . afO; cg'R5]bdf /lrt k|:t't syfnfO{ åGå / sf}t'xntfsf] ;fy cl3 a9fpFb} ;qf}F cg'R5]bkl5 dfq syfsf/n] syfnfO{ efj jf p2]Zotkm{ df]8]sf 5g\ . k|:t't syfsf efjkIfnfO{ a'Fbfut¿kdf o;/L k|:6 ug{ ;lsG5 .

!= k|:t't syfdf …dÚ kfqsf] dgl:yltdf t;f{pg]k|ltsf] s'/f v]Ng', 3l/ 8/fpg', 3l/ g8/fP h:tf] ug'{ of] syfsf] åGåsf] pTs[i6 k|:t'lt xf] . o;n] ;dfhdf cGwljZjf; / r]tgfsf] åGå /x]sf] / xf/hLtsf] l:ylt g/x]sf] eGg] cfzo JoQm x'G5 .

@= t;f{pg]sf] 8/n] afFRg c;Dej b]Vb} cfkm}FnfO{ d[tk|foM 7flg;s]sf b'j} kfqdfkm{t\ clGtd cZq:j¿k e2f gUgtf t;f{pg]nfO{ nlIft u/L b]vfpg nufP/ syfsf/n] k/Dk/fut ¿kdf afFr]sf] cjf:tljs e|d / cGwljZjf;k|lt Joª\Uo u/]sf 5g\ . o; kIfnfO{ k|:6 kfb}{ …dÚ kfq c7f/f}F cg'R5]bdf eG5– …Pp6f lrQ} a'‰of], Pp6f ;+of]udf xfdL Pp6fn] csf]{sf] cGwljZjf;nfO{ ;'?jfn vf]n]/ Joª\Uo b]vfpFb} lyof}F=== .Ú oxfF …dÚ kfqsf efjaf6 k/Dk/fut ¿l9 wf/0ffk|lt c:jLsf/ hgfOg'n] k|:t't syfn] klg n]vssf] c:jLs[t bz{g af]s]sf] 5 eGg' ;fGble{s x'G5 .

#= e"t, t;f{pg] h:tf tTTjx¿ k|ToIfdf j:t'k/s cWoog / ljZn]if0fdf gb]lvPsf sfNklgs tTTj x'g\ . logLx¿nfO{ klg dfgj ;dfhn] g} cl:tTj lbPsf] xf] t/ clxn] dfgj ;dfh To;}sf cufl8 lg/Lx eP/ afFr]sf] 5 eGg] cfzosf egfOx¿ …dÚ kfqn] o; syfsf] pGgfO{;f}F cg'R5]bdf kf]V5 . …dÚ kfqsf oL egfOx¿n] xfdLn] To:tf ;+:sf/ jf dfGotfdfq l;h{gf u/L cl:tTjjfg\ u/fpg'k5{ h'g jt{dfg lkF9L nufot eljiosf lkF9Lx¿nfO{ ;d]t nfesf/L / l;h{gzLn x'g ;s"g\ eGg] cfzo emlNsG5 . o;} ;ª\u|xdf ;Ílnt csf]{ syf …xl/e'Ë] /fhf / etfe'Ë] sfhLÚ sf] cfzo ;d]t o:t} b]lvG5 . 3/ agfpFbf leq k:b} 6fpsf] 7f]lsg], 9f]sf agfpFbf 7f]lsP/ 6fpsf] km'6L Iflt k'u] em}F cgfjZos / cg'lrt ;+:sf/, dfGotf cflbsf] lgdf{0fn] klg To; ;dfhnfO{ Iflt k'¥ofpg] sfd u5{ . oyfy{ j:t'hut\\df k'Ugaf6 jl~rt agfpF5 . To;}n] xfdLn] plrt ;+:sf/nfO{ dfq ;hLjtf lbg'k5{ eGg] cfzo;d]t n]vssf] /x]sf] 5 .

$= syfsf] aL;, PSsfO; / afO; cg'R5]bn] ;zQm p2]Zo kIfsf] ;+Gb]z lbG5g\ . …dÚ kfq eG5– …cfkm"leqsf] e"t eufpg tyfslyt ef}ltsjfbn] dfq ;lsGg, === j:t'l:yltsf] 1fg lng Pp6f k|sfz rflxG5 k|sfz cyf{t\\ cfuf] .Ú k/Dk/fut¿kdf JofKt /x]sf] ¿l9 cgfjZos dfGotfx¿nfO{ c:jLsf/ ug]{ syfsf/ sljtf/fdsf] p2]Zo kIf oxfF :ki6tM clee"t ePsf] b]lvG5 . cFWof/f] /flqsf] ¿kdf JofKt ;dfhdf t;f{pg] ¿kL c1fg, cGwljZjf;, s'/Llt, cflbsf lj?4df pkl:yt x'g ;j{k|yd ;dfhsf ¿l9 JolQm;Fu cfuf]¿kL r]tgf jf 1fg cyf{t\\ k|sfz rflxG5 . r]tgfsf] z:qn] dfq ljleGg c1fgtfx¿nfO{ ;d"n gi6 ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] :ki6 ;Gb]z k|:t't syfn] lbPsf] 5 . n]vs syfj:t', kfq, z}nLeGbf klg efjkIfd} a9L ;r]t b]lvG5g\ . ;fdflhs cGwljZjf;sf lj?4df k|:t't …cfuf]Ú syf cToGt ;fGble{s / ;dfhf]kof]uL 5 eGg' plrt 7x5{ .


…d'lQmk|;Ësf c:jLs[t syfx¿Ú syf;ª\u|xsf] cWoog

syfsf/ sljtf/fdsf] …d'lQmk|;Ësf c:jLs[t syfx¿Ú lj=;+= @)$& df ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzg sf7df8f}Faf6 k|sflzt xfn;Ddsf] clGtd tyf t];|f] syf;ª\u|x xf] . o; ;ª\u|xdf b]j/sf] h'Fuf, bf]sfg, s}bLsf] 5f]/f, d'lQmk|;Ë, z'sb]j, xl/e'Ë] /fhf / etfe'Ë] sfhL, /fj0ffo0f, ;'e]R5f, p;sf] of] c;xof]u cfGbf]ng, a'6kfln;sf] sf]nfh syf, dfi6/;fx]a, ;g\ @#&% sf] lulglku, ltn:d ofqf, r:df, ;do ;fk]Iftf / cfhsf] dfG5]sf] syf, cfhsf] dfG5]sf] ljeflht syf, lkof/L d ;'t]F, kfqxLg ljeT; l/Qf] sfnf]syf / eljiosf] nflu t/n lj/f;t u/L hDdf @$ j6f syfx¿ ;ª\u|lxt 5g\ . k[i7ut cfwf/df o; ;ª\u|xsf] ;a}eGbf nfdf] syf …a'6kfln;sf] sf]nfh syfÚ xf] eg] ;a}eGbf 5f]6f] syfdf …kfqxLg ljeT; l/Qf] …sfnf] syfÚ kb{5 . @$ j6f syfx¿dWo] !! j6f syfx¿ …sfnf] syfÚ @)#^ df / $ j6f syfx¿ …k|nfkÚ @)#* df k|sflzt eO;s]sf /rgfx¿ k'gM o; ;ª\u|xdf ;Ílnt 5g\ . k|:t't ;ª\u|xsf syfx¿ @)$^ ;fnsf] hgcfGbf]ng / k|hftGqsf] k'ga{xfnLkl5 cfPsf] d'lQmk|;Ë;Fu ;fGble{s ePsf / …sfnf] syfÚ sf !! j6f syf / …k|nfkÚ sf $ j6f syfx¿ ;d]t ljleGg cy{df d'lQm;Fu ;fdLKo /fVg] ePsfn] o;df k'gM ;ª\u|lxt ul/Psf s'/f syfsf/ JoQm u5{g\ .89 @)$^ n] /fhgLlts lj;Ëltaf6 /fi6«af;LnfO{ d'lQmtkm{ dfu{k|z:t u/]s} k|;Ëdf g} cfˆgf d'lQmsf t8kgx¿n] o'Qm syfx¿ klg ;fGble{s x'g] ePsfn] …d'lQmk|;Ësf c:jLs[t syfx¿Ú gfdfs/0f u/L kf7s;dIf k|:t't ul/Psf] eGg] n]vssf] wf/0ff 5 .90 o; ;ª\u|xdf @)@^ b]lv @)$^ ;Dd n]lvPsf syfx¿ 5g\ . syfx¿ n]vg ;dosf] cfwf/df ldlta4 u/L /flvPsf 5g\ . oL qmldstfn] n]vssf] ljrf/sf] ljsf;qmdnfO{ ;d]t k|ltlglwTj u5{g\ .


ljifoj:t'ut cfwf/df …d'lQmk|;Ësf c:jLs[t syfx¿Ú sf] juL{s/0f

sljtf/fdsf] xfn;Ddsf] ;a}eGbf kl5Nnf] syf;ª\u|x …d'lQmk|;Ësf c:jLs[t syfx¿Ú sf syfx¿nfO{ ljifout¿kdf o;/L k|:t't ug{ ;lsG5 M

;fdflhs M bf]sfg, s}bLsf] 5f]/f, d'lQmk|;Ë, k|lti7fbf;, ;'e]R5f, dfi6/;fx]j, ltn:d ofqf, r:df, ;do ;fk]Iftf / cfhsf] dfG5]sf] syf, cfhsf dfG5]sf ljeflht syf, lkof/L d ;'t]F, eljiosf] nflu t/n lj/f;t, kfqxLg ljeT; l/Qf] …sfnf] syfÚ


kf}/fl0fs÷cfWoflTds M z'sb]j, /fj0ffo0f, cfsfzjf0fL

j}1flgs M oflGqs oGq0ff, ;g\ @#&%sf] lulglku

/fhgLlts M xl/e'Ë] /fhf / etfe'Ë] sfhL, p;sf] of] c;xof]u cfGbf]ng, a"6kfln;sf sf]nfh syf

of}g M b]j/sf] h'Fuf, aofg, hLjgbfg

k|j[lQut cfwf/df …d'lQmk|;Ësf c:jLs[t syfx¿Ú

s;}nfO{ v'zL kfg{ s]xL gn]vL cfˆgf] cleJolQmk|lt OdfGbfl/tf b;f{pg sljtf n]V5'91 eGg] sljtf/fdsf] …d'lQmk|;Ësf c:jLs[t syfx¿Ú tLg}j6f syf;ª\u|xdWo]sf] lgrf]8 syf;ª\u|xsf] ¿kdf b]vf k5{ . cfTdk/s z}nLdf clegofTdseGbf k|jrgfTds z}nLdf cl3 a9\g] pgsf of}gd"ns …b]j/sf] h'FufÚ, …aofgÚ cflb syfx¿n] ;xh¿kdf ef]Ug kfpg'kg]{ of}gnfO{ cg]sfF}F jfwfaGwgsf] kvf{nn] ubf{ JofKt cg]sfF}F ljs[ltsf ¿kdf b]lvg] of}g k|j[lQnfO{ 5n{ËØfOPsf] 5 eg] …oflGqs oGq0ffÚ cflbh:tf j}1flgs syfx¿df eljiodf lj1fgn] ug]{ ljsf;af6 w]/} jif{ kl5sf] dfgj hLjgnfO{ cfˆg} hLjgk|lt x'g] oGq0ffaf]wsf] /x:o pb\3f6g u/]sf 5g\ . afn;flxTob]lv lnP/ k|f}9;flxTo;Dd lj1fg k|of]u u/L lj1fgtkm{ kf7snfO{ clek|]l/t u/fpg' ;d]t pgsf] syfut j}lzi6\Ø xf] . ;dsfnLg k|hftflGqs Joj:yfsf /fhgLlts ljs[lt g]t[TjkIfsf u2f/L tyf w'Tof{OF / /fhgLlts v]n …p;sf] of] c;xof]u cfGbf]ngÚ, …xl/e'Ë] /fhf / etfe'Ë] sfhLÚ cflb syfdf JoQm ul/Psf] 5 . n]vs …r:dfÚ …cfsfzjf0fLÚ h:tf ;fdflhs tyf /fhgLlts ljifosf zLif{s rog u/L ;dfh, k/Dk/f cflbsf Psf]xf]/f] ljs[ltsf k|lt Joª\Uo ug'{ ;d]t cfˆgf] k|j[lQ 7fG5g\ . ;du|tfdf gjLg d"No / dfGotfsf] :yfkgf ub}{ ;xh / :jR5Gb ;dfhsf] lgdf{0fsf] k|lqmofdf syfsf/sf] snd 3'd]sf] kfOG5 .


d'lQmk|;Ësf c:jLs[t syfx¿Ú cGtu{t k|ltlglw syf

p;sf] of] c;xof]u cfGbf]ngÚ sf] cWoog

syfj:t'

k|:t't syf @)#^ ;fnsf] hgcfGbf]ng / Tof];Fu ufFl;Psf ljleGg kf6L{sf g]tf, cfd hgtf / sfo{stf{sf] ;]/f]km]/f]df cfwfl/t 5 . g]tfx¿sf] sfo{stf{ jf hgtfk|ltsf] lgs[i6 Jojxf/ / cfdhgtf Pj+ sfo{stf{n] To:tf g]tfnfO{ l;sfpg'kg]{ kf7 :j¿k k'¥ofPsf] c;xof]u / Joj:yfnfO{ g} …p;sf] of] c;xof]u cfGbf]ngÚ zLif{sn] ;d]6]sf] 5 . syfsf/n] pm÷p;n] egL ;Daf]lwt …pmÚ kfq lglZrt /fhgLlts kf6L{sf] OdfGbf/, h'emf? / qmflGtsf/L sfo{stf{ xf] . p;n] g]tfsf] Ps O;f/fdf cfˆgf] / /fi6«sf] :jtGqtf / ljsf;sf] nflu k6sk6s cfGbf]ngsf] g]t[Tj ub}{ cfPsf] 5 t/ kf6L{sf efn]x¿sf] cgfjZos h'wfO tyf cGofGo ljs[ltx¿sf] sf/0fn] p;n] xf]:6]df x}F;] u/]sf x/]s cfGbf]ngx¿ t'lxP/ hfG5g\ . x/]s g]tf egfpFbf zf;sx¿n] xd]zf hgtfsf] efudf bf; dgf]j[lQ dfq k:sG5g\ . oL ;a k|j[lQ / ljs[ltx¿ b]v]/ …pmÚ kfq cab]lv c;xof]usf] cfGbf]ng ug]{ ljrf/ u/L s'g} klg gf/f h'n'; / xNnfdf efu lng hfFb}g . tyfslyt qmflGtdf cfuf] nfpg tD;Fb}g . s;}sf] nflu kl;gf aufpFb} sfFw yfKg klg hfFb}g . :jtGqtf gf/f h'n'; u/]/ Nofpg] j:t' geO of] cfkm}F;Fu x'G5, s]jn cg'ej dfq ug{ ;Sg'k5{ / cfˆgf] :jtGqtf cfkm}F klxNofpg'k5{ eGg] b[9 ljrf/sf ;fy ;Qfef]uL zf;s / zf]ifs lj?4 p;n] c;xof]u cfGbf]ng hf/L g} /flv/xG5 . o;} c;xof]usf] cljlR5Gg qmddf k|:t't syfsf] syfj:t' 6'lËG5 .

kfq

syfsf k/Dk/fut ljwf, z}nL, kfq cflbsf ;Ldf If]qaf6 d'Qm eP/ syf n]vg ug]{ sljtf/fdsf] k|:t't …p;sf] of] c;xof]u cfGbf]ngÚ syf klg kfqljwfgsf b[li6n] gjLg b]vf k5{ . syfsf] Kn6 lgdf{0f u/L ;6Ls kfqsf] rogdfkm{t\ clegofTds k|:t'lt geO{ syfsf/ …pmÚ kfqsf] rl/qsf] ;;{tL{ j0f{g ug{ k'U5g\ . k|:t't syfsf s'g} klg kfqx¿ cfkm}F sfo{ Jofkf/df ;+nUg ePsf 5}gg\ . syfsf/n] t[tLok'?if z}nLdf j0f{g u/]s} cfwf/df kfqx¿ 5fg]/ cWoog ug'{k5{ . j0f{gnfO{ g} cfwf/ dfgL syfdf ;"Id ¿kn] kfqsf] cWoog ubf{ lgDgcg';f/ kfqsf] :yfkgf ug{ ;lsG5—

s= …pmÚ kfq

v= /fhLlts kf6L{sf g]tf sfo{stf{ tyf ;dy{sx¿

pmÚ kfq syfsf/sf] d'vkfq xf] . syfsf/ cfkm}F klg s'g} ;do qmflGtsf/L z}nLsf kf6L{x¿df ;lqmo ;xeflutf /xg'n] …pmÚ kfq syfsf/sf] efjgf JoQm ug]{ k|ltlglw kfq xf] eGg ;lsG5 . syfsf/n] a9L h;f] syfx¿ oyfy{ 36gfdf cfwfl/t eP/ n]Vg] u/]sf] k'i6\ØfOFn] o; ts{nfO{ cem cfwf/ ldN5 .92 …pmÚ kfq k'?if kfq xf] . pm lhGbuLel/ hgtfsf] d'lQmsf nflu :jtGqtfsf] n8fOF n8]/ lxF85 . 5n5fd ub}{g . To;}n] pm Pp6f ;t\ kfqsf] ¿kdf b]vf k5{ eg] csf]{tkm{ cj;/jfbL g]tfju{sf sfo{stf{x¿ xd]zf …pmÚ kfq h:tf tNnf] txsf sfo{stf{ / hgtfnfO{ j]as"km agfO{ :jfy{l;4 ug]{ kfqx¿ c;t\ kfqsf] ¿kdf lrlqG5g\ . JolQmut :jfy{nfO{ ltnf~hln lbP/ ;fd"lxs :jfy{sf nflu cfˆgf] ;j{:j ;'Dkg tof/ …pmÚ kfq cg's"n kfq klg xf] eg] cfdhgtf tyf sfo{stf{nfO{ k|of]u u/L cfˆgf] :jfy{dfq k"/f ug{ WofpGg g]tT[Tj txsfx¿nfO{ k|lts"n rl/qsf ¿ksf lrlqt ul/Psf] 5 . hf] ;/sf/ cfP klg cfkm}Fn] hgtf dfq x'g'kg]{ lgolt a'em]kl5, ;w}F g]tfx¿sf nflu uwfxf, uf]? / s's'/sf] h:tf] lhGbuL latfpg'kg]{ lgolt g} …pmÚ kfqsf] efudf kg]{ a'em]kl5, …pmÚ kfqsf] hLjg r]tgfdf kl/jt{g cfpF5 / pm cab]lv s'g} klg /fhgLlts efn]x¿sf] em'wfOdf ;fd]n gx'g] lg0f{o u5{ . o;/L …pmÚ kfq ultzLn lg0f{o lnP/ ultzLn rl/qsf] ¿kdf b]vf k5{ eg] hgtfsf] ;]jf ug]{ afrf ub}{ lxF8g] g]tfx¿nfO{ vnrl/qsf] ¿kdf k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 / ltgLx¿ cfˆg} :jefjn] kLl8t l:y/ :jefjsf kfqx¿ x'g\ . …pmÚ kfq eL8af6 6f9f d'lQm tyf :jtGqtfsf] af]w ub{5 . :jtGqtf JolQmut ljifo xf] cfkm}Fdf cg'ej ug{ ;Sg' k5{ eGg] wf/0ff /fVb5 . To;sf/0f pm ;fdflhs hLjg r]tgfaf6 6f9f 5 . tyfslyt g]t[Tjju{af6 ;Dk"0f{ hgtfnfO{ d'Qm ug]{ if8oGqsf] kbf{kmf; ug'{sf] ;f6f] pm PSn}n] dfq c;xof]u ug]{ p2]Zo lnO, ;t\qmflGtsfl/tf 5f]8L knfogtflt/ pGd'v x'G5 . …pmÚ kfq ;fd"lxs¿kdf c;xof]u ug{sf nflu ;a}nfO{ k]|l/t ub}{g . o:tf] k|j[lQn] ubf{ …pmÚ kfqåf/f ;fd"lxs sNof0fsf] k|ltlglwTj gugf{n] /fhgLlts lj;Ëlt oyfl:yltdf /xg] / tyfslyt ;Qfef]uLx¿s} rnv]n /lx/xg] kl/l:ylt pko'{Qm kfqx¿sf] cGt/k|j[lQn] emNsfpF5 . olt x'Fbfx'Fb} klg :jfGt;'vfos} nflu eP klg ljs[lQsf lj?4df c;of]u ug]{ k|ltzf]wfTds ;f]rfO p;df hLjGt 5 . ;du|df pko'{Qm kfqx¿sf] lrq0fåf/f syfsf/ /fhgLlts g]tfx¿sf] rl/q, lgDg sfo{stf{ / cfdhgtfx¿sf] afWotf tyf ljjztfsf] kmf]6f] lvRg k"0f{ ;kmn 5g\ .

lzNk

k"0f{ ¿kn] /fhgLlts ljifodf cfwfl/t eP/ n]lvPsf] k|:t't syf @@ j6f cg'R5]bdf l;lh{t 5 . 5f]6f cg'R5]b 8]9 x/kmsf 5g\ eg] nfdf cg'R5]bdf kfFr x/km;Dd 5g\ . syfut of]hgfsf] cefjd} r]tgk|jfx z}nLdf syf ;// 6]a'nukm h:t} cl3 a9]sf] 5 . em/f]{ efiff, z}nL / df}lns jfSof+z k|of]u ub}{ 7fpFdf gr'sfO cleJolQm lbg] rdTsfl/s efiff z}nLsf] k|of]u 5 . r'Tyf] l:ylt, efn] h'wfO h:tf jfSof+zx¿ o:t} em/f]{kgsf gd"gf x'g\ . hgtfsf] nflu k/d st{Josf] gfddf o:t} bf;dgf]j[lQx¿ eft vfg] yfndf k:s]sf 5g\ ===== h:tf k|tLsfTds tyf cfnÍfl/s efiffz}nLsf] ;d]t k|of{Kt k|of]u kfOG5 . k/Dk/fut zf:qLo syfut z}nLsf] cfwf/df syfsf lzNkkIfnfO{ x]bf{ gf}nf] tyf k|of]ufTds syfsf ¿kdf of] syf b]vf k5{ . ljwfx¿nfO{ ;d]t gjLg b[li6n] x]/L gofF dfGotf l;h{gf ug{ ;lsg] n]vssf] wf/0ff cg';f/ pgL k|foM lzNkz}nLut lj>[Întfd} l;h{gf ug]{ u5{g\ .

b[li6ljGb'

sljtf/fdsf] …p;sf] of] c;of]u cfGbf]ngÚ syf t[tLo k'?if b[li6laGb'z}nLdf /lrt 5 . syfsf/ cfkm}F …pmÚ kfqsf] j0f{g o;/L u5{g\– …pm sxLF s;}sf] h'n';df efu lnFb}g . sxLF s;}sf] tyfslyt qmflGtdf cfuf] nfpg tD;Fb}g . sxLF s;}nfO{ prfNg sfFw yfKb}g . sxLF s;}sf] nflu /ut / kl;gf aufpFb}g .Ú o;/L …pmÚ kfq / cGo kfqx¿sf] rl/q t[tLo k'?if b[li6laGb'z}nLdf j0f{g ub}{ n]vs k"0f{ ¿kn] t6:y /x]sf 5g\ .

efj÷p2]Zo

k|:t't syfsf] k|f/Ded} )#^ ;fn hgpef/sf] ;Gbe{ pNn]v ul/gfn] o; syfn] @)#^ / To;sf jl/kl/sf /fhgLlts kl/j[lQx¿sf kIfdf k|:6 kfg]{ p2]Zo lnPsf] 5 . syfsf/n] @)#^ sf] /fhgLlts ljs[lQdf Joª\Uo u/]/ n]v]sf] pQm syf cfhsf] /fli6«o /fhgLltdf klg plQs} ;fGble{s /x]sf] x'Fbf k|:t't syf zfZjt syfsf] ¿kdf b]vf k5{ .

b]zsf zf;s ju{ x'g\ jf g]tfx¿, logLx¿ ;w}F hgtfsf] efudf kmf];|f efif0f / cfZjf;g dfq k:sG5g\, …d'vdf /fd/fd aunLdf 5'/fÚ z}nLsf] rl/q k|:t't u5{g\ . o:tf /fhgLlts g]tfx¿ Jff zf;sju{sf] xf}jfdf s'b]/ pgLx¿nfO{ ;fy lbg' eg]sf] b]z hgtf / cfkm"nfO{ ;d]t wf]sfdf /fVg' xf], To;}n] To:tfsf] k5fl8 nflu cfˆgf] ;do aaf{b ug'{ plrt 5}g eGg] ;Gb]z …pmÚ kfqsf] rfl/lqs j0f{gdfkm{t\ n]vsn] kf7s ;fd' /fv]sf 5g\ . b]zsf g]tfx¿sf] å}w rl/q, ;}4flGts ljrngtf cj;/jflbtf / To;af6 cfdhgtf tyf sfo{stf{nfO{ kg]{ c;/nfO{ k|:6\ofpg n]vs …pmÚ kfqsf] lgDg ljj/0f k|:t't u5{g\– …Ps dflnssf] ;fd' pgsf cf1fn] s'g} d"NonfO{ p7fpg' 5 / csf]{ dflnssf] ;fd' pgsf cf1fn] To;}nfO{ eTsfpg' 5 === .Ú o;/L d"NoxLgtf / cj;/jflbtfnfO{ dfq d"ndGq 7fGb} cfkm"nfO{ /fhgLlt1 dfGg]x¿sf] k5fl8 /fi6«eQm OdfGbf/ sfo{stf{n] sbflk nfUg' x'Gg eGg] efj k|:t't syfn] lbG5 .

pmÚ kfqsf] l:yltnfO{ lg/Lx, r'Tyf], l:ylt afFRg'sf] ljjztf, cfˆgf] /ut / kl;gfn] hgtf x'g] 6\ofS; a'emfpg] ljjz JolQm, /ut / kl;gfn] laxfga]n'sfsf] 5fs h'6fpg] JolQm, kf]yL lhGbuL, cflb ljz]if0fåf/f lrlqt ul/Psf] 5 . hgtfsf] cyf{t\\ …pmÚ kfqsf] of] l:ylt l;h{gf ug'{df gofF dflns, ;/sf/, ;Qfef]uL zf;s, zf]ifs / …pmÚ kfq;Fu} qmflGtdf efu lng cfpg] nf]eL :jfyL{x¿nfO{ lhDd]bf/ 7flgPsf] 5 . pko'{Qm 36gf, kfq, 3ftk|lt3ft cflbsf] ljZn]if0fdf @)$^ ;fn, @)%^ ;fn x'Fb} cfhsf] kl/l:yltdf ;d]t o:tf k|j[lQx¿ ljBdfg g} /x]sf / …sfd ug]{ sfn' ds} vfg] efn'Ú sf] kl/l:ylt cBf]k/fGt l;lh{t g} x'gfn] syfsf/ cToGt b"/b|i6fsf ¿kdf b]lvG5g\ . h'g hf]uL cfP klg sfg} lr/]sf elgP em}F hltkN6 cfGbf]ng u/]/, efif0f u/]/, sljtf n]v]/ …pmÚ kfq h:tf g]kfnL hgtfn] g]tfx¿nfO{ zlQm ;DkGg u/fP klg sNof0f gx'g] / cfh klg gePsf] ;fGble{stf syfsf] efjkIfdf k|:t't 5 . cGtdf …pmÚ kfqn] o:tf k|j[lQsf g]t[Tjstf{x¿nfO{ c;xof]u ug]{ lg0f{o ub}{ cfd;ef, efif0f, h'n;, qmflGt s]xLdf efu glnO jlxisf/ ugf{n] cfd /fi6« z'e]R5's sfo{stf{ tyf hgtfx¿n] klg pko'{Qm k|j[lQ ePsfx¿ lj?4df c;xof]u cfGbf]ng rnfP/ k/f:t u/L cf–cfˆgf] d'lQm tyf :jtGqtfsf] af6f] cfkm"cfkm"d} ldn]/ vf]Hg'kg]{ efj …p;sf] of] c;xof]u cfGbf]ngÚ syfn] lbPsf] 5 . o; syfdf kf/Dkl/s /fhgLlts ljtG8fk|lt n]vssf] k"0f{ c:jLs[lt b]lvG5 .


a'l4aËf/fsf] kmf]gÚ efu !–# afnsyf;ª\u|xsf] cWoog


kl/ro

a'l4aËf/fsf] kmf]g syf ;ª\u|x efu !, @ / # u/L ;[hgzLn k|sfzgaf6 hDdf # efudf k|sflzt 5 . :jf:Yo lj1fg ;DaGwL syfx¿sf] ;Fufnf]sf tLg}j6f k':tsx¿ @)%* ;fndf k|sflzt b]lvG5g\ . s]=s]= sdf{rfo{sf] cfj/0f, ;+uL >]i7sf] lrqsnfn] ;lHht oL k':tsx¿df lgDg cg';f/ zLif{s /x]sf 5g\ .

v08 !

s= e"tn] g} v'6\6f 6f]s]sf] xf] t <

v= cf}zL k"0f]{ / af]S;LnfUg] s'/f ;fFrf] xf] t <

u= klxnf] dlxgfjf/L x'Fbf la56\6} nfh nfUof]

3= cfkm" t ?3fvf]sLn] l;ls:t 5'


v08 @

s= lbbLalxgL b'a}nfO{ bfFt b'V5

v= Hj/f]n] ynf kl/of] x}

u= s'gs'g /f]u ;?jf /f]u xf], hfGg}k5{

3= r'/f]6sf] s'ntn] ug}{ u¥of]

ª= /S;Lsf] nt nfu]sfnfO{ kl/jf/sf] ;xof]u rflxG5


v08 #

s= ;kgLdf kfgLsf] e"t b]lvof]

v= h'sfn] hl08;} eP5 .

u= alxgL cfuf]df kl/g\

3= emf8fkvfnfn] efOsf] Hofg em08} uPsf]

ª= lzz'nfO{ ;Sbf] w]/} y/Lsf] vfgf v'jfpg'kg]{ /x]5

zf]wsfo{sf] ;dodf Ps efudfq k|sflzt ePsfn] oxfF klg efu ! nfO{ g} rrf{sf] cfwf/ agfOsf] 5 . n]vss} egfOdf syfh:t} u/L n]lvPsf /rgfx¿ ;+jfbsf] ¿kdf k|:t't ul/Psf 5g\ . cyf{t\ ;+/rgfTds ¿kdf syfs} ¿kdf k|:t't 5g\ .93

syfj:t'

a'l4aËf/f] elgg] af}l4stfsf] ;+jfxs kfq leGgleGg ljBfnodf k9\g] afn;d"xaLr k|l;4 5 . haha To; ;d"xsf s'g} klg ;b:o jf ltgsf kl/jf/sf ;b:ox¿dWo] s;}nfO{ klg c:j:ytfn] cfqmd0f u5{ tata a'l4aËf/fn] kmf]g u/]/ ;d'lrt :jf:Yo ;'emfj lbg] ub{5 . o; j[mltsf] ;du| syfj:t' :jf:YokIfsf] ;]/f]k]m/f]df 5 . klxnf] syfdf bfFt b'vfO ;DaGwL ;d:of / tt\;DaGwL ;dfwfgsf] 1fg lbg] p2]Zo /flvPsf] 5 . bf];|f] syfdf Hj/f], To;sf sf/0f / c;/sf ;DaGwdf k|:6\ØfOPsf] 5 . t];|f] syfdf ?3fvf]sLsf] af/]df rrf{ ul/Psf] 5 eg] rf}yf] syfdf cfufsf] kf]nfO / To;sf] pkrf/sf ;DaGwdf rrf{ ul/Psf] 5 . kfFrf}F syfn] emf8f nfUbf k|z:t kfgL v'jfpg'kg]{ s'/fnfO{ phfu/ u/]sf] 5 eg] 5}7f}F syfdf h'sfn] hlG8; ;d]t x'g;Sg]tk{m ;r]t u/fOPsf] 5 . o; j[mltsf 5j6} syfx¿ Pp6} z}nLdf 5g\ . s'g} Ps afnkfq la/fdL k5{ / pm tGb|fdf ePsf] a]nf a'l4aËf/fn] kmf]g u5{ / pkb]zfTds z}nLdf k|foM lg/;tfsf ;fy ;+jfbfTds z}nLdf tt\;DaGwL :jf:Yo ;"rgf lbG5 . o;n] afnaflnsfsf] syf k9\g] sf}t'xntfdf sdL cfpg ;S5 tfklg :jf:Yo;DaGwL k|of]usf] b[li6n] gjLg / afnhLjgf]kof]uL ljifoj:t'nfO{ sljtf/fdn] ptfg]{ k|of; u/]sf 5g\ . ljifoj:t'sf] b[li6n] eGg'kbf{ pgsf] of] sfo{ pT;fxk|b / afn;dfh ;fk]If 5 . pko'{Qm lzif{sx¿ kl5Nnf] ;dodf n]vsåf/f v08fGt/;d]t u/]sf] kfOPsf] 5 .

kfq

syfj:t'sf] ;+jxg kfqn] ub{5 / logLx¿n] g} syfj:t' jf ljifoj:t'nfO{ hLjGttf lbG5g\ . …a'l4aËf/fsf] kmf]gÚ df klg afndgf]lj1fg cg'¿k g} kfq rog ul/Psf] kfOG5 . lszf]/lszf]/L ju{sf cyjf -df]6fdf]6L_ !!–!% jif{sf afnaflnsfx¿sf] Wofgdf /fvL ;f]xL cg'¿k / ;f]xL:t/sf kfqx¿ k|of]u ul/Psf 5g\ . dgj]t/ kfqdf afnaflnsfx¿sf] Wofgfsif{0f a9L x'g] x'Fbf pgn] …a'l4aËf/f]Ú kfqsf] klg k|of]u u/]sf 5g\ . a'l4 knfPkl5 cfpg] aËf/f] ePsf] x'Fbf p;nfO{ a'l4dfg\ kfqsf] ¿kdf lnOPsf] 5 . o; j[mltdf hDdfhDdL 5j6f ;+jfbfTds syfx¿ /x]sf 5g\ . ltgdf ePsf hDdfhDdL kfqx¿ ljgLtf, hgfb{g, dLgf, cldt, /ldnf, efO, cfdf, dgf]h / a'l4aËf/f] d'Vo kfqx¿ x'g\ . oLdWo] a[l4aËf/f] rflxF k|To]s syfdf b]vf k/]sf] 5 . syfx¿df cToGt} yf]/} kfq 5g\ . Pp6f syfdf b'O{j6} kfqn] klg syfj:t' cufl8 a9fOPsf] 5 . pbfx/0f :j¿k– Pp6f kfq la/fdL k/]/ 3/ jf c:ktfndf tGb|f cj:yfdf x'G5 / ;kgfdf …a'l4aËf/fsf] kmf]gÚ cfpF5 . p;n] ;+jfbfTds z}nLdf la/fdLkfqnfO{ /f]u ;d:of / ;dfwfgsf af/]df hfgsf/L lbG5 . a'l4Ëf/f] kfq dgf]/~hgsf nflu /flvPsf] kfq xf] . afns ;d:ofaf6 ql;t eO{ s]xL ;f]Rg afWo ePsf] a]nf p;sf] a'l4n] p;nfO{ plrt lg0f{o ug{ clek|]l/t u5{ . o;} clek|]/0ffnfO{ n]vsn] afndgf]efjgf cg'¿k a'l4aËf/f] kfqsf] sNkgf u/]/ k|:t't u/]sf x'g\ . a'l4aËf/f]nfO{ :jf:Yo ;DaGwL ;r]t kfqsf ¿kdf k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . k|fylds :jf:Yof]krf/ lglDt pm ;d:of cg'¿k ;Nnfx lbg] u5{ / ;f]xL cg'¿k ljgLtf cflb kfqx¿ :jf:Yo ;d:of ;dfwfg ug]{ k|0f u5{g\ .

lzNk

/rgfTds cleJolQmsf ;Gbe{df cgfjZos s'/f snfTdstf Pj+ s'zntfk"j{s k|:t't ug]{ k4lt jf 9fFrfsfFrfnfO{ lzNk elgG5 .94 ;+/rgfTds b[li6n] k|:t't j[mlt dWod cfsf/sf] #^ k[i7df d'lb|t 5 . lszf]/ josf afnaflnsfnfO{ pko'Qm cfsf/sf cIf/df 5kfO ul/Psf] 5 . k|foM x/]s k[i7x¿ ;/n, 1fga4{s lrqx¿åf/f ;lHht 5g\ . cg'R5]b ljefhg kof{Kt dfqfdf ul/Psf] 5 . Ps k[i7df ;/b/ &–* j6f;Dd cg'R5]b ljefhg ul/Psf] kfOG5 . ;/n / ;'af]Wo efiffdf zLif{s 5gf}6 ul/Psf] 5 . efiffut b[li6n] k|:t't j[mltdf g]kfnL em/f]{ z}nLsf zAbx¿sf] g} k|of]uflwSo 5 . o:tf zAbsf] k|of]u n]vssf] dfGotfut ;a} a}lzi6\o klg xf] . sljtf/fd cË|]hL efiffsf, ;xh ¿kdf g]kfnL efiffdf k|of]u x'g] zabx¿nfO{ k|of]u ug{ klg wsfpFb}gg\ cyf{t\ ;Dej eP;Dd cË|]hL zAbsf] k|of]uaf6 aRg'k5{ eGg] ;r]ttfsf] cefjsf] cfef; oxfF b]lvG5 . o; cefjsf] afWotf cf]sNg n]vsn] o;} k':tssf] e"ldsfdf eg]sf 5g\– …:jf:Yo ;d:ofsf] ljifo k|fljlws ePsf] x'Fbf o;df w]/} g} k|fljlws zAbx¿ k/]sf 5g\ . tL zAbx¿sf] 1fg x'g' cfjZos 5 eGg] ;f]rL d}n] ltgnfO{ eP;Dd g]kfnL / gePsfnfO{ cË|]hLd} lbPsf] 5' .Ú95 t/ 6\ØfAn]6 -oxfF uf]nL klg eGg ;lsGYof]_, afkm /] afkm, c n6 ckm YofÍ;\ -oxfF d'/Ld'/L wGojfb klg eGg ;lsGYof]_ cflb h:tf af]nrfns} efiffsf zAbx¿sf] klg ;xhtfsf ;fy k|of]u u/fOn] pgsf] egfOnfO{ k'li6 ub}{g . o;df cfhsf aRrfx¿ o:tf w]/} zAbx¿ af]N5g\ . ljz]if cª\u]|hL dfWod ePsf ljBfnox¿df oL dfd'nL x'g\ . cfhsf kf7s log} afnsx¿ x'g\ . kf7snfO{ s[lqdf ;dfj]z ug{ pgsf efiff af]nfpg cfjZos 7fgL o:tf] efiff k|of]u ul/Psf] xf] eGg] cfzo n]vssf] kfOG5 . obfsbf ;"lQmx¿ klg e]l6G5g\ eg] :jf:Yof]kb]zfTds egfOx¿ k|z:t} kfOG5g\ . s]xL cª\u]|hL zAbx¿sf] oyf k|of]utk{m Wofg gbLg] xf] eg] j[mltsf] lzNk z}nL / ;+/rgf ;d'lrt 5 .

efj

s'g} klg /rgfsf] d"n p2]Zo jf ljrf/ g} efj xf] . j[mltsf] dd{kIf jf p2]ZokIfnfO{ klg efj elgG5 . efj/lxtsf] /rgf p2]ZoxLg uGtJo x'gk'U5 . sljtf/fd afn;flxTosf] If]qdf ljz]iftM ;dfh, k|j[mlt / :jf:Yo s]lGb|t 5g\ . k|:t't j[mlt klg …cgf}7f] ofqfÚ h:t} :jf:Yo kIfdf s]lGb|t 5 . …cgf}7f] ofqfÚ df h:tf] nfIfl0fs¿kdf ;dfhsf] lrq0f rflxF o;df kfOFb}g / of] j[mlt …cgf}7f] ofqfÚ h:tf] lSni6 klg 5}g .

o; j[mltnfO{ n]vs :jo+n] JolQmut :jf:Yo ;DaGwL ;Fufnf] eGg ?rfPsf 5g\ . vf; u/L bfFt b'vfO, To;sf] sf/0f / c;/, emf8fkvfnf / pkrf/, cfufsf] kf]nfO / To;sf] k|fylds pkrf/, ?3fvf]sL, h'sf, dlxgfjf/L ;DaGwL, /S;Lsf] nt, kf}li6s cfxf/ cflb h:tf ;fdfGo ljifosf] rrf{ o; j[mltdf syfTds 9fFrfdf k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 . afnaflnsfx¿ ;Lldt :jf:Yo;d:ofs} ljifodf eP klg k|fylds pkrf/df rflxg] 1fg / ;Lk xfl;n u?g\ eGg] p2]Zon] k|:t't /rgfsf] ceLi6 5 .

kl/R5]b– kfFr

sljtf/fdsf pkGof;sf] cWoog

g]kfnL pkGof;sf] ljsf;qmd ;ª\lIfKt rrf{

;flxTosf] ljleGg ljwfdWo] pkGof; klg Ps xf] . ;+:s[tsf] c;\ wft' df pk±lg pk;u{ nfuL pkGof; zAb ag]sf] xf] . cy{ut cfwf/df pkÚ eGgfn] ghLsdf / Gof;Ú eGgfn] /fVg' eGg] x'G5 .96 pkGof;n] dfgj hLjgsf cg]sfF}F cf/f]x–cj/f]x, cfF;'–xfF;f], ;'v–b'Mv cflbnfO{ lrq0f u5{ . hLjgsf] ;jf{ËL0f lrq0f ul/g] kIfnfO{ cfwf/ dfgL pkGof;nfO{ cfw'lgs o'usf] uB dxfsfJo ;d]t elgG5 . O6flnog efiffsf] gf]e]nfÚ zAbaf6 ag]sf] cª\u|]hL zAb gf]a]nÚ sf] ;dfgfyL{¿kdf pkGof; zAb k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . ljleGg ljåfg\x¿n] pkGof;nfO{ o;/L kl/eflift u/]sf 5g\ –

pkGof; snf g} klxnf] snf xf], h;n] dfgjsf] ;Dk"0f{ hLjgnfO{ cleJoQm ug]{ k|of; u5{ .97

pkGof; hLjg / hut\\k|lt g} Ps ljxËd b[li6 xf] .98

pkGof; oyfy{df hLjgsf] efiff hLjgsf] pb\uf/ xf] . ;fFrf] pkGof; hLjgsf] 5fofF g} x'G5 cf} ;fFrf] pkGof; g} hLjgsf] dfu{bz{s aGb5 .99

k"jf{k/ tf/tDodf ;';Da4 u/]/ n]lvPsf cfVofgfTds /rgfnfO{ pkGof; elgG5 . dfgj hLjg;Fu ;Da4 eP/ cfpg] kIfnfO{ hlt;Dd ;d]6\g ;lsG5 Tolt;Ddsf] cg'jLIf0f ug]{ /rgfnfO{ pkGof; elgG5 .100

o;/L pkGof; ;DaGwL ljleGg ljåfg\x¿n] cg]sfF}F kl/efiff lbPsf 5g\ . ;du|df hLjghut\\sf ;Dk"0f{ kIfx¿nfO{ ljleGg kfqx¿sf dfWodn] cf}kGofl;s snf k|of]u ub}{ uB cfVofg ¿kdf k|:t't ug'{ g} pkGof; xf] eGg ;lsG5 .

g]kfnL pkGof;sf] ljsf;qmd

g]kfnL pkGof;sf] ljsf;qmdsf] sfnljefhgnfO{ ljleGg ;dfnf]rsx¿n] cf–cfˆg} dt cg';f/ ljefhg u/]sf] kfOP tfklg xfn;Dd ;j{dfGo¿kdf lgDgfg';f/ ljefhgnfO{ pNn]v ug'{ ;fGble{s x'G5 .

s= k[i7e"ldsfn÷k|fylds sfn -lj=;+= !*@&–!($%_

v= lgdf{0fsfn÷dfWolds sfn -lj=;+= !($^–!(()_

u= ljsf;sfn÷cfw'lgs sfn -lj=;+= !((!– xfn;Dd_101

k|fylds sfn M !*@& sf] zlQmjNne cof{nåf/f /lrt …lj/f6kj{Ú nfO{ g]kfnL pkGof;sf] pb\ud laGb' dflgG5 . o; ;dosf cGo cf}kGofl;s s[ltx¿df efg'bQsf] …lxtf]kb]z ldqnfeÚ -!*##_ a]gfdL n]vssf] …bzs'df/rl/tÚ -!((@_, ejfgLbQ kf08]sf] …d'b|f/fIf;Ú -!*(^_ cflb b]lvP tfklg oL s[ltx¿ k"0f{tM df}lns pkGof;sf ¿kdf gcfO{ cf}kGofl;stfsf] jLhfwfg u/fpFb} dfWolds sfnsf] cfudgsf lglDt dxTTjk"0f{ of]ubfg lbPsf 5g\ .

dfWolds sfn M lj=;+= !($^ sf] …jL/l;SsfÚ nfO{ w]/}h;f] ljåfg\ ;dfnf]rsx¿n] g]kfnL pkGof;sf] dfWoldssfnLg pkGof;sf] k|f/DelaGb'sf] ¿kdf lnPsf] kfOG5 .102 o; cjlwnfO{ -s_ wfld{s / kf}/fl0fs wf/f, -v_ g}lts / cf}klgj]lzs wf/f, -u_ /DofVofgsf ljleGg ;|f]tsf ljleGg df}lns /rgfx¿sf] wf/f cGtu{t cWoog ug{ ;lsG5 .103 o; ;dosf s]xL k|d'v s[ltx¿df rL/~hLjL kf}8\Øfnsf] …;'vf0f{jÚ -!(%(_, lzv/gfy ;'j]bLsf] …:j:yfgLa|tsyfÚ -!(^!_, kßk|;fb pkfWofosf] …z's;fu/Ú -!(*@_ cflbsf] gfd lng ;lsG5 . ;du|df o; vfnsf pkGof;x¿n] cfw'lgs g]kfnL pkGof;sf] k|jt{g u/fpgdf alnof] cfwf/e"ld / bl/nf] k[i7d"ld tof/ ul/lbPsf 5g\ . wf/fjflxs ¿kdf pkGof; k|sflzt ug]{ …pkGof;t/lË0fLÚ h:tf kqklqsfx¿n] ;d]t dfWolds sfnsf] pkGof; ljsf;qmddf dxTTjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]n]sf 5g\ .

cfw'lgssfn M dfWoldssfnLg dgf]/~hgfTdstf, cf}klgj]lzstf, ltn:dL, P]of/L, hf;";L, efj'stf cflb ljleGg coyfy{jfbL k|j[lQx¿nfO{ ltnf~hln lbFb} lj=;+= !((! Dff ?b|/fh kf08]sf] …¿kdtLÚ pkGof;sf] k|sfzg;Fu} g]kfnL pkGof;n] cfw'lgs sfndf km8\sf] df/]sf] xf] . …¿kdtLÚ df ;j{k|yd ;fdflhstf oyfy{jflbtf kfOg' g} cfw'lgstfsf] nIf0f lyof] . cfw'lgssfnsf] o; cjlwnfO{ b'O{{ efudf afF8L cWoog ug{ ;lsG5 .

s= k|yd r/0f -!((! –@)@)_

v= låtLo r/0f M -@)@!–xfn;Dd_ 104

k|yd r/0f -!((!–@)@)_ M cfw'lgs g]kfnL pkGof;sf] klxnf] r/0f cyf{t\ !((! b]lv @)@) sf] ;do oyfy{jfbL pkGof; n]vg tyf k|sfzgsf] ;dosf] ¿kdf b]vf k5{ . o; ;dosf cf}kGofl;s k|j[ltx¿ cfbzf]{Gd'v oyfy{jfbL wf/f, ;fdflhs oyfy{jfbL wf/f, dgf]j}1flgs oyfy{jfbL wf/f, P]ltxfl;s oyfy{jfbL wf/f, clt oyfy{jfbL wf/f, :jR5GbtfjfbL wf/f, cfnf]rgfTds oyfy{jfbL wf/f cflbsf ¿kdf b]vfk/]sf 5g\ . k|j[lQut ¿kn] o; ;dosf k|ltlglwd"ns s[ltx¿df ?b|/fh kf08]sf] …¿kdtLÚ -!((!_, ¿kgf/fo0f l;+xsf] …e|d/Ú -!((#_, n}gl;+x jfËb]nsf] …d'n'saflx/Ú -@))$_, …nË8fsf] ;fyLÚ -@))*_, 8fodG8zdz]/ /f0ffsf] …j;GtLÚ -@))^_, x[borGb|l;+x k|wfgsf] …:jf:gLdfG5]Ú -@)!)_, uf]ljGbaxfb'/ dNn uf]7fn]sf] …kNnf] 3/sf] ‰ofnÚ @)!^ cflb kb{5g\ . g]kfnL pkGof;sf] ;du|tfdf o; o'usf] clj:d/0fLo of]ubfgsf] ¿kdf u0fgf ug'{ jf~5gLo x'G5 .

låtLo r/0f -@)@!–xfn;Dd_ M g]kfnL pkGof;sf] cfw'lgssfn cGtu{tsf] @)@! b]lvsf] ;donfO{ bf];|f] r/0f cGtu{t lnOG5 . ljifoj:t'ut tyf lzNkz}nLut b'j} b[li6n] o; ;dosf pkGof;x¿df gjLg k|of]u kfOG5g\ . o; ;dodf d'Vo ¿kn] lj;ËltjfbL wf/f k|of]ujfbL wf/f, cl:tTjjfbL wf/f, ;dfhjfbL oyfy{jfbL wf/fsf pkGof;x¿ cl:tTjdf cfPsf 5g\ . OGb|axfb/ /fO{sf] …cfh /ldtf 5Ú -@)@!_ kfl/hftsf] …lz/Lifsf] km"nÚ -@)@@_ w\|'jrGb| uf}tdsf] …cGTokl5Ú -@)@$_, l8=lk= clwsf/Lsf] …cfzdfofÚ -@)@%_, cflb /rgfx¿ pko'{Qm wf/fsf] k|ltlglwTj ug]{ k|ltlglwd"ns pkGof; cGtu{t kb{5g\ . lj;ËltjfbL wf/fsf pkGof;x¿df ;+/rgf / 36gfsf] lj;Ët k|:t'lt hLjgdf lg:;f/tfsf] af]w clÍt ul/Psf 5g\ . cl:tTjjfbL pkGof; …lz/Lifsf] km"nÚ h:tf pkGof;x¿n] :jtGqtf k|fKt u/L k/d cfglGbt¿kdf JolQmnfO{ ¿kfGtl/t u/fpFb} hLjgsf] cl:tTjaf]wtkm{ pGd'v u/fPsf 5g\ . cfzdfof h:tf ;dfhjfbL oyfy{jfbL wf/fsf pkGof;x¿n] dfS{;jfbL b[li6sf]0f cGtu{t juL{o åGåsf] k|:t'lt u5{g\ eg] >dhLjL ju{sf hgtfnfO{ gfos agfO oyfy{ sYo af]Ng'k5{ eGg] wf/0ff /fV5g\ . …cGTokl5Ú, …cjtf/ lj36gÚ h:tf k|of]ujfbL wf/fsf pkGof;x¿n] x/]skIfdf gjLg k|of]u u/]sf] kfOG5 . o; k|j[lQsf pkGof;x¿df 36gfsf] Jolt/]sL, :j}/sNkgfTdstf / lzNkut gjLg k|of]ux¿ kfOG5g\ . gjn]vgsf] tLj| :j/ 3Gsfpb} o; r/0fdf cGo ljwfsf] t'ngfdf pkGof;sf] ljsf; cToGt ;sf/fTds ¿kdf ePsf] dflgG5 .

pkGof;sf/ sljtf/fdsf] g]kfnL pkGof;df cfudg tyf k|j[lQx¿

lj=;+= @)$^ …askqÚ pkGof; k|sfzg u/]/ sljtf/fd pkGof;sf/df bl/Psf x'g\ . @)@! b]lv jt{dfg;Ddsf] cjlwnfO{ g]kfnL pkGof;sf] cfw'lgssfn cGtu{t låtLo r/0fdf pgsf] pkGof; k|sflzt 5 . låtLo r/0fsf] lj=;+= @)$) sf] bzssf] pQ/f4{ gofF pk–r/0fsf] k|f/De xf] . o; ;dodf km/s z}nL / ljifodf pkGof; n]lvPsf 5g\ .105 o; r/0f cGtu{t k|of]ujfb, lj;ËtLjfb, cl:tTjjfb, ;dfhjfbL oyfy{jfbL wf/f cGtu{tsf pkGof;x¿ n]lvPsf kfOG5g\ . sljtf/fdsf] pkGof; …askqÚ df ;d]t st} g st} pko'{Qm k|j[lQx¿ kfOG5g\ . /f]lugL, /G8L / afpGgL h:tf ;dfhsf ckx]lnt / blnt kfqsf] k|of]u cfkm}Fdf kfqfTds gjLg k|of]u xf] . lgDg:t/Lo ju{sf hgtfsf] cfly{s, ;fdflhs kIfnfO{ ;d]6\g] k|of; ul/g' ;dfhjfbL, oyfy{jfbL k|j[lQ xf] eg] lj;Ëltaf]wn] u|l;t kfqx¿sf] k|:t'ltn] lj;ËtkIf emNsfpF5 . pkGof;sf] cGTodf …dÚ kfqåf/f cl:tTjaf]w u/L lj;Ëlt / ljs[ltnfO{ c:jLsf/ ug]{ b[9 c7f]6 ugf{n] k|:t't pkGof;n] ;d]t c:jLs[ltut dfGotf ;d]6]sf] 7x5{ . …askqÚ pkGof; pkGof;eGbf a9L …askqÚ x'g ;Sg] n]vsLo cfzoåf/f k|:t't pkGof;n] ;dfhsf tLtf oyfy{nfO{ gwsfO AoSTofpg] k|j[lQ lnPsf] 5 eGg' ;fGble{s x'G5 .

sljtf/fdsf] …askqÚ pkGof;sf] cWoog

ax'ljwf ;+/rgfTds PsfOåf/f x/]s cË k/:k/df >[[Î+nfa4 eO{ lglZrt d"No k|fKt u/]sf] tyf Jofks kl/lwel/sf] ;do / :yfgleq lj:tfl/t ePsf] snf ;f}Gbo{o'Qm syfTds uBnfO{ g} pkGof; elgG5 106 egL pkGof;nfO{ kl/eflift u/]sf] kfOG5 . sljtf/fdsf] …askqÚ pkGof; lj=;+=@)$^ df k|sflzt ePsf] xf] . …askqÚ sf] zflAbs cy{ vf]Hbf– …d'2fdf jfbL jf k|ltjfbLsf tkm{af6 ;fIfL a:g] JolQmn] as]sf s'/f n]lvPsf] sfut jf asfOg] dfG5]n] as]sf] Aoxf]/f eGg] kfOG5 .Ú107 ;dfhsf lg/Lx kIfsf] :jtM :km"t{¿kdf oyfl:yltsf] v'nf lrq0f ul/Psf] x'gfn] g} o;nfO{ n]vsn] …askqÚ sf] ;+1f lbPsf] x'g'k5{ .

syfj:t'

syfj:t' pkGof;sf] sYo j:t' xf] . cyf{t\ pkGof;sf] sYoj:t'sf] ¿kdf cfpg] ljifo g} syfj:t' xf] .108 …askqÚ pkGof;sf] syfj:t' b'O{{ lbgsf] kl/j]zdf ;Lldt 5 . pkGof;df x'g'kg]{ syfgssf] ljzfn kl/j]zsf] cefj eg] o; pkGof;df kfOG5 . ;Dk"0f{ syfj:t'sf] cBf]kfGt …dÚ kfq JofKt x'g'n] kfqfTds :jfefljstfdfly n]vsLo b[li6sf]0fsf] cª\s'z b]lvG5 . n]vsLo b[li6sf]0fsf] k|ltlglwTj …dÚ kfqn] u/]sf] 5 . pkGof;sf] syfj:t' …dÚ kfqsf] 8]/f3/af6 k|f/De x'G5 . kNnf] sf]7fdf Pp6L /f]lugL a:5] . /f]lugLsf] lbgrof{ cToGt bogLo cj:yfdf lalt/x]sf] x'G5 . …dÚ kfqsf] sf]7f / /f]lugLsf] sf]7f 5'6\Øfpg] sf7]af/sf] Rofkaf6 …dÚ kfq p;sf x/]s ultljlwsf] df}g lg/LIf0f ug{ kl5 kb}{g . kL8fsf] 3/ Tof] bL3{ /f]lugL¿kL d[To' sxfFaf6 cfO{ / s;/L PSn} c;xfo afFlr/lx5 . /x:od} ;Lldt 5 . /f]lugLsf] sf]7fdf Pslbg crfgs /f}gstf ylkG5 . Tof] la/fgf] lhGbuLdf cfzfsf ;~rf/x¿ km}lnPsf] …dÚ kfqn] cg'ej u5{ . Tof] d[t sf]7faf6 ;d]t ca hLjgsf] uGw cfpg yfN5 . /f]lugL k|;Ggtf;fy cfˆgf ;Dk"0f{ ;fdfgx¿ AffF8\g Jo:t 5] . …dÚ kfq /ldt]sf] ¿kdf ;Dk"0f{ tdfzfsf] bz{s ag]s} 5 . a]n'sL /f]lugL 3/Ss 9f]sf vf]n]/ …dÚ kfqnfO{ /ltlqmofsf nflu k|:t't x'g cfXjfg u5]{ . pm d/]/ hfg] ePsLn] p;sf] gZj/ z/L/ gi6 x'g'cl3 s;}sf] sfd cfcf];\ eGg] /f]lugLsf] rfxgf 5 . of}gs'07f af]s]/ vf6 r'OFsfpFb} x:td}y'g ug]{ …dÚ kfq eg] /f]lugLnfO{ ef]Ug'sf] ;f6f] ;r]ttfjz efUg yfN5 . k"jL{o ;dfhdf of}g tyf of}gfË cToGt uf]Ko / ;'/lIft 7flgPsf] cj:yfdf …askqÚ pkGof;sL /f]lugL pbf/tfsf;fy s;}sf] of}g]Iff k"lt{sf] sfddf cfpg rfxG5] . …dÚ kfq eg] c1fttkm{ efUg yfN5 . t/ cr]tgsf] cg'eljt åGån] p;nfO{ cgfof;} kmsf{pF5 . efu]/ lx8] tfklg …dÚ kfq cfGtl/s tyf afXØ¿kdf ljrlnt eO{ g} /xG5 . pm cf/fd;Fu /ft latfpg] :yfg e]6\b}g . pm Pp6f kf6Lsf] b'u{lGwt s'gfdf /ft latfpg afWo x'G5 . o;/L ;f+;fl/s ljs[ltx¿af6 r]tg¿kdf efUb} ug{ vf]h]sf] …dÚ kfqdf qmdzM of}g dgf]lj1fgut wf/0ffcg';f/ cr]tgn] ljho k|fKt ug{ vf]H5 eg] ;f+;fl/s¿kdf ;d]t ;fdGh:o ug{ vf]h]sf] å}w kl/l:ylt 5 . pm cfkm"nfO{ tdfd k/Dkl/t cfbz{ut dfGotfaf6 d'Qm ug{ vf]H5 . efUbfefUb}sf] cj:yfdf cfkm"n] zflGt kfpg g;s]/ …dÚ kfq cfˆgf tgfjx¿nfO{ dTy/ kfg{ cGo b'O{ hgf ;fyLx¿;Fu laxfgLtkm{ dlGb/tkm{ nfU5 . tLg} hgfaLr wfld{s cfl:tstf, gfl:tstf / ;dGjojflbtfsf] ts{ljts{ rN5 . cfˆgf] wf/0ffk|lt tLg} hgf k"0f{ ljZj:t eg] 5}gg\ . o;/L …dÚ kfq cToGt e|dfTds dgl:ylt lnP/ cl3 a9\b} hfFbf dlGb/ kl/;/df Pp6f af5f]sf] h:tf] 9\of:; 9]kfOn] 7]N5 / hGt's} cfzÍfdf x]bf{ Tof] 9]kfO Pp6L of}gs'l07t afpGgL cfOdfO{{sf] x'G5 . Tof] afpGgLsf] 7]nfOsf] sf/0f …dÚ kfqsf] dgdf k|z:t s'/f v]N5g\ . afpGgLsf] y]Q/f] cg'xf/d'lgsf] ljlIfKt qmGbg p;sf] cr]tgn] ;'G5 . pm afpGgLk|lt lg/Lx / x¿jf JolQmnfO{ lbOg] dfgl;s ;xfg'e"lt kf]V5 . …dÚ kfqn] afpGgLk|lt cfˆgf] cfzlQm gePsf] 3l/3l/ k|:6\ofP tfklg p;sf ultljlwn] pm afpGgLk|lt tflgb} uPsf] cfef; x'G5 . afpGgLsf] ;Defljt of}gs'07f / p;Fusf sfNklgs of}gk|;Ëdf of}gfËut :y"ntf, bL3{tf ;DaGwL of}ghlgt 7§fdf tLg}hgf kfq k|z:t} l5lNngfn] pko'{Qm k|;Ësf] k'li6 x'G5 .

cl3Nnf] lbg /f]lugLaf6 efUb} lx8]/ kf6Ldf /ft latfO{ pHofnf] ePkl5 dlGb/ 3'Db} k'gM sf]7fdf kms{Fb} ubf{ …dÚ kfqn] cfkm"n] /ft latfPsf] kf6Lsf] ljeT; b[Zo b]V5 . cfˆgf v'lnKjfF6 ;fyLx¿sf] nx}nx}df s'g} lbg cfkm"åf/f ;d]t ef]luPsL /G8L ;dfhsf] sfd'stf vGofpg] df;'sf] efF8fdf le?ËLsf ls6f0f'sf ;fy lemFufnfO{ efG;f u/fpFb} h'u'lK;t cj:yfdf d[t nl8/x]sL x'G5] . …dÚ kfq cfkm"n] ef]Ubfsf cj:yfsf To; /G8Lsf] ;xfg'e"ltk"0f{ Jojxf/ ;DemFb} pkGof;sf tLg}j6f d'Vo kfq /f]lugL, /G8L / afpGgLnfO{ ;fdflhs kl/l:ylt jf zf/Ll/s k|s[ltn] 7u]sf]k|lt ;Ddflgt dgf]efjgfsf] ljsf; ub}{ cfkm" oyfy{af6 efuL cfbzf]{Gd'v x'g nfu]sf] cg'e"ltk|lt kZrftfk -dl4d ;Tosf] cfef;_ ub}{ k'gM cfˆg} sf]7f k'U5 . o;/L k'gM sf]7fdf kms]{/ cfpg'n] ;Dk"0f{ clglR5t / c:jfefljs efjgf, wf/0ffnfO{ lrg{ ;Sg] c:jLs[ltut wf/0ffsf] b[9 ljsf; …dÚ kfqsf] dgl:yltdf ePsf] k|tLsfTds cy{ x'g ;S5 .

pko'{Qm 36gfx¿df cfkm"nfO{ ?dNb} rf}la; 306fsf] cGt/fndf …dÚ kfq cfkm"nfO{ alnof] agfpFb} /f]lugL dl/;s]sf] cg'dfg u/L 8]/fdf k'U5 . /f]lugLn] ljifsf] l;;L 7f8f] 3fF6L nfP/ cl3 g} k/dwfdsf] af6f] ttfO;s]sL :ki6 yfxf ePkl5 pm xNnfvNnf ub}{ 3/a]6L nufotsf JolQmx¿nfO{ 36gfsf] af/]df ;"lrt u5{ . cfkm" eg] cl3Nnf] lbg /flt ;d]t efUbfefUb} kf6Ldf /ft latfpg' kbf{ /fd|/L lgGb|f gnfu]s}n] ofjt\ s'/fx¿nfO{ a]jf:tf u/L lgbfpg] k|of; u5{ . cfkm" a;]s} 3/df Toqf] cfTdxTof h:tf] 36gf x'Fbf ;d]t lgw{Ss ;'Tg ;Sg'nfO{ syfut c:jfefljstf jf …dÚ kfqsf] a]9Ë]kgsf ¿kdf lng ;lsG5 . cl3Nn} lbgb]lvsf] clgb|fsf] sf/0f p;nfO{ ulx/f] lgGb|f k5{ . ;kgfdf pm Pp6f jfxgdf r9]/ cGtl/Ifsf] e|d0f ul//x]sf] x'G5 . jfxgnfO{ /fd|/L cGj]if0f ubf{ Tof] s'g} cGo jfxg geO dlGb/df 7f]lsg cfOk'u]sL afpGgLsf] z/L/ g} x'G5 . o;/L …dÚ kfqdf cjr]tghGo of}g rfxgf e]l6G5 . lgb|fs} cj:yfdf 9f]s} elTsg]h:tf] 3R3Rofx6af6 …dÚ kfqsf] lgb|f v'N5 . k'ln;x¿ …dÚ kfq ToxLF a:g] ePsfn] p;nfO{ ;a} s'/f] yfxf x'g'kg]{ / b'3{6gfsf k"j{;Í]t kfpgf;fy ;dod} k|zf;gnfO{ yfxf lbg'kg]{ lyof] egL bafa lbG5g\ . …dÚ kfq dflg; hLpFbf] xf]pGh]n arfpg k|of; gug]{ t/ dl/;s]kl5 nfzdfly emD6g] sfg'gdfly Joª\Uo u5{ . pkGof;sf] pk;+xf/lt/ /f]lugL, /G8L / afpGgLsf] lg/Lxtfdf pgLx¿sf] cfˆgf] s'g} bf]if geP tfklg ;dfhn] pgLx¿k|lt ug]{ lgs[i6 Jojxf/sf sf/0f …dÚ kfq lj?4df h'd'{/fpg] lg0f{o u5{ . …===== ===== Tof] zf]lift zfl;t afFlRbg ====, Tof] /G8L d/0f dlb{g ====, d ca k|:t't 5', cfˆgf :jfefljs d"Nox¿sf hudf, lg/ª\s'z Tof] d"No, Tof] kL8f lj?4 ==== .Ú o:tf] b[9 c7f]6;fy …dÚ kfq pkGof;sf] cGTodf k/Dk/fut d"No / dfGotfx¿sf] lj?4df c:jLs[t ljrf/sf] Hjf/ef6f lnP/ p7\5 . o;} kl/j]zdf lemgf] syfgs t/ hl6n dfgl;s cGt/åGå af]s]sf] sljtf/fdsf] …askqÚ pkGof;sf] syfj:t' 6'lËG5 .

kfq÷rl/q

kfq jf rl/qsf] hLjGt k|:t'ltn] pkGof;nfO{ ;d]t ;hLjtf lbg;S5 . To;}n] pkGof;sf] qmda4 rfl/lqs lgdf{0f cToGt hl6n kIf xf] elgPsf] 5 . 109 pkGof;df k|of]u ul/Psf kfqx¿n] s'g} klg ju{, hflt, k];f jf dfgl;stfsf] k|ltlglwTj ul//x]sf x'g ;S5g\ .

kfqut b[li6n] sljtf/fdsf] …askqÚ pkGof; cGoGt} gf}nf] / cgf}7f] b]vfk5{ . ;dfhsf ;De|fGt, ;Eo, clehfToju{sf kfq o;df 5}gg\ . oxfF …dÚ kfq, /f]lugL, /G8L / afpGgL h:tf ckx]lnt, bLgxLg, s'07fdf afFr]sf kfqx¿ k|of]u ul/Psf 5g\ . pko'{Qm rf/kfq d'Vo kfqsf ¿kdf k|:t't 5g\ . uf}0f kfqx¿sf] dxTTjk"0f{ pkl:ylt gb]lvPsfn] oxfF u0fgf ul//xg' o'lQmd"ns 5}g . oLdWo] …dÚ kfq dfq k'?if kfq xf] eg] cGo tLg} hgf :qLkfq x'g\ . logLx¿sf] rfl/lqs j}lzi6\Ø lgDg cg';f/ 5–

dÚ kfq

dÚ kfq …askqÚ pkGof;sf] s]Gb|Lo kfqx¿dWo]sf] klg s]Gb|Lo kfq xf] . …dÚ kfq pkGof;sf/sf] ljrf/ ÷bz{g k|:t't ug]{ kfq xf] . …dÚ kfq s'l07t hLjg afFR5 . /f]lugLåf/f oyfy{¿kdf k|:t't eO{ ef]Ug cfXjfg ubf{ pm efU5 . p;nfO{ cfˆgf] hflu/] hLjg / xflsdsf] bf;Tjk|lt em'Sg' k/]sf]df ;d]t ;fdflhs s'07f 5 . k/Dk/fut cfbz{, ;+:s[lt / dfGotfn] p;nfO{ lg;fl:;g afWo agfPsf 5g\ . pm Tof] lg:;fl;Fbf]kgaf6 d'lQm kfpg ofofj/Lo z}nLdf efUg yfN5 t/ oyfy{ / cfbz{sf] åGån] lkl;O g} /xG5 . /f]lugLn] ef]Ug cfXjfg ubf{ gef]uL efu]sf] …dÚ kfq k|mfo8Lo of}g dgf]j}1flgs u|lGyut l;4fGtsf cfwf/df bldt of}g rfxgf cjr]tgdf bafP/ /fVg] t/ ;dfhdf k|lti7f k|flKtsf] nflu r]tg dgsf] lgb]{zgdf rNg rfxg] JolQm xf] . r]tg / cr]tgsf] ;Dk"0f{ åGåsf] ljhodf eg] cr]tgsf] g} k|j[lQ a9L b]lvG5 . /f]lugLaf6 efu] tfklg obfsbf n'lsl5kL /G8Lef]u ug'{ t/ To;nfO{ uf]Ko /fVg', /G8Ld/0fdf v'nf¿kdf cfˆgftkm{af6 p;sf nflu s]xL ;xfg'e"lt kf]Vg g;Sg'n] k/Dk/fjfbL ljrf/sf] kl/lwdf /x]/ …dÚ kfq ;fdflhs¿kdf cf8Da/L tyf ;Ddflgt hLjgdf /Dg rfx]sf] cg'e"lt x'G5 . pkGof;sf] dWoefult/ cfP/ …dÚ kfqn] hLjgdf lgsf; vf]Hg yfN5 . ;+;f/af6 hlt efUg vf]Hbf klg p;nfO{ dfGotfx¿sf cf/f]x0fn] ufFlh/x]sf] / lryf]l//x]sf] dx;'; x'G5 . cGTodf pm tdfd kl/l:ylt;Fu h'Wg] / hLjgdf olb s'g} dfGotfx¿sf sf/0f efUg'kg]{ eP tL dfGotfx¿s} lj?4df vlgg] b[9 c7f]6 lnP/ v'n]cfd /f]lugL, /G8L / afpGgL h:tf ;dfhsf ck|ltli7t / lg/Lx kfqx¿k|lt ;Ddfg k|s6 ub}{ eG5– …x/fP/ km]l/ afFRg] nf]edf Tof] zfl;t, Tof] zf]lift afFlRbgF . cfˆgf] cl:tTj vf]Hb} sdhf]/dfly efn] afl:bgF . ;+:sf/–Tof] Pp6f kL8faf6 sF'lhOGgF . :jLs[lt– Tof] /G8L d/0f dlb{gF . knfog– Tof] afpGgL s'07f afFlRbgF . cfTdxTof g} ;xL ;d:t kL8fx¿ lj?4 d ;';Ël7t sL/f nfUg]5' . ljiffn' gª\u|fx¿ emD6g] 5' . cfˆgf] cl:tTj d cfkm}F;Fu vf]H5' . c¿;Fu dflUbgF . d ca k|:t't 5', cfˆgf :jfefljs d"Nox¿sf hudf lg/ª\s'z Tof] d"No, Tof] kL8f lj?4 . va/bf/ Û d}n] cfˆgf] cleofg ;'? ul/;s]F . d]/f] syf ca ;'? x'G5 .Ú

o;/L ;'?df s]xL ;Íf]rL …dÚ kfq pkGof;sf] cGTodf ultzLn kfqsf] ¿kdf b]vfkb}{ ;f+;fl/s xfFsx¿nfO{ r'gf}tL lbg ;Sg] ;an kfqsf ¿kdf :yflkt ePsf] 5 .

/f]lugL

/f]lugL :qL kfq xf] . …dÚ kfqsf] j0f{g cg';f/ pkGof;sf] k|f/Deb]lv g} /f]lugL k|:t't 5] . …dÚ kfqsf] b[li6df /f]lugL kL8fsf] Pp6f 3/ xf] . p;sf] JolQmTj x]bf{ nfU5– p;n] ;+;f/sf k|z:t tLtfdL7f cg'ej krfP/ lgn{Hh ;+;f/nfO{ Joª\Uo ub}{ afFr]sL 5 . pm ;fFRr} /f]lugL x'g'k5{ . a]nfa]nf …v'O{===Ú sf] cfjfh …dÚ kfq k|:6} ;'G5 . sf]7f klg ;kmf b]lvFb}g . p;sf] sf]7faf6 cf]l;nf] / b'u{lGwt uGw cfO/xG5 . pm cfˆgf ;Dk"0f{ ;fdfgx¿ duGt]x¿nfO{ ;/ntf;fy afF8\5] . Toltdfq geP/ …dÚ kfq ;fd" k|:t't x'Fb} eG5]– …d db}{5', dg'{ cl3 oxL rfxG5', cfˆgf ;Dk"0f{ clws/0fx¿ cfkm" v'zL bfg lbP/ ;s"F . d}n] rflxFg ls d]/f rLhaLhx¿ v'nf ahf/df lnnfd xf]pmg\ / k};fjfnx¿n] d]/f] d[To'af6 kmfObf p7fpmg\ . ====d[To' Pp6f l;;Ldf d]/f] 6]a'ndf dnfO{ klv{/x]5 . d[To'nfO{ cfTd;ft\ ug]{ lg0f{o lnPs} If0f d}n] ;Dk"0f{ g}ltstfx¿ / dof{bf h'd|f dfl/;s]sL 5' . tkfO{F;fd' o; sf/0fn] k|:t't 5' ls dg'{cl3 tkfO{Fsf] sfddf cfpFm . ef]s zfGt u¿F .Ú /f]lugLsf pko'{Qm sygn] pm ;Dk"0f{ lhGbuL af]w u/]/ ca afFRg'sf] lg:;f/tfdf k'lu;s]sL kfq xf] . cfˆgf ;fdfgx¿df s;}n] ank"j{s clwsf/ hdfpg'eGbf :j]R5fn] bfg ug'{df g} cfkm"nfO{ uf}/jzfnL 7fG5] . pm dxfg\ jf pbfQ ljrf/ ePsL kfqsf] ¿kdf b]vf k5]{ . p;nfO{ JolQmut ¿kdf of}g;'vsf] rfxgf geP tfklg …dÚ kfqsf] s'07f a'em]/ …dnfO{ ef]uL zfGt xf]pmÚ eGb} k|:t't x'G5] . …dÚ kfqn] x:td}y'g u/L vf6 r'OFsfP/ s}of}Fk6s p;sf] lgGb|fdf vnn k'¥ofPsfn] pm …dÚ kfqsf] s'07f /fd|/L a'‰g;S5] . /f]lugL tdfd g}ltstf / dof{bfx¿nfO{ h'd|f df/]/ v'nf ¿kdf :jfy{ TofuL s;}sf] sfddf cfpg lxlRsrfpFlbg . o;/L /f]lugL tdfd k/Dk/f, cfbz{ / g}ltstfsf] kvf{n aflx/ pleg ;s]sL cfˆg} df}lns hLjg bz{g af]Sg ;Sg] kfqsf] ¿kdf k|:t't 5] .

u= afpGgL

pkGof;sf] dWoefudf cjl:yt kfq xf] afpGgL . afpGgL cfkm}F clegofTds ¿kdf ;lqmo 5}g . afpGgLsf] kfqut rl/qsf] ljZn]if0fdf …dÚ kfqsf] j0f{g g} k|d'v dfWodsf] ¿kdf k|:t't 5 . …dÚ kfq dlGb/lt/ hfFbf Pp6f 8/nfUbf] 9]kfOb]lv afpGgL kfqsf] k|;Ë ;'? x'G5 . …dÚ kfqsf] j0f{gn] o; pkGof;sf] ;a}eGbf a9L of}g s'l07t kfqsf] ¿kdf afpGgLnfO{ l;4 ug{ vf]h]sf] 5 . 5f]6f5f]6f xft v'§f d'9f]h:tL 8NnL / k'8\sL afpGgL …dÚ kfqnfO{ dlGb/df n8\g] u/L 7]N5] . …dÚ kfqsf] b[li6sf]0fdf pm x¿jf / lg/Lx JolQmsf] ¿kdf k|:t't 5] . l5lKkPsf] sfnf] r]K6f] cg'xf/, a6fl/Psf kfv'/f clg tLg km'6sf] prfO p;sf] jfXØ cfj/0f xf] eg] gjo'jsnfO{ b]v]/ cr]tgs} ef]ufOdf ef]Ub} jfXØ ¿kdf k|s6 ug{ g;Sg' p;sf] dfgl;s xLgtfsf] kl/0flt xf] . afpGgL y]Q/f] cg'xf/df ljlIfKt qmGbg af]s]/ afFr]sL 5] . s;}n] p;k|lt ;xfg'e"lt kf]v]sf] p;nfO{ cfhGd yfxf 5}g . pm cfkm}F k;n u5]{, sdfp5], ;dfhsf] ef/ ag]sL 5}g, tfklg ;fdflhstf tyf ;fd'bflostfsf] af]waf6 6f9f 5] . cfkm}F dfG5] x'g'sf] af]w p;df 5}g . afpGgL c¿n] lv;L ug]{ y]Ql/g] dfWod kfq aGg ljjz 5] . p;sf] ;+j]bgzLntf / efj'stfnfO{ ;dfhsf] ckx]lnt Jojxf/n] 89fOlbPsf] 5 . afpGgL Pp6f oGq, lghL{j k|f0f, z'is hLjg / ofjt\ s'07fx¿ af]s]/ afFRg] hLpFbf] nfzsf] ¿kdf pkl:yt 5], h;nfO{ ;dfhn] ;w}F;w}F lslNr/x]5, lylr/x]5 lgb{otfsf;fy . Pp6f ljjz kfq afFr]sL 5], afFr]sf] yfx} gkfO{ afFRg'sf] kL8fxLgtfsf] kL8fdf .

/G8L

o; pkGof;sf] ;a}eGbf lg/Lx kfq /G8L xf] . pkGof;df /G8Lkfqsf] sd} k|:t'lt 5 . j0f{gfTds k4lts} cfwf/df p;sf] rfl/lqs j}lzi6\Ø k}Nofpg'k5{ . p;sf ;Dk"0f{ of}jgsf lbgx¿ c¿n] lsg]/ vfOlbPkl5sf ;+tKt v08sf] lrq0f pkGof;df ul/Psf] 5 . …dÚ kfqs} zAbdf eGg'kbf{ Pp6L cfOdfO{{ ;dofGt/df afgL k/]/ k"0f{tM jLo{kft u/fpg] dl;g ag]sL 5] . pm lgn{Hh ePsf] clego ub}{ cfkm" gflËP/ u|fxsnfO{ ;d]t gËØfpFb} cfkm"dfly vGofpF5] . o;nfO{ lgoltsf] 7§f gegL c¿ s] eGg] < clegofTds s'zntfsf] cefjdf s'g} u|fxs pQ]lht ePgg\ eg] bz ¿k}ofF x/0f x'g] ;Defjgf / a]n'sL ef]s} latfpg'kg]{ ljjztf af]s]sL rl/q xf] pm . p;s} egfOdf pm /G8L xf]Og . pm ljz'4 cfOdfO{{ lyO{ . ;dfhsf /G8fx¿n] zlQm / ;|f]tsf] ;DkGgtfs} cf8df p;sf] lg/Lx tyf ljjz :qLTjdfly /G8Lsf] /Ë kf]ltlbP . ;dfhsf ;Eo tyf enfßL ju{sf, …dÚ kfq nufotsf JolQmTjx¿ g} pm /G8L aGg' k5fl8sf lhDd]bf/ kIf x'g\ . pm /G8L x'g'k"j{ Pp6L ljz'4 cfOdfO{{ lyO{, k"0f{ efj's / ;+j]lbt ;fdflhs cfOdfO{{ . cfh /G8Lsf] vf]ndf klg Tof] cfOdfO{{kg ljBdfg 5 . p;n] …dÚ kfqsf] bz ¿k}ofF …tkfOFsf gfgLnfO{ ld7fO{ lsg]/ nlulbg'xf];\ x}Ú egL kmsf{OlbPsL 5] Psk6s . cfh ToxL ljjz kfq s;}sf] ;xfg'e"lt gkvL{ le?ËLn] lvOP/ d[t cj:yfdf kf6Ldf n8]sL 5] . s'g} lbg To;}sf] ;f8Ldf nl8a'8L ub}{ cfˆgf] sfd'stf vGofpg cft'/ x'g] :yflktx¿, dof{bfsf] vf:6f]df a]l/Psfx¿ cfh Tof] b[Zo x]g{ klg nfh dflg/x]5g\ . …dÚ kfq eG5– …nfUb}5 To; /G8Lsf] d[t ljs[t, Tof] ljeT; df;'sf] efF8f]n] dnfO{ y'Sb}5 . d]/f tyfslyt cfbz{ / ljåtfnfO{ y'Sb}5 . d oxfF Pp6f lg/Lx JolQm To;sf] Tof] y'sfOaf6 aRg efUb}5' . ===== d cfkm}F cfkm}Faf6 v'lDrb} efUb}5' ==== .Ú

o;/L jt{dfg ;dfhn] s;}nfO{ /G8L agfPsf] 5, s'lNrPsf] 5, lkN:ofPsf] 5, lyrf]ldrf] u/]sf] 5, p;sf] lg/Lx lgoltaf6 kmfObf lnFb} cfkm" uf}/jflGjt ePsf] 5 . cfh ToxL o;/L d/]sL 5] . of] kfqsf] d[To' cfkm}Fdf ;dfhk|lt / ;dfhsf /G8L l;h{gf ug]{ /G8fx¿sfk|lt Joª\Uosf] ¿kdf pkl:yt 5 .


z}nL÷lzNk

z}nL eGgfn] efiffsf] dfWodåf/f ljleGg efj of ljrf/ cleJolQm ug]{ ljleGg 9Ë tyf ljlwnfO{ lnOG5 .110 pkGof;sf/ sljtf/fdsf] …askqÚ pkGof; ;f/ ;ª\u|x k|sfzgaf6 lj= ;+= @)$^ ;fndf k|sflzt s[lt xf] . k|:t't s[lt ^* k[i7df /lrPsf] 5 . k|:t't pkGof;df d[To'sf] g[z+; x'Íf/, cfzfsf] ;~rf/, /G8L /Ë, To;sf] bfgzLntf, k|:t't x'gf];\, hxfFb]lv d efUg yfn]F, cfuf], b'u{Gwsf] nf]Kkf, j}olQms d"No kl/jt{gsf] 1fg, cfsfzsf] /Ë, dlGb/df, v'lnKjfF6} v'lnKjfF6, To;sf] of}gs'07f / d]/f] ;+j]bgzLntf, 306f, xLgtfaf]w, /G8Lsf] /Ë, v'lnKjfF6 efj'stf, dl4d ;Tosf] cfef;, cft'/sf ljdz{x¿, jfxgsf] vf]hL, nfzdfly emD6g] sfg'g, lgoltsf] 7§f, /G8Lsf] Tof] s'lxPsf] efF8f– ;dfhsf] ;fdflhs / cfly{s lrq0f, /G8Lsf] Tof] ;Ddflgt kIf, cf>osf] vf]hL, ;Tosf] cfef;, af]lw;Tj / å}t l:ylt u/L hDdf @( cWofo 5g\ . lzNk z}nLut cfwf/df x/]s cWofonfO{ cnucnu gfd lbOg' pkGof;sf] j}lzi6\Ø kIf xf] . syfgssf] >[ª\vlnttfsf b[li6n] sltko cWofox¿ cfkm}Fdf PsfsL b]lvPsf 5g\ . tL cWofonfO{ cnUu} k9bf klg ;du| syfut cg"e"lt k|fKt x'G5 . pkGof;sf/ cfkm}Fn] …306fÚ / …cfuf]Ú zLif{ssf pkGof;sf b'O{{ cWofox¿nfO{ syf;ª\u|xdf /flvg'n] pko'{Qm k'li6 k|dfl0ft x'G5 .

efiff z}nLut b[li6n] ;d]t pkGof;df km/s kIfx¿ kfOG5g\ . pkGof;sf/ s'g} klg egfOnfO{ kf7ssf] dgdf ;f]em} k|j]z u/fO{ Rjf:; k|efj kfg{ ;Sg] k|z:t df}lns / ltVv/ jfSofFzx¿sf] lgdf{0fdf s'zn 5g\ . cfFvfdf lr;f] 8fsf] -k[= $_, Pp6f ljhosf] hgfp -k[= %_, hlxn]tlxn] b'O{{k};] d'v Roft]/ xfF:g' -k[=^_, la/fnf] 5]pdf d';f] k'Ug' -k[= ^_, g}ltstf / dof{bfx¿ h'd|f dfg'{ -k[=!)_, cfu|xxLg Pp6f zfZjt :jefj -k[= !!_ ;'O/f] h:tf] tLvf] b[9 cfFvf -k[= !!)_ /utsf cfnf kmfN;fx¿n] kf]ltPsf] cfsfz -k[= @@_ dlGb/sf] b]ptfnfO{ 9'Ëf] k9\g' -k[= @$_, kz' 9];fO -k[= @%_, Pp6f x¿jf lg/Lx JolQmTj -k[= @%_ y]Q/f] cg'xf/ d'lgsf ljlIfKt qmGbg -k[= @^_, x¿jf dgl:ylt -k[= @(_, Pp6f df}g zfgbf/ lxFh8f d':sfg -k[=##_, h'u'K;fn] £ofKk 5f]Kg' -k[=#&_, x¿jf dfG5]sf] 5]?jf bfp -k[=%%_, ;dfhsf] sfd'stf vGofpg] df;'sf] efF8f -k[= %&_, ;dfhsf] sfd'stfnfO{ wfGg] Tof] dnsf] vf8n -k[=%&_, ;Dk"0f{ cfOdfO{{sf] pkl:yltnfO{ af]sf ;'F£g' -k[=%(_, Pp6f lgwf]{ lgZro -k[= ^$_, ;+:sf/ / d"Nox¿sf ;d'b|af6 aflx/ tfg'{ -k[=^&_, sdhf]/dfly efn] af:g' -k[=^*_ /G8L d/0f -k[=^*_, afpGgL s'07f -k[=^*_ h:tf ltVv/ jfSof+zx¿ pkGof;df k|z:t} k|of]u ul/Psf 5g\ .

k|:t't pkGof; zAbrogsf] b[li6sf]0fn] ;d]t leGg z}nLdf k|:t't ePsf] 5 . of] pkGof; ;fdfGo hgtfsf] ef]ufOsf] oyfy{ aofg xf] . ;fdfGo hgtfn] cfd hLjgdf h:tf] efiff k|of]u u5{g\ To:t} efiff k|of]u ubf{df dfq ;j{;fwf/0fsf] ;flxTo n]lvg ;lsg] dfGotf :jo+ pkGof;sf/sf] 5 . o; pkGof;df k/Dkl/t hLjgdf c;fdfGo nfUg] vfnsf zAbx¿ ;d]t ws km'sfP/ k|of]u ul/Psf 5g\ . ;fnf, s's'/, alhofx¿, t]/f] afa', /G8f, /G8L, h:tf zAbx¿ Aff/Daf/ bf]xf]l/P/ cfPsf 5g\ . o;sf cltl/Qm c6f]d]l6s, Pagd{n h:tf cË|]hL zAb klg obfsbf kfOG5g\ . sfstfnLa; j0f{ljGof; q'l6;d]t k|of]u x'g k'u]sf] k|:t't pkGof;df tT;d, tTej / cfuGt's z}nLsf zAbx¿ k|of]u ul/Psf 5g\ . lemgf] syfgs af]s]sf] k|:t't pkGof; cToGt sf}t'xno'Qm / /f]rs z}nLdf jl0f{t 5 .

b[li6ljGb'

k|:t't pkGof; j0f{gfTds z}nLdf /lrt 5 . pkGof;sf] …dÚ kfq cfkm}Fn] j0f{g ;'? u/]/ clGtd cg'R5]b;Dd klg j0f{g ul/ g} /xG5 . 3l/ pm cfˆg} syf j0f{gdf Jo:t x'G5 eg] 3l/ afpGgL, /f]lugL, /G8L cflb t[tLo k'?ifsf syfdf 3'D5 . o;/L o; pkGof;df k|ydk'?if b[li6laGb'/ t[tLo k'?if b[li6laGb'b'j} k|o'Qm 5g\ .

efj÷p2]Zo

hLjgsf Jofks cg'e"ltx¿ pkGof;df p2]Zosf] ¿kdf cfPsf x'G5g\ . k|of]hglagfsf] sNkgfn] cf}kGofl;s ¿k lng ;Sb}g .111 n]vsn] lglb{i6 ;Gb]z lbg k|:t't ug]{ efj kIfnfO{ g} pkGof;sf] p2]Zosf] ¿kdf lnOG5 . 5f]6f] syf, ;Lldt kfq, hl6n jf:tljstf af]s]sf] k|:t't …askqÚ pkGof; pkGof;sf/sf] pb\ljUg dfgl;stfsf] pTklt xf] . o; pkGof;sf efjx¿nfO{ lgDg cg';f/ cYof{pg ;lsG5—

s= ;dfhsf ljs[t / lj;Ët kIfsf] oyfy{ lrq0f

v= of}gs'l07t dfgl;stfsf] pb\3f6g

u= :jefjjfbL dfGotfsf] :yfkgf

;dfhsf ljs[t / lj;Ët kIfsf] oyfy{ lrq0f M ;a}sf nflu ;RrfO Pp6} x'g] eP tfklg x/]s b]zsf dflg;x¿ cfbz{ gfdsf km/skm/s vfn] em'6x¿df afFlr/x]sf x'G5g\ . s]xL k|ltefzfnLx¿n] To:tf] em'6af6 d'lQm kfpF5g\ t/ To;a]nf pgLx¿ ;+;f/df k"0f{tM PSn} x'G5g\ eGg] cfzosf] /f]Dof /f]nfFsf] egfO pkGof;df e"ldsfeGbf klxn]s} k[i7df clÍt 5 . o; egfOsf] d'b|0fn] n]vs cfkm" ;dfhsf] tLtf] oyfy{ lrq0f ubf{ PSnf] ePsf] dx;'; u5{g\ egL eGg ;lsG5 . n]vs oyfy{sf] asfOdf s]jn Pp6f aSg] JolQm eP/ cfkm"n] as]sf] s'/f n]Vb} hfFbf of] pkGof; l;lh{t ePsf] xf] eGg] oyfy{sf] cg'e"lt pkGof;sf] cWoogdf kfOG5 . ;dfhsf ljs[t / lj;Ët kIfsf] pb\3f6g ug{ n]vsn] ;dfhaf6} /f]lugL /G8L / afpGgL h:tf 6flS:Psf kfq l6k]sf 5g\ . oL tLg} hgf kfqx¿ o;} ;dfhsf pkh x'g\ . sfd k/];Dd ;dfhn] g} k|of]u klg u/]s} 5 . /f]lugLsf] cfˆgf] ;Dk"0f{ k"j{hLjgnfO{ ;dfhn] s;/L lnof] pkGof;df jl0f{t 5}g . ;dfhd} pm /f]lugL ePsf] rflxF lglZrt xf] . cfh ToxL ;dfhn] p;nfO{ pk]Iff u/]sf] 5 . PSnf] gf/sLo lhGbuL c;xfo eP/ latfpg'kbf{ pm cem PlSnPsL 5] . ;dfhsf] bfloTj cNdlnPsf] 5 . o;nfO{ ljs[lt geg]/ s] eGg] <

pkGof;sL csL{ kfqf /G8L cfˆgf] hLjgdf k"0f{ :qLTjn] o'Qm gf/L lyO{ . ;dfhsf enfßLåf/f kl/l:yltsf] v]ndf pm /G8L agfOPsL 5] . cfˆgf] ;Dk"0f{ of}jg r';]/ eFj/fn] km"n 5f]8] em}F 5f]l8PsL pm cfh pkxf/df k|fKt le?ËLn] u|l;t eP/ d/]sL 5] . To;}sf] u'Go"df n'6'k'6' ub}{ p;nfO{ ef]Ug]x¿ cfh gfs y'Gb} csf]{tkm{ kmls{P/ lxFl8/x]5g\ . cfhLjg ;Gt'li6 k|bfg ub}{ cfPsf] p;sf] d[t z/L/ x]bf{klg cfh kfk nfUg] ePsf] 5 . o:tf ljs[lthGo kl/l:yltx¿df pkGof; nlIft 5 .

afpGgLsf] s'¿ktfdf lgoltnfO{ afx]s c¿nfO{ bf]if lbg ;lsGg . p;nfO{ klg Pp6L :qLdf x'g'kg]{ zf/Ll/s ;'Gb/tfsf] nf]e t kSs} gePsf] xf]Og p;sf] s'¿ktfdf p;sf] cfˆg} bf]if gePsf]n] pm lgbf]{if 5] tfklg p;nfO{ cgfjZos ¿kdf xf]lrc3]{nL vKg'kg]{ afWotf 5 . s'¿ktfsf] ef/dfly ;fdflhs lt/:s[ttfsf] df/ ;d]t vk]sL 5 p;n] . pko'{Qm kfqx¿n] ;dfhaf6 dfg ;Ddfg / dfof kfpg] clwsf/ u'dfPsf x'g\ t < olb x'g\ eg] s;sf sf/0fn] u'dfPsf x'g\ < olb pgLx¿sf] cfˆg} sf/0fn] of] clwsf/ u'd]sf] xf]Og eg] pgLx¿n] ;hfo lsg ef]Ug'kg]{ < eGg] cg'Ql/t k|Zg ;dfhsf cufl8 pEofP/ pQ/ vf]Hg] cfzo pkGof;sf/sf] /x]sf] 5 .

of}gs'l07t dfgl;stfsf] pb\3f6g M of}g dfgl;s ef]s xf] . of}g h}ljs cfjZostf xf] . k"jL{o bz{gdf of}gnfO{ hLjgsf rf/j6f d'Vo p2]ZodWo] Pssf] ¿kdf lnOG5 . …askqÚ pkGof;df of}g dgf]j}1flgs kIfsf] l;Ëf] kf6f] k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 . o; pkGof;sf …dÚ kfq, afpGgL / /f]lugL cr]tgdf of}gs'07f af]s]sf kfq x'g\ . k|mfo8Lo l;4fGtcg';f/ hLjgdf ef]Ug rflxPsf t/ ;fdflhs sf/0fn] ef]Ug gkfOPsf sltko OR5fx¿ cr]tg dgdf s'l07t eP/ a:5g\ / dflg;nfO{ To;k|lt lnlK;t aGg afWo u/fpF5g\ . …dÚ kfq n]vssf] d'vkfq xf] . n]vssf] cfˆgf] d'vkfq;Fu dfgl;s tfbfTDotf x'g;Sg] cj:yfdf n]vs g} …dÚ kfq xf] . pkGof;sf] cfBf]kfGt …dÚ kfq of}gs'07fn] u|l;t 5 . p;n] hLjgdf lgsf; gkfpg'sf] d'Vo sf/0f g} of}gs'07f xf] . jf:tadf p;nfO{ of}g ef]Ug] OR5f 5 t/ k|s6¿kdf JoQm ug{ ;Sb}g . /f]lugLn] ef]UgnfO{ k|:t't x'g cfXjfg ubf{ pm ;Íf]rjz kl5 ;5{ eg] dfgl;s¿kdf rflxF Tot}tkm{ clek|]l/t 5 . afpGgLnfO{ …dÚ kfqsf] of}gs'07f kf]Vg] kfqsf] ¿kdf k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 . :jKgnf]ssf] :j}/sNkgfTds ofqfdf afpGgLsf] z/L/dfly 3f]8f r9]/ cGtl/If nf]sdf ljr/0f u/L :jKgbf]ifsf] kl/0flt;Dd k'Ug …dÚ kfqsf] s'l07t of}g rfxgfsf] k/fsfi7f xf] . k|:t't pkGof; …dÚ kfqåf/f jl0f{t j0f{gfTds z}nLdf /lrt 5 . …dÚ kfq jQmf xf] . pm cfkm}F syfj:t'nfO{ of}gk|tLsx¿df 3'dfpF5 . dlGb/df afpGgL;Fu 7f]lsg k'Ug'n] p;sf] s'07fdf 7"n} xnrn NofPsf] 5 . pkGof;sf k|z:t cWofox¿ of}gs'07f kf]Vg vlr{Psf 5g\ . …dlGb/dfÚ cWofodf afpGgL;Fu …dÚ kfq 7f]lsg k'U5 . …To;sf] of}gs'07f / d]/f] ;+j]bgzLntfÚ df afpGgLsf] s'07f af]Sg] lgx'Fdf cfˆg} s'07f lrlKnPsf] 5 . …/G8Lsf] /ËÚ cWofodf /G8L ef]Ubfsf of}gk|;Ëx¿ k"j{:d[ltsf ¿kdf k|:t't 5g\ . of}g]R5fk"lt{sf cefjn] l;lh{t s'l07t dgl:yltn] cfTdxTofsf] cjl:ylt;Dd k'¥ofpg ;S5 To:tfx¿nfO{ of}gbfg lbP/ pbf/tfk"j{s hLjgbfg lbg ;Sg'k5{ eGg] cfzo n]vssf s[ltx¿df e]l6G5g\ . pbfx/0f:j¿k …sfnf]syfÚ syf;ª\u|x @)#^ df ;ª\u|lxt …hLjgbfgÚ syfnfO{ lng ;lsG5 . o;} ghL/nfO{ cfwf/ dfGbf …dÚ kfq;Fu ef]Ug k|:t't x'g cfXjfg ug]{ /f]lugLsf] k|:tfj …dÚ kfqn] :jLsf/ ul/lbPsf] eP p;n] kSs} cfTdxTofh:tf] lg/Lx sfd ug]{ lyOg eGg ;lsG5 . ;du|df o; pkGof;df cbldt of}g rfxgfdf s'l07t eO{ To;df cfˆgf] hLjg g} 3f]lnO;s]sf] yfxf gkfpg] kfq xf] …dÚ kfq / of}gs'l07t dfgl;stfsf ljZn]if0fhGo kl/l:yltx¿sf] pb\3f6g klg ;f]xL kfqsf] cWoogaf6 x'G5 .

:jefjjfbL dfGotfsf] :yfkgf M pkGof;sf/ sljtf/fd ;/n, :jR5Gb / t/n lhGbuLsf kIfkftL x'g\ . ;dfhdf hl6n, k/tGqL, s7f]/ / c;xh hLjgk4lt 5 . of] plrt hLjgk4lt xf]Og . t;y{ ;b}j :jfefljs hLjg z}nLtkm{ pGd'v x'g'k5{ eGg] :jefjjfbL dfGotfsf] p2]Zo k|flKtsf] d'vkfqsf] ¿kdf …dÚ kfqnfO{ pkGof;sf/n] k|of]u u/]sf 5g\ . ;dfhsf] gh/ gk'u]sf /f]lugL, /G8L, afpGgL h:tf lg/Lx kfqsf] kIfdf …dÚ kfq plePsf] 5 . of] pkGof;sf/sf] cfˆg} b[li6 klg x'g'k5{ . …dÚ kfqnfO{ k/Dkl/t hLjgdf h]lnFb}, d"No / dfGotfsf] b[li6df ;fk]lIft u/fpFb} cl3 a9fP tfklg cGTodf pm ljb|f]x u5{ . pm lg0f{o ug{ k'U5– /f]lugLsf] ofrgf k"/f ePsf] eP ;fob pm dg]{ lyOg . afpGgLsf] of}gs'07fnfO{ lgsf; lbFbf s]xL unt x'g] lyPg . k/Dk/fsf] ;fËnf]df a]/]/ of}gnfO{ g/flvPsf] eP :jo+ pm cyf{t\ …dÚ kfqn] klg s'07f af]s]/ bf}8g'kg]{ lyPg . Pp6L :qLn] /G8L eP/ le?ËL vkL dg{'kg]{ lyPg . pkGof;sf] cGTodf :jo+ …dÚ kfq k/Dk/fut d"Nox¿sf] kL8flj?4 cfˆgf] cleofg ;'? u5{ . o; k|;Ë dfkm{t\ n]vsn] :jefjjfbL dfGotfsf] :yfkgf ug{ vf]h]sf] k'li6 x'G5 . ;6Ls jfSodf eGg'kbf{ pkGof;sf/ ;xcl:tTjsf] cfwf/df k"0f{ ¿kn] of}g:jtGqtfsf] jsfnt u5{g\ eGg] s'/f pgsf s[lQx¿sf] ;du| cWoogaf6 :ki6 x'G5 . o;sf cltl/Qm cGo ;fdflhs, wfld{s, ;f+:s[lts /fhgLlts cfly{s ljifokIfdf ;d]t ljb|f]x e]l6G5 . z}nLut lx;fan] cf}kGofl;s efiff, ljifoj:t', kfqrog, ;fh;Hhf ;d]tn] efjkIfsf] c:jLs[tjfbnfO{ k"0f{ ¿kn] k[i7kf]if0f ul/Psf] 5 . Ps dfq pkGof; …askqÚ df pkGof;sf/sf cfˆgf dfgl;s pxfkf]x, s'07f, cfu|x cflb efjkIfsf] ¿kdf k|sl6t x'g'n] klg pkGof;sf] p2]Zo ;an¿kdf k|s6 ePsf] dfGg ;lsG5


sljtf/fdsf afn pkGof;sf] cWoog


sldnfsf] syfÚ afnpkGof;

sljtf/fdsf] …sldnfsf] syfÚ zLif{sdf …syfÚ pNn]v eP klg …sldnfsf] syfÚ syf geO{ pkGof; xf] . :jo+ n]vsn] afnpkGof; egL pNn]v u/]af6 of] :ki6 x'G5 . sldnfsf] hLjgsf] lj:t[t lrq0fn] / v08of]hgfn] ;d]t o; j[mltnfO{ pkGof;sf] sf]6Ldf /flvg' plrt g} 7x5{ . @)$* lj=;+= df afnsf];]nL k|sfzgdfk{mt\ ;j{k|yd k|sflzt k|:t't …sldnfsf] syfÚ :gfts tx …P]lR5s g]kfnLÚ afn;flxTosf] kf7\Øk':tssf] ¿kdf ;dflji6 5 . o; k':tsn] @)$( ;fndf g]kfn afn;flxTo ;dfhsf] ;jf]{Ts[i6 k'/:sf/ klg kfPsf] lyof] .

ljifoj:t'

k|:t't j[mltsf] syfTdstfnfO{ n]vsn] cToGt tLj ultdf cufl8 a9fPsf 5g\ afndl:tisnfO{ sf}t'xntfsf ;fy cufl8 a9fpg syfj:t' cToGt ;kmn 5 . syfj:t' sf}t'xnk"0f{ dfq 5}g, 1fgjw{s ;d]t 5 . j:t'j0f{gn] n]vsdf hLjlj1fgsf] kof{Kt 1fg ePsf] cfef; ldN5 . j:t'kIfs} dfWodaf6 n]vsn] afnaflnsfnfO{ ofjt\ wf/0ff lbg] k|of; u/]sf] kfOG5 .

o; pkGof;sf] klxnf] v08df bz}Fsf] ;dodf s]6fs]6Lx¿ rËf p8fpFb} x'G5g\ . rF'l8Psf] rËf e]6\g …czf]sÚ gfds s]6fnfO{ bf}8\b} hfFbf ufl8Psf] Pp6f 9'Ëfdf 7]; nfU5 / 9'Ëf] g} plKsG5 ToxfF sldnfsf] uF'8 x'G5 / u'F8 eTsG5 . sldnfx¿ cfˆgf k'mn af]Sb} csf]{ gofF u'8tk{m nfU5g\ . sldnf;DaGwL cem a9L hfgsf/L lng czf]s lbbL;Fu lj1fgsf] k':ts lnP/ k9\bf k9\b} lgbfpF5 / sldnfs} ;kgf b]Vg yfN5 .

bf];|f] v08df czf]s ;kgfdf cfk"mnfO{ klg sldnfs} ¿kdf ToxL p;nfO{ 7];nfUbf elTsPsf] sldnfsf] 3/df kfpF5 . ToxfF rf/ lsl;dsf sldnfx¿ 5g\ M -!_ /fgL sldnf, -@_ efn] sldnf, -#_ sfdbf/ sldnf / -$_ of]4f sldnf . czf]s sfdbf/ ju{sf] :sfp6x¿ 5 . ;Dk"0f{ sldnfx¿ :jtM:k"mt{¿kdf cf–cfˆgf] sfo{ ;lqmotfsf ;fy ul//x]sf x'G5g\ . ;a} sldnf 3fOt] afnaRrf / k'mn af]s]/ gofF af;:yfgdf k'U5g\ .

o; pkGof;sf] t];|f] v08df sfdbf/ / of]4f sldnfx¿ lzsf/sf] vf]hLdf hfG5g\ . Pp6f s'nf]kfl/ d/]sf] uF8\Øf}nf] e]l6G5 / s'nf]sf] aLr;Dd Pp6f n8]sf] nÝL / To;} nÝL;Dd n8]/ k'u]sf] Pp6f t[0fsf] ;xf/faf6 pgLx¿ uF8\Øf}nf;Dd k'U5g\ . pgLx¿n] lzsf/ s;/L nfg] egL ;Nnfx ubf{ub}{ Pp6f sfu ;f] uF8\Øf}nfnfO{ 6Kk l6k]/ p8\5 . sldnfx¿n] csf]{ uF8\Øf}nf vf]hL u/]/ To;nfO{ df/L uF'8df NofpF5g\ .

rf}yf] v08df lgs} lbg;Dd nuftf/ 7"nf] jiff{ x'G5 . lzsf/df uPsf sldnfx¿ xtf/xtf/ kmj]{m/ e]naf6 u'F8sf] ;'/Iff u5{g\ . efn] sldnfx¿ rflxF sfd ub}{gg\ . sfdbf/ sldnfx¿n] efn] sldnfnfO{ 6f]s]/ eufOlbG5g\ . czf]s sldnf / sfdbf/ sldnfsf] gfOs]sf] aLrdf lzIffk|b ;+jfb x'G5 .

kfFrf}F v08df jiff{ofdsf] lrq0f 5 . cTolws jiff{ ePsfn] sldnfsf] u'F8leq} kfgL k:5 . sfdbf/x¿n] u'F8sf ;a} ‰ofn9f]sfx¿ aGb u/]/, u'F8sf] ;'/Iffy{ cfk"mx¿n] /f]k]sf] Rofpsf] h/faf6 vg]/ xfjf cfpg] af6f] agfpF5g\ . czf]snfO{ jiff{sf] /ldtf x]g]{ /x/ nfUb5 / ToxL af6f]af6 aflx/ cfP/ /x/ d]6\5 . crfgs xfjfsf] Ps emf]Ssfn] kfgLsf] 5fn cfP/ Rofpd'lg ;'/lIft a;]sf !%–@) sldnfx¿nfO{ aufP/ nfG5 . czf]s sldnf lrRofpFb} ;kgfaf6 lapFemG5 .

7];nfUbf eTs]sf] sldnfsf] u'F8sf] ;Demgf lapFlemPsf] czf]snfO{ x'G5 / aflx/ uP/ sj{mnfsf] kft r'F8L sldnfsf] u'F8dfly /fvL ;'/lIft kfl/lbG5 . o;/L cToGt ;/n, ;+j]]ufTds tyf tLa| ultdf k|:t't j[mltsf] syfgs cl3 a9\b} 6'lËP/ afnaflnsfnfO{ ;';Dk|]if0f ug{ ;Ifd ePsf] 5 .

kfq

afnaflnsfx¿ :jefjtM kz'k~5L k|]dL x'G5g\ . ToxL tYonfO{ cfTd;ft\ u/]/ xf]nf, sljtf/fdn] o; j[mltdf Ps x'n sldnf -cyf{t\ c;ª\Vo_ kfqsf] ¿kdf k|:t't 5g\ . tL sldnfx¿nfO{ n]vsn] rf/ ju{df ljefhg u/]sf 5g\ . /fgL sldnf, efn] sldnf, sfdbf/ sldnf / of]4f sldnf . pko'{Qm rt'j{uL{o kfqsf dfWodaf6 sljtf/fdn] ;dfhsf] juL{o lrGtgdf ;d]t k|xf/ u/]sf] s'/f czf]s sldnf / of]4fx¿sf] gfOs] sldnf aLrsf] ;+afbaf6 :ki6 x'G5 . pko'{Qm rf/ y/Lsf kfqnfO{ d'Vo / uf}0f u/L b'O{{ ju{df ljefhg ug{ ;lsG5 .

d'Vo kfq – czf]s sldnf

uf}0f kfq – /fgL sldnf, efn] sldnf / sfdbf/ sldnf .

t[tLo k'?if z}nLdf n]lvPsf] k|:t't afn pkGof;df pkGof;sf] cfBf]kfGt czf]s sldnfsf] lqmofsnfknfO{ s]Gb|ljGb'df /fv]/ j0f{g ul/Psf] 5 . czf]s sldnf Ps OdfGbf/, st{Jolgi7, ldng;f/, ;xof]uL / ;fxl;nf] klg 5 . pm cfkt\ k/]sfx¿nfO{ ;xof]u ug{ ?rfpF5 . ;dfhsf gLltlgod / cg'zf;gnfO{ k"0f{ ¿kn] kfng u5{ . o:t} k|j[lQn] afnaflnsfx¿df klg :yfg n]cf];\ eGg] cfsfª\Iff n]vssf] b]lvG5 . ;dfhdf ;Rrl/qjfg\ JolQm eP/ a:g'k5{ eGg] lzIff czf]s sldnfsf] rl/qn] afnaflnsfx¿nfO{ l;sfpF5 . gfos kfqsf ¿kdf czf]s sldnf b]vf k/]sf] 5 / gfosLo u'0fx¿ p;df ljBdfg 5g\ . efn] sldnfsf] dfWodaf6 vn gfosLo :jefj bzf{P/ To:tfsf] ;dfhdf plrt :yfg 5}g eGg] s'/f efn] kfqn] sfd gug'{, a;La;L vfg' / c¿n] sfd u/]sf] 7fpFdf cfP/ cNemfO{lbg' / sfdbf/ sldnfn] efn] sldnfnfO{ 6f]s]/ eufpg'n] k|li6G5 . czf]s sfdbf/ sldnf xf], efn] sldnfnfO{ xKsfpFb} eG5 – …sfd;fd s]xL ug'{ 5}g, csf{n] hDdf u/]sf] vfgf vfof], d:t eof], lxF8\Øf] . pN6} csf{sf] sfd cNdNofpg cfpg], dfl/lbG5' a'lem;\ .Ú112 sfdbf/ sldnfx¿ ;dfhsf vDaf x'g\, Ol~hlgo/, 8fS6/, v]tLjfn, :sfp6 x'g\, k"/} 3/ / ;dfhsf] Joj:yf ltgLx¿s} xftdf 5 . oL sldnfx¿n] ;j{;fwf/0f >dhLjL hgtfsf] k|ltlglwTj u/]sf 5g\ . /fgL sldnfn] xfd|f] ;dfhsf lgliqmo gf/Lju{sf] k|ltlglwTj u5{ . pm efn];Fu ;dfud u/]/ aRrf dfq hGdfpg] sfd u5{ . o;/L leGgfleGg} kfqsf] dfWodn] ;dfhdf juL{o ljefhg b]vfO{, sfo{ut Pstfsf b[li6n] To;f] geO{ ;dfh e]befjxLg / ;dtfd"ns xf];\ eGg] cfzo n]vssf] /x]sf] 5 .

lzNk

…sldnfsf] syfÚ kfFr v08df ljefhg ul/Psf] 5 . Ps} a;fOdf k9]/ ;lsg] syfs} cfofddf of] pkGof; /lrt 5 . w]/} nfdf] eof] eg] afnaflnsfsf] :t/ gf£g] eon] klg n]vsn] o;nfO{ n3' cfsf/ g} lbPsf] x'g'k5{ . k"0f{ k|jfxdo z}nLdf pkGof; cufl8 a9]sf] 5 . j[mlqdtf / cfEofl;stfsf] uGw;Dd kfOGg . pgn] cfˆgf k|f}9;flxTodf eGbf k"0f{ leGg lzNkz}nLsf] k|of]u u/]sf 5g\ . afn;flxTosf] lzNksnf cWoog u/]/ sljtf/fdsf] k|f}9;flxTosf] lzNksnfsf] clnslt klg e]p kfpg ;lsGg . eflifs k|of]usf b[li6n] klg k|:t't j[mlt cToGt ;/n 5 . k"0f{t afn ;fk]If efiffsf] k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . efiff k|of]udf :jfefljstf au]sf] 5 . pkGof;sf] k|f/Ded} …eR5]t\Ú113 zAb k|of]u u/]sf 5g\ n]vsn] . bz}F cfof], vfpFnf lkpFnf = = = h:tf afnsnfO{ dgf]/~hg lbg] uLtx¿ klg k|;Ë ldnfP/ /fv]sf 5g\ . sljtf/fdsf] efiff k|fozM em/f]{ z}nLsf] e]l6G5 . ;du|df lzNk;Hhfsf b[li6n] k|:t't j[mlt ;kmn 5 .

efj

s'g} klg /rgfsf] d"n sYo jf cfzo g} efj xf] . k|To]s /rgf lglZrt p2]Zo jf efj lnP/ hlGdPsf] x'G5 . log} s'/fnfO{ cfTd;ft\ u/]/ sljtf/fd k/Dk/fjfbL, ¿l9ut, cfbz{jfbL kyaf6 x6]/ leGg efjwf/fdf ;flxTo /R5g\ . o; j[mltsf efjkIf lgDgfg';f/ 5g\ .

-s_ sldnfsf] hLjgrqmsf] af/]df hLjzf:qLo tYodf cfwfl/t 1fg afnaflnsfnfO{ lbg'

h:t}, sldnfx¿ hldgd'lg a:5g\, pgLx¿ cfk;df 6fpsf] hf]8/ ;Gb]z ;f6f;f6 u5{g\ sldnfn] k'mn kf5{, k'mnsf] ljsl;t ¿k Ko"kf xf], sldnfn] cfk"meGbf krf; u'gf a];L ef/ af]Sg ;S5g\, cfˆgf] k]6sf] vfgf lems]/ csf]{ sldnfnfO{ afF8\g ;S5g\, logLx¿ ;+o'Qm ¿kdf lzsf/ ug]{ u5{g\, ;d"xdf ldn]/ sfd u5{g\ /fgL / efn] sldnfsf kv]F6f klg x'G5g\, ;dfud kl5 efn] sldnf d5{, cflb h:tf sldnfhLjg ;DaGwL hLjzf:q;Fu ;DalGwt 1fg ;d]t lbg] hdsf]{ j[mltdf /x]sf] b]lvG5 .

-v_ afnjflnsfx¿nfO{ pTkfbg / ljt/0f k|0ffnLdf ;dtfd"ns ;f]rtkm{ k|]l/t ug'{

o; s[lqdf pTkfbg / ljt/0fdf ;dtfd"ns ;f]r 5 . t/ sldnfsf] k|fs[lts ljefhgnfO{ ;fdflhs ljefhgsf] s'/Llt;Fu o;nfO{ rl/tfy{ ul/Psf] 5}g . of] k|fs[lts ljefhgsf] kIfdf 5 . k|fs[lts lx;faaf6 kfPsf leGgtf;Fu} pgLx¿sf sfo{ljefhgnfO{ o;n] ;sf/fTds b[li6n] x]5{ . efn]nfO{ czf]sn] ufnL ubf{ pm x'g'sf] dxQf jf p;sf] sfdsf] dxTTjaf/]df a"9f] sldnfn] atfpF5 . ;dfhdf lg/Gt/tf lbg tyf ;Gtfg lbg efn] sldnfn] hLjg pT;u{ u/]sf] pbfx/0f klg o;df k|z+;fs} efiffdf k|:t't 5 .

-u_ sldnfx¿sf] ;fdflhs Joj:yfsf] dfWodaf6 afnaflnsfnfO{ 1fg lbg'

k|:t't pkGof;n] Pp6f l;Ëf] ;dfhsf] lrq0f sldnfsf] hLjgrqm dfk{mt\ u/]sf] 5 . sldnfsf] ;fdflhs Joj:yf h:t} dfgj ;d'bfodf klg ljleGg ju{df dfG5] x'g] / cfˆgf] sfd ug]{ s'/fsf] cleJolQmsf ;fy} sfd gug]{n] c¿af6 ckx]lnt tyf bl08t x'g'kg]{ s'/fsf] cleJolQm k|:t't j[mltsf] efjn] lbPsf] 5 . o; j[mltdf o; kIfnfO{ k'li6 ug]{ k|z:t tYox¿ pknAw 5g\ . h:t}, …;a} hgf k'mn, nfef{ / Ko"kf af]s]/ cf];fl//x]sf lyPÚ, …;a} sldnf cfcfˆgf lx;fan] sfd ul//x]sf lyP, s;}n] s;}nfO{ c/fpg kb}{gYof] .Ú = = = …;a} ef]s} lyP . vfgf cufl8 g} lyof] t/ sldnfx¿ ;dfhsf] cufl8 gk'¥ofO{ s'g} klg vfgf af6fdf vfFb}gg\ . d"n 9's'6Ldf /fv]/ dfq ;a}n] afF8Lr'F8L vfG5g\ . = = = …uF8\Øf}nfnfO{ sldnfx¿n] cufl8 l3;fb}{ lyP . ;a}sf] ;Nnfx ldNYof] . ;a}sf] sfd ug]{ tl/sf ldNYof] . ;a}sf] ;f]rfO ldNYof]Ú = = = . = = = …uhasf] rng lyof] ToxfF . s;}n] s;}nfO{ lgoGq0f ug{ kb}{gYof] . pgLx¿ cfk}mn] cfk}mnfO{ lgoGq0f uy]{ . cfcfk}m cg'zfl;t lyP = = =Ú cflb h:tf pb\w[tf+zx¿n] pko'{Qm s'/fsf] k'li6 u5{g\ .

;du|df o; j[mltn] afnaflnsfx¿nfO{ rl/qjfg\ agfpg], c¿nfO{ ;xof]u ug]{, ;fdflhs rl/qsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ cfzosf] efj af]s]sf] 5 .

cgf}7f] ofqfÚ afnpkGof;sf] cWoog

k[i7e"ld

sljtf/fdn] ljleGg cGt/f{li6«o ;ª\3;+:yf cGtu{t ;fd'bflos :jf:Yo ;]jf;Fu ;Da4 ;+:yfdf /xL ljljw cg'ej xfl;n u/]sf 5g\ . ltg} ;fd'bflos ;+:yf ;DaGwL cg';Gwfg tyf cg'ejnfO{ ljifo agfO{ afnaflnsfx¿nfO{ ;dod} :jf:Yo ;DaGwL ;r]ttf lbg] p2]Zon] /f]rs afn pkGof;x¿ n]v]/ k|sflzt u/]sf 5g\ . o:tf afnpkGof;df …cgf}7f] ofqfÚ klg Ps xf] . k|:t't pkGof; ;j{k|yd cGt/s[of k|sfzgn] gjo'jf dfl;s klqsfsf] @)%# ;fnsf leGgleGg cÍx¿df wf/fjflxs ¿kdf k|sflzt ePsf] lyof] eg] @)%* df ;femf k|sfzgn] k':tsfsf/ ¿kdf k|sflzt eof] . of] k':ts :gfts tx …P]lR5s g]kfnLÚ afn;flxTosf] kf7\Øk':tssf] ¿kdf ;dflji6 klg 5 . o; k':tsn] @)%* ;fndf ;femf afn;flxTo k'/:sf/ klg kfPsf] lyof] .

cgf}7f] ofqfÚ afnpkGof;sf] syfj:t'

afn;flxTo xf];\ jf k|f}9;flxTo xf];\, syfj:t' pkGof;sf] cfwf/j:t' xf] . h;sf] lgdf{0f ;fdfGo jf hl6n 36gfsf] ;+of]hgaf6 x'G5 . o;nfO{ sfo{sf/0fx¿sf] ;"qa4 :j¿k cyjf 36gfx¿sf] ;Ë7g eGg ;lsG5 . h;sf] cfwf/df pkGof;sf] cfj[mlt v8f x'G5 .114 k|:t't pkGof; …cgf}7f] ofqfÚsf] ljifoj:t' klg jf:tjd} cgf}7f] 5 . To;}n] n]vsn] zLif{s g} …cgf}7f] ofqfÚ /fv]sf x'g;S5g\ . o;df n]vsn] z/L/lj1fg, cf}iflwlj1fg / ;dfhlj1fgnfO{ ljifoj:t' agfPsf 5g\ . k|foM pgsf afnj[mltsf kfqx¿ :jKgdf ljr/0f u/]/ 1fg k|fKt ub{5g\ . ToxL afnkfqsf] :jKgnfO{ k|of]u u/L n]vs cfˆgf] egfO /fV5g\ . o; j[mltdf klg o:t} ul/Psf] 5 . ;'hLsf] rsrs] efO ;GbLkn] rsrs u/]/ v'§f] xNnfpFb} ubf{ 7f]lsP/ tf;Ldf /flvPsf] Pp6f l6gsf] a§f v;]/ v'§fdf rf]6 nfU5 . ;'hLn] cf}iflw nufOlblG5g\ . lbbLefO cf}iflw z/L/df k;]/ sfd ug]{ k|j[mofsf ;DaGwdf /f]rs 5nkmn u5{g\ / vfgf vfP/ 9lNsPkl5 ;'hL ToxL cl3 5nkmn ul/Psf] cf}iflwsf] rfdTsfl/s k|of]u / z/L/ ;+/rgfsf] af/]df s'/f v]nfpFbf v]nfpFb} tGb|f cj:yfdf cfk"m ;fFRr} g} PlG6afof]l6s cf}iflw eP/ efOsf] z/L/df k|j]z u/]sf] ;kgf b]lV5g\ / oxL :jKgdf pgsf] ;fxl;s tyf …cgf}7f] ofqfÚ ;'? x'G5 . pgL d'vaf6 k]6 x'Fb} l8of]l8gd eGg] csf]{ v08df k'lU5g\ . ToxfFaf6 s'g} cb[Zo zlQmn] ;f];]/ pgnfO{ /utsf] vf]nf -/Qmg;f_ df k'¥ofOlbG5 hxfF vfgfaf6 cfPsf cGo tTTjx¿ wdfwd KnfHdfdf ¿kfGtl/t eO/x]sf x'G5g\ . ;'hL;Fu ;]tf / /ftf /Qmsf]lifsfx¿;Fu, Dofqmf]k]mh, l6 /Qmsf]lifsf / la /Qmsf]lifsf;Fu clg le6fldg l;, le6fldg P / Un'sf]htTTj;Fu klg kl/ro cfbfgk|bfg x'G5 . sltko sf]lifsfx¿ t cf}iflw -;'hL_ sf] k|efjn] nvt/fg klg x'G5g\ . ;a} sf]lifsfx¿ cfcfˆgf sfo{ ;lqmotfk"j{s ;DkGg ul//x]sf b]lvG5g\ . crfgs /Qmsf]lifsfx¿ bf}8fbf}8 ug{ yfN5g\ . l6 x]Nk/n] l;6L k'ms]/ cGo sf]lifsfx¿nfO{ ;"lrt u/]sf] b]lvG5 . ePsf] s] /x]5 eg] efOsf] v'§fdf nfu]sf] 3fpaf6 cToGt zlQmzfnL efO/;x¿ z/L/leq k;]sf /x]5g\ / ltg} efO/;x¿nfO{ lgliqmo t'Nofpg /Qmsf]lifsfx¿ ;lqmP ePsf /x]5g\ . ;'hL klg /ut;Fu} aUb} Tot}lt/ nflU5g\ . /Qmsf]lifsf / efO/;sf] aLrdf 3df;fg o'4 x'G5 t/ oL efO/;x¿nfO{ /Qmsf]lifsfn] lhTg ;Sb}gg\ . olQs}df Pp6f efO/; l6 x]Nk/sf] z/L/leq k|j]z u5{ . crfgs Tof] efO/; c¿ s'g} geP/ Pr=cfO{=eL= ePsf] s'/f ;'hLn] yfxf kfpFl5g\ . l6 x]Nk/ leq efO/;sf] ;ª\Vof j[l4 ePkl5 l6 x]Nk/ k'm6]/ c;ª\Vo efO/;x¿ k}mnG5g\ . qmdzM /Qmsf]lifsfx¿dfly efO/;sf] cfqmd0f a9\b} hfG5 / pgLx¿ cfk"m ljhoL ePsf] 3f]if0ff ub{5g\ . efO/;n], …efOn] :ofd]n] OGh]S;g nufPsf] k'/fgf] ;'O{n] 3fp sf]6\ØfPsf] / cfk"m ToxL ;'O{ x'Fb} 3fpsf] dfWodaf6 efOsf] z/L/df k|j]z ug{ ;kmn ePsf]Ú s'/f c§xf; ub}{ ;'hLnfO{ atfpF5 . crfgs ;]tf /Qmsf]lifsfx¿n] 3fpsf] /ut y'Gg afFw]sf] afFw k'm6\bf /ut aflx/ lg:sG5 / ToxL /ut;Fu ;'hL klg aflx/ lgl:sg k'lU5g\ . aflx/ lg:s]/ x]bf{ t clxn] klg efO ToxL Zofdn] k|of]u u/]sf] OGh]S;gn] 3fp sf]6\ØfO/x]sf] b]lV5g\ . efOsf] cfˆg} uNtLn] p;nfO{ Pr=cfO{=eL= efO/;n] cfqmd0f u/]sf] s'/f a'e]m/ pgnfO{ ;f¥x} b'Mv nfU5 / pgL ?g yflN5g\ . olQs}df pgsf] lgb|f v'N5 . lapFeFmbf klg pgL t ;fFlRrs} kf] /f]O/x]sL /lx5g\ . Tof] t Pp6f :jKg dfq /x]5 . pgsf] efO k"0f{tM :j:y lyof] / p;sf] 3fpdf ;'/lIft k§L ;d]t afFlwPsf] lyof] . pgL v'zL eOg\ . o;/L o; pkGof;sf] syfj:t' u'lDkmt ePsf] 5 .

kfq -rl/q_

syfj:t' kfq / rl/q;Fu ;DalGwt x'G5 . rl/qnfO{ st} kfq / st} lqmofsnfk / sfo{Jofkf/ cflbsf gfdaf6 klg lrgfpg] k|of; ul/G5 . dfgjhLjgsf] Jofks efio ptfg]{ tTTj g} rl/q xf] . JolQmsf cGt/ / afXo b'j} ;+/rgf rl/qs} dfWodaf6 k|s6 x'g] tTTj x'g\ .115 o; pkGof;sf kfqx¿ ;'hL -cf}iflw_ efO ;GbLk, alxgL lkÍL, cfdf / cGo kfqx¿df KnfHdf, ;]tf /Qmsf]lifsf, /ftf /Qmsf]lifsf, Dofqmf]k]mh, l6 x]Nk/, l6 /Qmsf]lifsf, la /Qmsf]lifsf, le6fldg l;, le6fldg P / Un'sf]h tTTj x'g\ . oL kfqx¿nfO{ d'Vo kfq / uf}0f kfqsf cfwf/df x]g{ ;lsG5 .

-!_ d'Vo kfq – ;'hL -cf}iflw_

-@_ uf}0f kfq – cGo ;Dk"0f{

d'Vo kfq ;'hL -cf}iflw_ sf] jl/kl/sf] kl/j]zdf ;Dk"0f{ syfj:t' 3'Db5 . oxfF kfqx¿sf] dfWodaf6 ljz]iftM /Qm ;~rfng k|j[mof, cf}iflwn] /Qmk|0ffnLdf k|j]z u/]/ sfd ug]{ k|j[mof, efO/;x¿n] z/L/df k'¥ofpg] b'ik|efj k|:6\\Øfpg' d'Vo p2]Zo /x]sf] b]lvG5 . obfsbf ;'hLsf egfOx¿n] zf/Ll/s k|0ffnL h:tf] ;an, :j:y / ;lqmo k|lqmofdf dfgj ;dfh lsg rln/x]sf] 5}g < eGg] h:tf lh1f;fx¿ klg e]l6G5g\ . t/ of] wf/0ff kfqut clegofTds rl/qdf cfwfl/t geO{ s]jn ;+jfbdf dfq ;Lldt 5 . o; pkGof;sf kfqx¿nfO{ cGo ;Gbe{af6 klg ljZn]if0f ug{ ;lsG5 .

-!_ ;t\ kfq,

-@_ c;t\ kfq

;t\ kfqdf ;'hL -cf}iflw_ efO, alxgL, cfdf, ljleGg dfly pNn]v ul/Psf ;Dk"0f{ /Qmsf]lifsfx¿, le6fldg tTTjx¿ / Un'sf]h tTTj kb{5g\ . logLx¿n] ;dfhsf ;t\ kfqn] ;fdflhs JolQmsf] :jf:Yosf] lxt lglDt cfˆgf] rfl/lqs j}lzi6\Ø k|:6\ØfPsf 5g\ . z/L/¿kL ;dfhnfO{ ;'Jojl:yt agfO/fVgdf ;Sbf] of]ubfg lbPsf 5g\ . To;}u/L vnkfqdf z/L/df cfqmd0f u/L d[To'sf] d'v;Dd k'¥ofpg] Pr=cfO{=eL= efO/; /x]sf 5g\ . logLx¿n] ;dfhsf b'h{g kfqx¿sf] k|ltlglwTj u/]sf 5g\ . h;/L b'h{gx¿n] ;dfhnfO{ b"lift agfO/x]sf x'G5g\, To;/L g} oL Pr=cfO{=eL= efO/;x¿n] klg z/L/df k|j]z u/]/ c:j:y agfO/x]5g\ . o;/L kfqut rl/qn] efO/;sf] h:tf] xf]Og, ;'hL -cf}iflw_ / ljleGg /Qmsf]lifsfx¿sf] h:tf] ;dfh¿kL z/L/nfO{ enf] x'g] sfd ug'{k5{ eGg] lzIff afnaflnsfx¿nfO{ lbG5 .

lzNk

k|:t't …cgf}7f] ofqfÚ afnpkGof; gjo'jf dfl;s afnklqsf -@)%#_ df wf/fjflxs ¿kdf hDdf 5 cÍdf k|sflzt eO{ @)%* df ;femf k|sfzgaf6 k|sflzt Psf] 5 . sljtf/fd h'g pd]/ txsf afnsx¿nfO{ Wofgdf /fv]/ j[mlt n]lvPsf] xf], ToxL pd]/ ;d"xsf kfqx¿ k|of]u ug]{ ub{5g\ . o; j[mltdf d'Vo kfqsf ¿kdf sIff ( df k9\g] 5fqfnfO{ k|of]u ul/Psf]n] dfWolds txsf afnaflnsfx¿sf nflu of] j[mlt a9L ;fGble{s 5 . …sldnfsf] syfÚ sf] t'ngfdf of] lgs} nfdf] lSni6 / ljifoj:t' klg hl6n 5 . sljtf/fd :jefjn] g} em/f]{ efiffz}nLsf k|of]Qmf x'g\ . o; j[mltdf klg em/f]{ z}nLsf] k|efj kf/]sf] b]lvG5 . obfsbf pvfg 6'Ssfsf] klg k|of]u ePsf] kfOG5 . ;+jfbfTds z}nL cfBf]kfGt kfOG5 eg] k"/ssf ¿kdf n]vs af]Ng] ub{5g\ . pQm k':tsdf n]vsn] z/L/ lj1fgsf k|z:t cË|]hL kfl/eflifs zAbx¿nfO{ g]kfnLs/0f ug]{ k|of; u/]sf 5g\ eg] l6 x]Nk/, Dofqmf]k]mh, Un'sf]h, le6fldg, efO/;, ˆofS6«L, PlG6afof]l6s h:tf s]xL zAbx¿ oyf¿k 5g\ . pkGof; j:t'jfbL / hLjzf:qLo tYodf cfwfl/t x'g'n] n]vs lj1fg ;flxTosf/ x'g'sf] oyfy{ k|dfl0ft x'G5 . ljifoj:t' hl6n eP tfklg pkGof;sf/sf] lzNkz}nLn] k|:t't j[mltnfO{ cToGt sf}t'xno'Qm / afnsx¿n] k9\g ?rfpg] 9fFrfdf k|:t't ul/g'n] pgsf] lzNk ;xh 5 eGg ;lsG5 .

efj

j[mltsf] cGtlg{lxt nIo jf p2]Zo efj xf] . efj/lxtsf] /rgf lg?2]Zo x'g hfG5 . k|:t't /rgfdf n]vsn] ax' ljifonfO{ efjkIfdf ptfg]{ k|of; u/]sf 5g\ / tL kIfnfO{ a'Fbfut ¿kdf o;/L pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 .

-s_ z/L/ kIf

-v_ cf}iflw kIf

-u_ ;dfh kIf

-3_ /f]u kIf

z/L/ kIf M n]vsn] z/L/ lj1fgsf tYodf cfwfl/t eO{ z/L/ ;+/rgf cGtu{tsf z/L/sf cjoj, /Qmsf]lifsf, /QmgnL, vfBgnL cflb / ltgLx¿sf] sfo{ cflbnfO{ lj:t[t ljj/0fdf k|:t't u/L afndl:tisdf a'emfpg] k|of; u/]sf 5g\ . o;/L z/L/ lj1fgsf af/]df hfgsf/L ePkl5 afnsx¿df :jf:Yo ;DaGwL r]tgf cfpg] wf/0ff n]vsdf /x]sf] b]lvG5 .

cf}iflw kIf M cf}iflw k|of]u / To;sf] ;sf/fTds / gsf/fTds k|efjn] z/L/df k'¥ofpg] c;/sf] 1fg lbg' klg oxfF n]vssf] ceLi6 5 . ;fgf] ltgf] ;d:ofdf cf}iflw k|of]u ul/xfNg' x'Gg . o;f] ul/Pdf xfd|f z/L/sf /Qms0fx¿df gsf/fTds c;/ k5{ . c;fWo /f]u nfu]sf] cj:yfdf / z/L/sf] k|0ffnL PSn}n] /f]usf efO/;nfO{ k/flht ug{ c;dy{ ePsf] l:yltdf dfq cf}iflw k|of]u ug'{k5{ / ;fy} cf}iflwsf] ;xL k|of]u ug'{k5{ eGg] cfzo ;d]t n]vssf] kfOG5 .

;dfh kIf M sljtf/fd ;dtfd"ns ;dfhsf kIfkftL x'g\ . pgs]f of] kIf …sldnfsf] syfÚ sf ;fy} o; …cgf}7f] ofqfÚdf klg k|uf9 ¿kdf k|ik'ml6t 5 . pgn] oxfF ;'hL -d'Vo kfq_ sf] dfWodaf6 of] s'/f /fv]sf 5g\ . z/L/ lj1fg -;+/rgf_ sf] lgoldttf, k|To]s cËk|ToË, sf]ifsf]lifsfx¿sf] sfo{zLntfb]lv k|efljt eO{ ;'hLn] ;'Jojl:yt / ;dtfd"ns ;dfhsf] rfxgf u/]sf s]xL pbfx/0fx¿ x'g\ = = = …of] t 7\ØfSs} xfdL dfG5]n] rfxg] u/]sf] Pp6f k"0f{ Jojl:yt ;';Ël7t cfbz{ ;dfh h:tf] kf] /x]5 .Ú = = = s'g} sf]lifsf JolQmut pFrgLrsf] bhf{ lbg] rng klg 5}g .Ú = = = …slt :jfefljs 9Ëdf Jojl:yt 5 z/L/ . o:t} ;dfhsf] t xfd|f] sNkgf 5 lg = = = .Ú116

n]vsn] k|:t't pkGof;sf P8\; efO/;x¿nfO{ ;fd|fHojfbsf] k|tLssf] ¿kdf lnPsf] s'/f JoQm u/]sf 5g\ . ;fd|fHojfbLx¿ klg s'g} /fi6«df k;]/ ;j{k|yd To; b]zsf] ;"rgf k|0ffnLdf sAhf hdfO{ To;nfO{ tx;gx; kf5{g\ .117 o; j[mltdf klg ToxL cfzo JoQm ul/Psf]n] pko'{Qm s'/fsf] k'li6 x'G5 . h:t}M = = = …aflx/L tTTjx¿ ;xof]u / zlQmsf] ldzgsf gfddf k|fljlws, ljz]if1, ;Nnfxsf/, :jo+;]js jf ;xof]uL ;]gf lnP/ Pp6f ;dfhdf k:b5g\ / kl5 pgLx¿ g} :yfgLo ;+:j[mlt, ;dfh, cy{ / k|lt/Iff Joj:yfdf xfjL eP/ cfˆgf] ck|ToIf gjpklgj]z agfpFb} nU5g\ = = = .Ú118 o:t} cfzosf] k'li6 Pr=cfO{=eL= efO/;sf] sygn] klg x'G5 – = = = …o:t} n8fOF xfdLn] l5gl5gdf b'O{{tLg dlxgf;Dd z/L/leq n8\g'kg]{5 . To;kl5 dfq ;xL dfg]df xfdLn] o; z/L/df xfd|f] ;fd|fHo v8f u/]sf x'g]5f}F .119 o;/L n]vsn] ;dfhsf ljljw kIfx¿nfO{ ;d]t OlËt u/]sf] tYo pko'{Qm pb\w[tf+zx¿af6 :ki6 x'G5 .

/f]u kIf M n]vsn] d'VotM P8\; /f]u;Fu ;r]t /xg afnaflnsfnfO{ k|]l/t u/]sf 5g\ . ;'hLsf] efO ;GbLkn] cfk"mnfO{ 3fp nfu]sf] 7fpFdf ˆofFlsPsf] ;"O{n] sf]6\ØfpFbf Pr=cfO{=eL= efO/;n] p;sf] z/L/df k|j]z ub{5g\ . lsgeg] Tof] ;'O{ To;} unt sfddf k|of]u u/]/ ˆoflsPsf] lyof] / k|of]u ug]{ JolQm /fd] Pr=cfO{=eL= efO/;n] cfqmfGt lyof] . o;/L cgfjZos ¿kdf unt tl/sfn] 3fp sf]6\ØfpFbf klg c;fWo /f]u nfUg ;S5 . Pr=cfO{=eL= efO/; of}g;+;u{sf sf/0f k|f}9 JolQmdf dfq ;g]{ xf]Og, ljleGg c;fjwfgLn] afnaflnsfdf ;d]t o;n] cfqmd0f ug{ ;S5 . of] k|f0f3fts / lgsf] gx'g] /f]u xf] . t;y{ o;b]lv ;fjwfg /xg' k5{ eGg] lzIff afnaflnsfnfO{ lbg] p2]Zo ;d]t /flvPsf] 5 .

o;/L sljtf/fdsf] …cgf}7f] ofqfÚ sf] efjkIf PskIfLo geO{ ax'kIfLo b]lvG5 .


jgb]jLÚ afnpkGof;sf] cWoog

k[i7e"ld

sljtf/fd :jfGt;'vfosf lglDt xf]Og, :j2]Zod"ns /rgf ug]{ n]vs x'g\ . ;flxTosnf s]jn snfsf/ nflu xf]Og, ;dfh pTyfgsf lglDt, ;'wf/sf lglDt x'g'k5{ eGg] dfGotf pgnfO{ lz/f]wfo{ 5 . afn ;flxlTos j[mltx¿ pgsf Pp6f g Pp6f If]qsf] r]tgf lbg n]lvPsf 5g\ . k|:t't …jgb]jLÚ pkGof; n]lvg' k5fl8 klg o:t} p2]Zo ePsf] s'/f pgL cfˆgf] cGtjf{tf{df JoQm u5{g\ .

Psk6s pgL sf:sL b]p/fnLsf] hËndf 3'Dg uPsf lyP . hËndf s]xL dflg;x¿ wdfwd ?v sf6\b} lyP . n]vsn] tL ufpFn] JolQmx¿nfO{ hyfefjL ?v gsf6\g cfu|x ubf{ …xfdLn] gsf6] klg c¿ s;}n] cfP/ sfl6xfN5g\ eg] xfdLn] rflx+ lsg gsf6\g] <Ú eGg] 7f8f] tyf cg'Q/bfoL pQ/ ufpFn]x¿ lbP . sljtf/fdn], logLx¿nfO{ pkb]z lbg' efn'nfO{ k'/fg ;'gfpg' a/fa/ x'g] /x]5, s]6fs]6L cj:yfdf l;s]sf], hfg]sf] s'/fdfq ;+:sf/sf ¿kdf ljsl;t eO{ b}lgs hLjgsf] Jojxf/df nfu" x'g;S5 . To;}n] d jghËn ;DaGwL r]tgf hufpg ;fgf s]6fs]6LnfO{ pko'Qm x'g] afnj[mltsf] /rgf u5'{ / r]tgf hufpF5' eGg] dg;fo lnP/ gjfuGt's lk9Lsf] afndl:tisdf g} j[Iff/f]k0f ug]{ …jgb]jLÚ pkGof; n]v]sf x'g\ .

syfj:t'

k|:t't j[mltsf] syfj:t' zLif{s cg'¿k g} jghËn;Fu ;DalGwt 5 . kDkmf gfdsL Ps aflnsf cfˆgf ;fyLx¿l;t …lrQn] kfvfÚ df jgef]h vfg uPsL lyOg\ . Tof] kfvf] cToGt phf8 lyof] . 5fofF, zLtntf lbg] ?vlj?jfx¿ klg lyPgg\ . rsf]{ 3fdn] kf]n]/ pgsf] 6fpsf] b'Vg yfNof] . h;/L t;/L a]n'sf 3/ cfP/ lbpF;f]sf s'/fx¿ cfdfnfO{ ;'gfOg\ . cfdfn], Tof] kfvf clxn] dfq …lrQn] kfvfÚ ePsf] xf], klxn] klxn] To; 7fpFnfO{ …lrQn] jgÚ elgGYof], ToxfF k|z:t lrQnx¿ kfOGy], xl/of] hËn lyof], kfgLsf] 7"nf] d'xfg lyof] . kz'k+IfL, r/fr'?ËLx¿ htftt} /dfP/ v]ln/x]sf e]l6Gy] . clxn] dflg;x¿sf] nfk/afxLn] ubf{ jghËn dfl;P/ …kfvfÚ df kl/0ft ePsf] s'/f ;'gfOg\ . s'/fsfgL u/]/ pgLx¿ ;'Tg uP . /flt pgn] /dfOnf] ;kgf b]lvg\ . kDkmf cfˆgf ;fyLx¿l;t ToxL lrQn] kfvfdf jgef]h vfg uPsL /lx5g\ . lrQn] kfvf cfdfn] eg]h:t} cToGt} /dfOnf] /x]5 . rf/}lt/ xl/nf] el/nf] hËn /x]5, kfgLsf] 7"nf] d'xfg /x]5 . kDkmfsf] 6fpsf] b'lv/x]sf] /x]5, olQs}df Pp6L k/L pgn] l;ofFn tflk/x]sL ?vaf6 eml/g\ / kDkmfnfO{ :kz{ ul/g\ . k/Lsf] :kz{ kfpg] lalQs} pgsf] 6fpsf] b'MvfO sd eP/ cfof] . l;ofFn k/Ln] cfk"m hxfF ?v x'G5, ToxLF x'g] s'/f atfpFl5g\ . l;ofFnk/Ln] kDkmf / pgsf ;fyLx¿nfO{ jgb]jL;Fu e]6 u/fOlbg] egL 3'dfpg nflG5g\ . af6f]df pgLx¿sf] hnk/L;Fu e]6 x'G5 . hnk/Ln] pgLx¿nfO{ …hxfF jgsf] ;x x'Fb}g, ToxfF jgb]jLsf] af; x'Fb}g . jgb]jLsf] af;} gePkl5 k[YjL p/f7nfUbf] x'G5, xfjf tftf] x'G5, k}/f] n8\5, kfgLsf] d"n ;'S5, hUufdf pAhgL 36\5, dfG5]df u/LaL a9\5 / ;[li6s} ljgf; x'G5Ú egL ;DemfpFl5g\ . l;ofFnk/L / hnk/L;Fu} pgLx¿ jgb]jL sxfF k'U5g\ . ;a}n] jgb]jLsf] d'vfj[mltdf cfˆg} cfdfsf] cg'xf/ b]V5g\ . jgb]jLn] pgLx¿nfO{ cfsfzdfu{af6 k[YjLsf] e|d0f u/fpFl5g\ . hËn ePsf] 7fpFdf k[YjL cToGt /dfOnf] b]lvGYof] eg] hËn gePsf] k[YjL cToGt phf8 lyof] . k[YjLsf] afXo cfj/0fsf] e|d0f u/fPkl5 jgb]jLn] kDkmf / pgsf ;fyLx¿nfO{ k[YjLleq e|d0f u/fpg nflG5g\ . k[YjLleq k'u]kl5 pgLx¿n] b]v], ?vsf h/fn] k[YjLsf] df6f]nfO{ h]n]/ /fv]sf lyP . htftt} hn e08f/x¿ lyP . cToGt zLtn jftfj/0f lyof] . cem a9L 1fg lbg jgb]jLn] pgLx¿nfO{ csf]{ kf6f]lt/af6 k[YjLleq nlug\ . ToxfF ?vsf h/fx¿ klg lyPgg\ ePsf h/fx¿ klg dlSsO;s]sf lyP . kfgLsf] d'xfg klg lyPg, udL{n] cToGt ps';d's'; agfO/x]sf] lyof] . ;a} hgf cToGt} lzlyn eP, jgb]jL t emg s'¿k eOg\, x]bf{x]b}{ pgL b'AnL, s'k|L / a"9L eP/ uOg\ / lanf}gf ub}{ eGg nflug\ …dnfO{ arfpg' 5 eg] ?v /f]k .Ú ;a} s]6fs]6Lx¿n] cQfln+b} eg] – …?v /f]kf}F, clxn] g} /f]lkxfnf}F .Ú kDkmfn] klg jgb]jL ;fd' uP/ cfk"mn] ?v /f]Kg] / jgb]jLnfO{ arfpg] k|0f ul/g\ . olQs}df pgL lgb|gaf6 lapFlemg\ . pgL cfˆgL cfdfsf] xft kq]m/ ;'lt/x]sL /lx5g\ . cfdfn] pgsf] b'v]sf] 6fpsf] d';fl//xg' ePsf] /x]5 . ;kgfdf ;a}n] jgb]jLsf] d'vfj[mltdf cf–cfˆgL cfdfsf] cg'xf/ b]v]sf lyP . o;/L jgb]jL eg]sL cfˆgL cfdfsf] g} k|lt¿k xf] eGg] cfzosf ;fy k|:t't afnpkGof;sf] syfj:t' k"0f{ x'G5 .


kfq ;+of]hg

sljtf/fd syfj:t'sf] uGtJo, ljifoj:t' cg';f/ kfq rogdf kf]Vt 5g\ . …a'l4aËf/fsf] kmf]gÚ df :jf:Yo ljifoj:t' ePsf]n] a'l4sf] k|tLs …a'l4aËf/f]Ú kfq rog u/]sf lyP eg] oxfF jghËn, k|j[mlt ljifoj:t' ePsfn] ;f]xL cg'¿k jgb]jL, hnk/L, l;ofFnk/L, ?vh:tf k|fj[mlts kfq rog u/L pkGof;nfO{ lzIffk|b dfq xf]Og, dgf]/~hgfTds ;d]t agfPsf 5g\ .

oxfF k|:t't ul/PsL kDkmf o; pkGof;sL k|d'v kfqf x'g\ / logL e"ldsfdf elgP e}Fm, sljtf/fdn] afn dgdl:tisd} ?v /f]Kg rfx]sf afnaflnsfx¿sf k|ltlglw kfq x'g\ . pgL / pgsf cGo ;fyLx¿n] ;d]t pkGof;sf] cGTodf jgb]jLsf] c:j:ytf b]vL ?v /f]Kg k|0f u/fpg]sf] tfTko{ xf], n]vs ;dfhsf k|To]s afnaflnsfnfO{ cGt/fTdfb]lv g} ?v /f]Kg] k|0f u/fpg rfxG5g\ .

csL{ d'Vo kfqf x'g\ – jgb]jL . jgsf] …TjÚ cyf{t\ u'0f g} jgb]jL x'g\ . ;fdfGot afnhgdfg;df b]jTjk|lt cf:yf x'g] x'gfn] afnaflnsfx¿ jgk|lt klg b]jLb]jtfk|lt h:t} cf:yfjfg xf]pg\ eGg] clek|fo lnO{ n]vsn] jgb]jL kfq k|lt:yflkt u/]sf] x'g'k5{ . Pp6f kf/nf}lss kfqnfO{ nf}lss kfqdf ¿kfGtl/t ul/Psf] 5 . pgL zflGt, zLtntf, ;DkGgtf / k|fj[mlts ;f}Gbo{sL k|tLs x'g\ . hnk/L / l;ofFnk/L jgb]jLsf ;]ljsf ¿kdf k|:t't ul/Psf 5g\ . hnk/L kfgLsL k|tLs x'g\ eg] l;ofFnk/L 5fofF cyf{t\ zLtntfsL k|tLs x'g\ . oL b'O{{ kfqsf dfWodaf6 hxfF jg x'G5, ToxfF dfq dflg;x¿n] zLtntf k|fKt ug{ ;S5g\, ToxfF g} kfgLsf] klg cefj x'Fb}g eGg] tYo afnaflnsf;dIf pb\3fl6t ug{ vf]lhPsf] 5 .

pko'{Qm kfqx¿ ;dfhsf ;t\ kfqx¿ x'g\ . sljtf/fdn] ;dfhnfO{, k|j[mltnfO{ gf]S;fg k'¥ofpg] c;fdflhs kfqx¿sf] rl/q klg k|:t't u/]sf 5g\ . c;fdflhs kfqsf ¿kdf, k[i7e"lddf j0f{g\ ul/Psf, hyfefjL ?v sf6\g' x'Gg eg]/ ;DemfpFbf klg gdfgL ?v sf6\g] dflg;x¿sf k|ltlglwsf ¿kdf oxfF ufpFn] dflg;x¿ / bfp/] kfqx¿ k|of]u ul/Psf 5g\ . oL kfqx¿n] 3/ agfpg, bfp/f afNg, hyfefjL ¿kdf hËn dfl;/x]sf lyP . v]taf/L agfpg hËn kmfFl8/x]sf lyP, 89]nf] nufO/x]sf lyP . kl/0ffdtM ToxfF kfgL lyPg, jg gi6k|fo lyof] . jftfj/0f tflQP/ kf]Ng] xfjf rln/x]sf] lyof] eg] Psufu|L kfgL eg{ 306f}F wf/fdf s'g'{kYof]{ . k[YjL klx/f]n] vfO/x]sf] lyof], d?e"lds/0f eO/x]sf] lyof] .

o;/L sljtf/fdn] ;fdflhs, c;fdflhs / k|fj[mlts kfqsf dfWodaf6 jghËnsf] dxTTj / cfjZostfnfO{ afndgl:tisdf /f]Kg] Wo]o lnPsf 5g\ .

lzNkof]hgf

dflg;nfO{ cfe"if0fflbn] afXo zf]ef lbPe}Fm lzNk klg /rgfsf] afXo zf]efbfos tTTj xf] . …jgb]jLÚ afnpkGof;df, :jKghut\\df afnkfqnfO{ nuL cfVofg\ cufl8 a9fOPsf] 5 . n]vsn] of] z}nL …sldnfsf] syfÚ tyf …cgf}7f] ofqfÚ df klg ckgfPsf 5g\ . ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzg, sf7df8f}Faf6 @)#^ ;fndf k|sflzt k|:t't j[mltdf PSsfO; k[i7 /x]sf] 5 . ;femf k|sfzgaf6 kl5Nnf] ;+:s/0f ;d]t k|sflzt eP/ ;dfKt eO;s]sf] of] j[mlt xfn k'gd'{b|0fsf] k|tLIffdf 5 . ;fgf;fgf k[i7 / 5f]6f5f]6f cg'R5]b k|:t't k':tssf afnf]kof]uL ;+/rgf x'g\ . k|:t't j[mltdf lrlqt bzj6f lrqx¿ n]vs :jo+sf x'g\ . lrqx¿ ;d]t ljifoj:t' cg'¿k 5g\ . afnj[mltdf :jKgz}nL -afnaflnsf kfqnfO{ :jKgnf]sdf k'¥ofO{ syfj:t' cl3 a9fOg'_ k|of]u ug'{ pgsf] cfˆg} j}lzi6\Ø dfGg'k5{ . lsgeg] Pp6f …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ nfO{ 5f8]/ cGo rf/j6f j[mlt, …cgf}7f] ofqfÚ, …a'l4aËf/fsf] kmf]gÚ, …sldnfsf] syfÚ ;fy} o; …jgb]jLÚdf klg :jKg z}nLsf] k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . ;DejtM j0f{gdf ;/ntf x'g] x'gfn] n]vsn] o;f] u/]sf] x'g'k5{ . lsgeg] oyfy{ hLjgdf 36fOg] 36gf :jfefljstfdf cfwfl/t x'g'k5{ eGg] :jKgdf t cToGt c;fwf/0f, sfNklgs / afnsx¿nfO{ dgf]/~hg lbg] 36gf 36fP/ ljifoj:t' cl3 a9fpFbf klg c:jfefljstf x'Fb}g . k/Dk/fut z}nLdf n]lvPsf j[mltx¿sf t'ngfdf of] lzNkljwfg ljZjf;k|b / :jfefljs 7x5{ .

sljtf/fdsf] …jgb]jLÚ afnpkGof; eflifs b[li6n] ;d]t pTj[mi6 7x5{ . pgsf k|sflzt g]kfnL ;flxTosf j[mltx¿dWo] cË|]hL zAb k|of]u gul/Psf s]xL b'n{e j[mltx¿dWo]sf] of] klg Ps xf] . o; j[mltdf cË|]hL zAbx¿ vf]hLubf{ klg kfpg d'l:sn 5 . cË|]hL zAb k|of]u ug{ glxlRsrfpg] n]vssf] o:tf] ljz'4 ;[li6 pTj[mi6 g} dfGg'k5{ . jg u|fdL0f e]udf x'G5 . of] k':ts ufpFsf afnaRrfx¿df a9L nlIft ePsf] x'Fbf o;df ufpFs} kfq cg'¿ksf] cª\u]|hL /lxt g]kfnL efiff /x]sf] s'/f n]vs JoQm u5{g\ .

efjkIf

o; j[mltsf] d'Vo efj k[i7e"lddf elgP e}Fm jghËnsf] ;'/Iff / To;af6 dfgj hLjg, k|j[mlt / k[YjLdf kg]{ ;sf/fTds kl/0ffdsf] r]tgf afnaflnsfdf eg'{ /x]sf] 5 . n]vsn] …jgb]jLÚ dfk{mt\ afnaflnsfnfO{ jghª\unn] o'Qm k[YjLsf] kf6f] / jghª\unn] /lxt k[YjLsf] kf6f] b'j}tk{msf] e|d0f u/fP/ jg;lxt k[YjLsf] ljsf; / jg/lxt k[YjLsf] ljgfz kIfsf] pb\3f6g u/]sf 5g\ . o;af6 xfd|f afnaflnsfx¿df dfgjhLjg, k|j[mlt / k[YjLs} ;'/Iff, ;+/If0fsf nflu jg geO{ gx'g] k|fj[mlts ;Dkbf xf] eGg] 1fg kl/k'i6 x'G5 .

jghª\unsf] cefjdf xfjf tftf] x'G5, k[YjL p/f7nfUbf] x'G5, hUufsf] pAhgL 36\5, kfgLsf] d'xfg ;'S5 / dflg;df ljkGgtf a9\g] dfq xf]Og, Ps lbg hLjgsf] cl:tTj ;ª\s6df kg{ ;S5 t;y{, dflg;n] ;dod} ;r]ttf ckgfpg' k5{ eGg] r]tgf n]vsn] afnaflnsfx¿aLr lbg vf]h]sf 5g\ . o;sf cltl/Qm, jghËnaf6 g} kfgLsf] e08f/ ;'/lIft x'G5, e"Ifo x'Fb}g, klx/f] hfFb}g, jghËns} kftkltË/ s'lxP/ k[YjLsf] dflyNnf] efusf] dlnnf] df6f]sf] lgdf{0f x'G5, kl/0ffdtM pAhgL a9\5, t]lhnf] jiff{af6 jghËnn] g} k[YjLsf] dlnnf] df6f] aUgaf6 hf]ufpF5 / ;"o{sf] p/f7nfUbf] ls/0faf6 jghËnn] g} dfgj hLjgsf] ;'/Iff u5{ eGg] h:tf ;fdfGo s'/fx¿sf] 1fg afnaflnsfx¿nfO{ lbg' klg n]vssf] p2]Zo 5 . a:tL a;fNg] jf v]tL ug]{ p2]Zon] hyfefjL jg cltqmd0f ug'{ x'Fb}g, ufOj:t'nfO{ jghËndf hyfefjL 5f]8\g' x'Fb}g tyf jgdf 89]nf] nufpg' x'Fb}g eGg] 1fg ;d]t afndl:tisdf eg{ vf]lhPsf] 5 .

k|tLsfTds ¿kdf ?vnfO{ k/f]ksf/L efjgfsf] kfqsf ¿kdf ;d]t n]vsn] lnPsf 5g\ . …:jo+ g vfblGt kmnflg j[IffMÚ eg]e}Fm h;/L ?vx¿ cfˆgf] clxt ug]{nfO{ ;d]t ;dfg ¿kn] cfˆgf] kmnk"mn, 5fofF cflbn] ;]jf u5{g\ To;/L g} xfdLn] klg c¿k|lt ;b\efjgf /fVg'k5{ eGg] cfzo cfk}Fm -?v_ nfO{ sfl6/x]sf] JolQmnfO{ ;d]t ?vn] 5fofF kf/L zLtntf lbO/x]sf] k|;Ëaf6 :ki6 x'G5 . csf]{tk{m afnaflnsfx¿nfO{ :jKgdf jgb]jLsf] cg'xf/df cfˆg} cfdfsf] d'vfj[mlt b]vfP/, jgb]jL cyf{t\ jg klg xfd|L cfdf ;dfg x'g\, pgLåf/f g} xfdL ;d:t dfgjhflt kflnt kf]lift 5f}F . t;y{ oL cfdf:j¿k jgb]jLsf] xfdLn] ;+/If0f ug'{k5{ eGg] cy{df ;d]t pkGof; ;r]t 5 .

d'VotM ;fg}b]lv l;s]sf] s'/fn] afnaflnsfx¿df cfhLjg k|efj kf5{ . jghËn;DaGwL logLx¿n] plrt lzIff kfPdf k|j[mlt;Fu ulx/f] gftf ufF:g ;S5g\ . ef]lnsf gLltlgdf{tf, of]hgfsf/ / b]zsf] g]t[Tj af]Sg] oL cfhsf afnaflnsfx¿n] jghËnsf] cfjZostfaf]w ;dod} u/] eg] kSs} klg cfˆgf] sfo{sfn cyf{t\ hLjgsfndf logLx¿n] …xl/of] jg g]kfnsf] wgÚ ;"lQmnfO{ …ljZjs} wgÚ df abNg ;Sg]5g\ / o:t} cfzo n]vssf] ;d]t /x]sf] 5 .

kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ afnpkGof;sf] cWoog

k[i7e"ld

sljtf/fdsf] …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ afnpkGof; @)#* ;fndf ;femf k|sfzgaf6 k|sflzt j[mlt xf] . n]vsn] s'g} j[mlt n]Vg'df s]xL k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf k|]/0ff cjZo} /x]sf] x'G5 . o:t} k|]/0ff sljtf/fdnfO{ …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ n]vgdf klg 5 . Psk6s pgL ;'Gb/Lhn uPsf] ;dodf sf7df8f}Fdf kfgL ljtl/t x'g] ;'Gb/Lhnsf] kfgLsf] kf]v/Ldf afnsx¿ c1fgtfjz g'jfOw'jfO{ ul//x]sf / kf}8L v]ln/x]sf lyP . afnsx¿nfO{ kfgLsf] :jR5tf ;DaGwL 1fg gePsf] o:tf] l:ylt b]v]/ sljtf/fdn] afnaflnsfx¿nfO{ o; ;DaGwdf 7f];¿kdf k|efjsf/L 9Ën] 1fg lbg'kg]{ cfjZostfsf] dx;'; u/]/ ToxL kfgLs} hLjgrqmnfO{ lnP/ …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ n]v]sf x'g\ .120 o; k':tsn] cGt/f{li6«o afnjif{ !(*@–*# df cGt/f{li6«o afn sf]ifaf6 ;jf]{Ts[i6 k':ts k'/:sf/ klg k|fKt u/]sf] lyof] .

j:t'

k|:t't pkGof;sf] ;Dk"0f{ j:t'kIf kfgLsf] hLjgrqmdf cfwfl/t 5 . afnsx¿nfO{ a'‰g ;lhnf] agfpg n]vsn] Pp6f …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚnfO{ j:t'afxs agfPsf 5g\ . ;d'b|df v]ln/x]sf] …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ ;"o{sf] pi0ftf kfpgf;fy cfsfzlt/ p7\b} uO{ w]/} lr;f]df k'u]kl5 cl;gfdf kl/0ft x'G5 . Tof] cl;gfnfO{ afnsn] /dfpFb} vfPkl5 d"qdfu{df x'Fb} rkL{ 9n, gbL x'Fb} …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ gbLdf cfOk'U5 . gbLdf aUb} hfFbf pl5l§P/ Pp6f wf]Gb|f] -b'nf]h:tf] vfN8f]_ df k:gk'uL k[YjLleqsf cg]sfF}F wft' uGwssf] ;+;f/ 3'Db} tftf]kfgL eO{ aflx/ lg:sG5 / k]ml/ 7"nf] gbLdf aUb} hfFbf Pp6f ls;fgn] p3fP/ nuL cfˆgf lj?jfdf xfn] kl5 To; lj?jfnfO{ ;]rg u5{ . …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ lj?jfsf] h/f x'Fb} kftdf cfOk'U5 / kftaf6 k]ml/ aflkmP/ cfsfzdf k'U5 . cfsfzdf p7\b} ubf{ xfjfn] lxdfndf k'¥ofO{ lbG5 / …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ lxpFdf kl/0ft eO{ k'm;k'm; v:g yfN5 . To;kl5 w]/} ;dokl5 lxdgbLaf6 aUb} gbLdf k'U5 / gbLaf6 gx/ x'Fb} wfgv]t ;]~rg ub}{, lah'nL lgsfNb}, 3§ rnfpFb} kf]v/Ldf k'U5 . kf]v/Ldf afnsx¿n] kmf]xf]/ u/]sfn] …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ /f]uL ePsf] x'G5 . ToxfFaf6 kfOk x'Fb} wf/faf6 v;]/ dflg;åf/f pdflng k'U5 . pdflnPkl5 k'gM pm :jR5 x'G5 / aflkmP/ k]ml/ cfsfzdf k'U5 . o;k6s p;nfO{ blIf0fL xfjfn] p8fpFb} ;d'b|lt/ k'¥ofpF5 . ToxfF k'Ubf pm t'jfFnf]sf] ¿kdf x'G5 . /ft k/]kl5 lr;f]n] x':;'df kl/0ft eP/ xfd|f] syfj:t'afxs …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ k'gM ;d'b|df ldN5 . o;/L kfgLsf hLjgsf ofjt\ rqmx¿nfO{ ;Dej eP;Dd ;d]6]/ k|:t't syfj:t' ;dfkg ePsf] 5 .

kfq

sljtf/fdn] ljljw j[mltdf afn?lrnfO{ cfTd;ft\ ub}{ km/skm/s k|j[mltsf kfqx¿ dfk{mt\ cfˆgf wf/0ff JoQm u/]sf 5g\ . pgL vf;u/L hLljt / lghL{j -k|fj[mlts_ kfqx¿ k|of]u u5{g\ . hLljtdf dfgjLo / dfgj]t/ b'j} y/Lsf kfq k|of]u ePsf 5g\ eg] lghL{jdf k|j[mlt, jg, ?v, kfgLsf yf]kf cflb kfqx¿ k|of]u ul/Psf 5g\ .

o; j[mltdf zLif{s cg';f/ g} n]vsn] …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚnfO{ g} d'Vo kfqsf] ¿kdf k|of]u u/]sf 5g\ . uf}0f kfqsf ¿kdf xfjfx'/L ;"o{sf ls/0f, ;d'b| nx/, afns, cfdf, ls;fg cflbnfO{ k|:t't ul/Psf 5g\ . ;du|df oxfFsf kfqnfO{ o;/L juL{s/0f ug{ ;lsG5 .

d'Vo kfq uf}0f kfq

…kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ c;ª\Vo kfgLsf yf]kf, ;"o{ ls/0f,

;d'b|sf] nx/, afns, cfdf, ls;fg .

uf}0f kfqnfO{ klg dfgjLo / dfgj]t/ u/L 5'§ofpg ;lsG5 . k|:t't j[mltsf kfqx¿n] s'g} nIf0ffTds jf k|tLsfTds cy{nfO{ axg u/]sf 5}gg\ clkt' kfgLsf] hLjgrqmnfO{ ;fdfGo ¿kdf JoQm ug]{ sfo{ u/]sf 5g\ . d'Vo kfqsf] ¿kdf k|of]u ul/Psf] …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚnfO{ kfgLsf ljleGg kl/jlt{t ¿k h:t} lxpF, cl;gf, cfO;lqmd, gbL cflb ljljw ¿kdf oyfqmd kl/jt{g u/fP/ kfgLsf] hLjgrqmsf] 1fg afnaflnsfnfO{ lbOPsf] 5 . j:t'tM kfgLsf] hLjgrqmsf] 1fg lbg ;a}eGbf ;Ifd kfq kfgL g} x'g] ePsfn] n]vsn] …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚnfO{ kfqsf] ¿kdf k|:t't u/]sf x'g\ . n]vs :jo+ klg kfgLrqmsf] tYok/s 1fgdf k"0f{ kl/lrt ePsf] cfef; kfq ;+of]hgn] lbPsf] 5 .

lzNk

…kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ afnpkGof;, !* X !@ cfsf/df, cfsif{s ;fh;Hhfdf d'lb|t 5 . ;f]¥xj6f lrqx¿ oyfk|;Ë lrlqt ePsf eP tfklg lrqsf/sf] gfd pNn]v 5}g . ;femf k|sfzgaf6 lj=;+= @)#* / @)%$ u/L b'O{{kN6 k|sflzt k|:t't j[mlt $! k[i7sf] /x]sf] 5 . n]vsn] k|:t't j[mltsf] d'Vo kfqsf] ¿kdf lghL{j …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ nfO{ dfgjLs/0f u/L h8j:t'df ;d]t cg'e"ltsf] tLa|tf e/]sf 5g\ . sljtf/fdn] cGo afn;flxlTos j[mltx¿df h:tf] …cjr]tg dgdf k/]sf] k|efj JolQmn] ;kgfdf cg'e"t u5{Ú eGg] dfGotfnfO{ :jLsfb}{ :jKg z}nLsf] k|of]u o;df u/]sf 5}gg\ .

em/f{ zAbx¿sf] k|of]u ug{ vlKk; sljtf/fdsf] k|:t't j[mlt eflifs b[li6n] ;d]t pTj[mi6 5 . dgdf]xs em/f{ zAbx¿sf] k|of]u t o;df 5 g}, cgfjZos ¿kdf cª\u]|hL zAbx¿ k|of]u gul/Psf pgsf s]xL b'n{e j[mltx¿dWo]sf] of] j[mlt klg Ps xf] . o;df clS;hg, /]lk|mh]6/, xfO8«f]hg h:tf kfgL;Fu ;DalGwt / g]kfnL ¿kdf k|rlnt gePsf cË|]hL zAbx¿ dfq afWofTds ¿kn] k|of]u ul/Psf 5g\ . rfFbL, 7G8L h:tf s]xL j0f{ljGof;ut q'l6x¿df k|sfzssf] Wofg gk'u]sf] x'g;S5 . t'ngfTds ¿kdf, ;/n z}nL / 5f]6f5f]6f cg'R5]bx¿df /lrt k|:t't j[mltdf Pp6f …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ ;DaGwL oyfy{k/s / lj1fg;Ddt c;fwf/0f sNkgf clt pTj[mi6 5 .

efj

sljtf/fdn] …jgb]jLÚ / …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ pkGof;nfO{ ljz]if k|of]hg jf p2]Zosf nflu n]v]sf] s'/f tT;DaGwL cWoog qmdsf] e"ldsfdf :ki6 5 . …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ pkGof;sf] d"n p2]Zo eg]sf], kfgL;DaGwL ljljw r]tgf afnaflnsfx¿nfO{ lbg' /x]sf] 5 . …;flxTo 1fglj1fgsf nflu x'g'k5{Ú eGg] dfGotfdf k|:t't j[mltsf] p2]Zo kIf s]lGb|t 5 . n]vs ;fdfGo 7flgPsf s'/fx¿df g} cfw'lgs afnlzIffsf nflu pko'Qm ljifo vf]h]/ p2]Zod"ns 9Ëdf k|:t't u5{g\ . kfgLsf] hLjgrqmsf] 1fg;Fu} o;sf] dfgj hLjgdf cfjZostfsf] af]w n]vsn] k|:t't j[mltdf u/fPsf 5g\ . pgn] kfgL ;DaGwL afnaflnsfx¿nfO{ lbg vf]h]sf s]xL tYofTds 1fgx¿ o; k|sf/ 5g\ –

kfgL tfTof] eg] afkmsf] ¿k lnG5 / w]/} dfly k'u]kl5 lr;f]n] afbndf kl/0ft x'G5 . cem lr;f] -dflyNnf]_ efudf k'Ubf cl;gf aG5 . ;"o{sf] tfk / clS;hgn] kfgLsf ls6f0f'x¿ gi6 x'G5g\ . ;d'b|sf] kfgLdf g"gsf] dfqf x'gfn] kfgL ef/L x'G5 eg] vf]nfgfnfsf] kfgLdf nj0ftTTj x'Fb}g / ;f] kfgL xNsf x'G5 . kfgL afkmdf kl/0ft x'Fbf cfˆgf] cfsf/eGbf ;q;o u'gf k}mnG5 . t'jfFnf] klg kfgLs} Pp6f ¿k xf] . b'O{{ efu xfO8«f]hg / Psefu clS;hg ldn]/ pi0fTj kfof] eg] kfgLsf] hGd x'G5 . xfd|f] hLjg /Ifs vfBfGgsf] pTkfbgdf klg kfgLs} l;FrfOsf] cfjZostf x'G5 . kfgLs} zlQmåf/f ljB't h:tf cfZro{hgs zlQmsf] pTkfbg x'G5 . kfgLsf] afkmsf zlQmaf6 7"nf7"nf /]n ;d]t rNg ;S5g\ cflb .

csf]{tk{m zx/L If]qsf dflg;x¿n] gbL kmf]xf]/ u/]sf / To;af6 l;lh{t ;d:ofnfO{ ;d]t n]vsn] pbfË kf/]sf 5g\ . zx/sf dflg;x¿ gbLdf kmf]xf]/ ˆofFS5g\, lbzf lk;fa klg 9naf6 gbLdf g} ˆofFS5g\ . kl/0ffdtM gbLsf] kfgLdf /f]u k}mnG5 / o;af6 hnr/ k|f0fLx¿ e6fe6 dg{ ;S5g\ . ;f]xL kfgLsf] ;]jgn] sltko dflg;x¿ ladf/L ;d]t x'gk'U5g\ . dflg;sf] g} ;]jf -;kmf_ ubf{ub}{ kfgL :jo+ kmf]xf]/ ePsf] x'G5, tfklg dflg;x¿ …l5, s:tf] kmf]xf]/ kfgLÚ egL ;f]xL kfgLsf] yf]kfnfO{ 3[0ff ub{5g\ . h;n] pksf/ u/]sf] 5, p;}k|lt cksf/ bzf{P/ dfgj;dfhk|lt Joª\Uo ;d]t ul/Psf] 5 .

o; s[ltn] afnsx¿nfO{ kfgLsf] j}1flgs, ef}uf]lns, /f;folgs, ef}lts, cfly{s, ;fdflhs / :jf:Yout kIfx¿sf] 1fg lbg] p2]Zo /fv]sf] 5 . ;du|df k|:t't pkGof; kfgLsf] hLjgrqm, kfgLsf] :jR5tfsf] dxTTj, dfgjhLjgdf o;sf] pkof]lutf / kfgLsf] ;fdflhs, cfly{s / j}1flgs kIf pb\3f6g ug{ ;dy{ afndgf]hLjgdf kfgLsf] :jR5tf, ;b'kof]u / ;'/Iffsf] af]w u/fpg ;Ifd 5 .

kl/R5]b – ;ft


:jefjuLtfÚ gf6ssf] cWoog


kl/ro

:jefjuLtf gf6s sljtf/.dsf k|f}9 ;flxTodWo]s} Psdfq pTs[i6 gf6\os[ltsf ¿kdf b]lvG5 . o; k':tsdf klg :jefjjfbnfO{ g} ljifo agfOPsf] s'/f n]vsn] …eGbf eGg} kg]{ s'/fÚdf pNn]v u/]sf 5g\ . lj1fg;flxTosf] v8]/L b]lvPsf] g]kfnL ;flxTodf k|:t't gf6s b]jsf]6fsf] zfs'Gtn em}{F …cfO;NofG8sf] ;k{Ú eGg' cTo'lQm gxf]nf . c:jLs[lts} df/df k/]/ rrf{ gkfPsf] k|:t't s[lt ;fFRr} g} g]kfnL ;flxTosf] OHht /fVg ;Sg] s[ltsf] ¿kdf bl/G5 . k|:t't gf6ssf] syf lj1fg syf e"tsfn / eljiot\sfnsf dfgjj+zsf] syfh:tf] b]lvP tfklg jf:tjdf of] dfgj :jefjsf] syf xf] egL gf6ssf/ :jo+ eG5g\ . k|:t't gf6sdf lgDg cg';f/ b[Zofg'qmd 5g\ M


b[iofg'qmd

!= ;ª\s6u|:t dfgjj+z / zflGt sfo{qmd

@= ;dGjosf] af6f]lt/ d"No

#= sl7g lgd{nLs/0f k|s[of

$= bGTosyfsf /fIf;x¿sf] zx/

%= oGqdfgj Ps lgoGqs

^= k|of]ufG5]sf] ;Gqf;

&= uF8\of}nfG5]

*= uF8\of}nfG5] — lålnËL ;+:s[ltsf] cfbz{

(= eljiosf k[YjLsf dflns

!)= uF8\of}nfG5] ;+:s[lt, dfgj ;+:s[ltsf] cGTo

!!= dfgjj+zsf] ljhf]u / p4f/sf] cfzf ljGb'

!@= k'glg{df0f of]hgf

!#= b'3{6gf

!$= :jefj uLtf

!%= o'usf ;Gtfg

!^= lbJo bz{g / lbJojf0fL

!&= d"Nout e|d

!*= d"nk|j[lQsf] cfu|x


pko'{Qm b[Zofg'qmdsf] ;ª\lIfKt syfj:t' lgDgfg';f/ 5 M



syf j:t'

k|yd cª\s M @)$* ;fndf k|sflzt …:jefjuLtfÚ gf6ssf] syfj:t' lj1fgsf] ;b'kof]un] lbg] kmfObf / b'¿kof]un] yf]kg{] gf]S;fgdf cfwfl/t 5 . k|:t't syf lj=;+=@)$* kl5sf] nueu Ps xhf/ jif{ k5fl8sf] PstL;f}+ ztfAbLdf x'g;Sg] ;Defjgfk|lt ;r]t eP/ tof/ ul/Psf] 5 . k"j{lblKt z}nLdf /lrt k|:t't gf6ssf] syfj:t' Pp6f lgh{g :yfgaf6 k|f/De x'G5 . …sÚ / …vÚ kfqf PsfGtdf a;]/ jftf{nfkdf Jo:t 5g\ . r6\Øfªsf] cfjfhsf ;fy cgf}7f] k|sf/sf lemNsfx¿n] ltgLx¿nfO{ 5f]K5g\ . jftfj/0fdf PSsfl; kl/jt{g cfpF5 . Pp6f l;;fsf] 9Ssgn] pgLx¿nfO{ 5f]K5 . la:tf/} r§fgn] e'OF 5f]8\g yfN5 …sÚ …vÚ kfqfx¿ cRrlDet x'G5g\ . pgLx¿ a;]sf] 9'Ëf pl8/x]5 . s'g} cGo u|xaf;Lx¿n] ckx/0f u/]sf] qf; pgLx¿df knfpF5 . PSsf;L pgLx¿ a;]sf] r§fgn] e'OF 5f]Psf] cg'ej x'G5 . kf/bz{s l;;fsf] 9Ssg lj:tf/} s'lx/f] x6]em}F x6]/ hfG5 . pgLx¿ ToxL :yfgdf x'G5g\ . t/ jl/kl/sf] k|fs[lts jftfj/0fsf] :yfgdf k"0f{ ljsl;t j}1flgs k|ljlwn] o'St cfw'lgs ;x/ b]vf k5{ . o;} ;dodf cfkm"nfO{ lj=;+= #)$^ ;fnsf] zflGtb"tsf] ¿kdf kl/lrt u/fpFb} ljlrq kl/wfgdf Pp6f JolQm pkl:yt x'G5 . zflGtb"tåf/f …sÚ / …vÚ nfO{ pgLx¿n] ljsl;t u/]sf] ;dojfxgåf/f #! cf}F ztfAbLdf nluPsf] yfxf x'G5 . PSsfO;f}F ztfAbLb]lv PstL;f}F ztfAbL;Ddsf] Psxhf/jif{sf] clgoldt tyf cljj]sL j}1flgs k|of]u, cfljisf/ / pGgltsf] b'lgofn] ;+;f/df z'4 dfgjsf] ljgf; ePsf] 5 . ToxL sf/0fn] PSsfO;f}F ztfAbLsf ljz'4 dfgjhf]8L …sÚ …vÚ nfO{ dfgjj+zsf] k'gM pTkfbgsf] nflu ;Ddfgk"j{s NofOPsf] s'/f zflGtb"tn] hfgsf/L lbG5 . …sÚ …vÚ cfkm"x¿ gft]bf/ ePsf]n] of}g;+;u{ u/L ;Gtfgf]Tkfbg ug{ g;Sg] s'/f hgfpF5g\ . PSsfO;f}+ ztfAbLsf] ;Dk"0f{ cfbz{ut d"No / dfGotf ljk/Lt #! cf}+ ztfAbLsf] lgtfGt oflGqs arfOdf afFr]sf] #! cf}F ztfAbLsf] zflGtb"t ;fdflhs d"Nout ;+:sf/ cGtu{tsf] ;DaGw ga'em]/ cndNn k5{ . o;/L ldn]/ a;]sf efn] / kf]yL hf]8Ln] ;Gtfg hGdfpg c:jLsf/ ug{'sf] j}1flgs sf/0f p;sf] ;'k/ sDKo'6/n] klg kQf nufpg ;Sb}g .

bf];|f] cª\s M bf];|f] cÍdf, zflGtb"t / …sÚ …vÚ kfqf #! cf}F ztfAbLsf] lgoGqs ;dIf hfg] qmddf 5g\ . ToxfF cfZro{hgs ¿kn] cToGt ;'Gb/ u'Dahgu/ lgld{t 5 . rf/}lt/af6 kf/bz{s l;;fx¿n] 9flsPsf] ;f] gu/df afXo jftfj/0fsf] kx'Fr 5}g . To; gu/leq x'Fb} hfg j}1flgs k|ljlwåf/f cfljis[t jfikkmf]x/fåf/f kmf]S;f]sf] 5ftL;Dd k'Ug] u/L lgd{nLs/0f x'g'kg{] x'G5 . cGoyf aflx/L k|b'if0f leq k:g ;S5g\ . Tof] k|b"if0fn] leqsf] jftfj/0fdf efO/;sf] ¿k lng ;Sg] s'/f zflGtb"t JoQm u5{ . …sÚ …vÚ cfkm" ;jf{Ë gUg eP/ :gfg ug{ g;Sg], To;f] ubf{ cfkm"nfO{ nfh nfUg] s'/f eG5g\ . of] nfh eg]sf] s] xf] < zf/Ll/s pQ]hgf jf PnhL{ xf] < egL zflGtb"t cfZro{ k|s6 u5{ . p;sf] #! cf}F ztfAbLdf nfh g} 5}g . …sÚ …vÚ of] pgLx¿sf] d"No / dfGotfut ;+:sf/ ¿kdf ljBdfg kl/l:ylt ePsf] s'/f JoQm u5{g\ . cGTodf lgd{nLs/0f u[xleq PSnf–PSn} gUg eP/ lgd{nLs/0f x'g …sÚ …vÚ afWo x'G5g\ .

sÚ lgd{nLs/0fsf nflu leq k:gf;fy :jrflnt 9f]sf aGb ePkl5 Wjlg lgoGqsn] …n'uf vf]Ng';\ lgd{nLs[t x'g';\Ú eG5 . n'uf vf]Ngf ;fy lbJofg'e"lt u/fpg] /f;folgs jfik kmf]x/f v'N5g\ . …sÚ ulx/f] :jf;k|Zjf; lnG5 kmf]S;} ;Dd z'4Ls/0f eO;s]kl5 /f;folgs kmf]x/fx¿ cfkm}F+ aGb x'G5g\ . lbJofgGbsf] cg'e"lt x'G5 . Tof] dfbstf ld;fOPsf] /f;folgs jfik klg x'g;S5 . t'?Gt} kl/wfgsIfsf] 9f]sf v'N5 . …sÚ kl/wfg sIflt/ k:gf;fy lgd{nLs/0fsf] 9f]sf aGb eP/ aflx/kl§sf] 9f]sf v'N5 . …vÚ kfqf To; sIfdf k;] tfklg gflËg ;lSbgg\ . WjlgoGqn] n'uf vf]Ng k6s–k6s cg'/f]w u/] tfklg pgL+ cfk}mFb]lv nhfP/ a¿ d5'{ t/ n'uf vf]lNbg eGg] ljrf/ sf ;fy sIf leq} al;/xlG5g\ .


t];|f] cª\s M t];|f] cÍdf …sÚ ;Fu zflGtb"t;Fusf] …vÚ nfO{ lgd{nLs/0f u/fpg] k|;Ësf] ljrf/ ljdz{kl5 lrlsT;sx¿n] ljz]if k|ljlwåf/f /ftf] /ªsf] /f;folgs jfikåf/f a]xf]; agfPkZrft\ gUg agfO{ …vÚ nfO{ lgd{nLs/0f k|lqmofdf k'¥ofpF5g\ . o; k|lqmofkZrft\ …vÚ cfgGbsf] cg'e"lt ub{} k"0f{ gUg cËsf ;fy cg'/lQmsf] cfef; ;lxt …sÚsf ;fd' k|:t't x'lG5g\ . …sÚ kfq cfFvf lrDnG5 .


rf}yf}F cª\s M rf}yf] cÍdf pko'{Qm tLg} hgf gu/sf] ;ef :yndf k'U5g\ . cf0fljs b'3{6gfn] ljs[t gful/sx¿n] eJo :jfut u5{g\ . ToxfFsf gful/sx¿ @! cf}F ztfAbLaf6 NofOPsfx¿nfO{ b]v]/ dfgjhfltsf] c;nL :j¿ksf] af/]df hfGg lh1f;' 5g\ . …sÚ / …vÚ o:tf] b[Zo b]v]/ 8/fpF5g\ . pb\3f]ifsåf/f dfgj k"jh{ …sÚ …vÚ 8/fPsfn] s[lqd kl/wfgdf k|:t't x'g cg'/f]w u/]kl5 ltgLx¿ kf}/fl0fs b]j–b]jLsf kl/wfg / d'v'08f]x¿df pkl:yt eO{ …sÚ …vÚ nfO{ k|;Gg t'Nofpg] k|of; u5{g\ .


kfFrf}F cª\s M kfFrf} cÍdf …sÚ …vÚ / zflGtb"t lgoGqs;fd' k'Ubf lgoGqsn] :jfut ub{5 . pm cfkm" nufot zflGtb"t ;d]t sDKo'6/n] ;lHht z/L/ ePsf] oGq dfgj g} ePsf] hfgsf/L lbG5 . cfˆgf sfo{qmdx¿sf af/]df ;Dk"0f{ hfgsf/L …sÚ / …vÚ nfO{ lbG5 / gofF dfgj g:nsf] pTkfbg u/L dfgj ;dfhnfO{ s[ts[tfy{ agfOlbg cg'/f]w ub{5 . dfgjhflts} of] b'u{ltsf] sf/0f hfGg] lh1f;f …sÚ …vÚ n] /fv]kl5 lgoGqs To; ;DaGwdf lgDgfg';f/sf] hfgsf/L k|:t't u5{ .


nueu @% cf}F ztfAbLlt/ k[YjLdf dfgjsf] hg;+Vof wfGg} g;Sg] u/L a9\b} uof] . k[YjLdf ;|f]t ;fwgsf] cefj x'g yfNof] . dfgj–dfgjaLr n8fOF emu8f x'g yfNof] . cf0fljs xftxltof/sf] k|of]un] k|foM ;Dk"0f{ dfgjsf] ljgfz eof] . To; b'3{6gfdf Ps hf]8L ar]sfn] ltgLx¿af6 k'gM dfgj ;[li6 x'g k'Uof] . lj1fgsf] pGgltn] o'Qm To; ;dfhdf dlxnf k'?ifaLr ;DaGw lau|g yfNof] . dlxnfx¿ z/L/df xfdf{]gsf] pkrf/ u/L lålnËL ag]/ PSn} ;Gtfg hGdfpg yfn] . lålnËLaLr g} laxfaf/L x'g yfNof] . k'?ifn] :qL kfpg 5f8] . Ps t/xn] ljs[t dlxnfjfbn] r/df]Tsif{ ¿k lnof] . k'?ifx¿ klg s] sd < z/L/df xfdf{]gsf] pkrf/ u/L pgLx¿ klg lålnËL aGg yfn] . Pp6} JolQm slxn] cfdf slxn] afa' . o:tf] cfZro{hgs sxfgL ;'g]kl5 To; kl/j]zsf] b[Zo emns ;d]t b]vfpg …vÚ kfqf lgoGqsnfO{ cg'/f]w u5{] .


5}7f}F cª\s M 5}7f}F cÍdf ;dooGqdfkm{t\ lgoGqs lålnËLx¿sf] jftf{nfk b]vfpF5 . casf k|foM ;a} aRrfx¿ ;d]t k|of]uaf6 hGd]sf k|of]ufG5] x'g yfn]sf 5g\ . PslnËL gful/sx¿ bf];|f] bhf{sf 7xl/g yfn]sf 5g\ . dlxnfjfb k'?ifjfbeGbf k/ lålnËLjfb ;dfhdf xfjL eO;s]sf] l:ylt 5 . o; ;+:s[ltsf la¿4 v'nf ts{ ug{ k|ltaGw 5 .


;ftf}F cª\s M ;ftf}F cÍdf lgoGqs uF8\Øf}nfG5]sf] k|;Ë b]vfpF5g\ . cg]sfF} k|of]u tyf pkrf/af6 lålnËL ePsf t/ hGdhft ¿kdf ;xh tyf :jfefljs lålnËL x'g g;s]sfx¿ cg]sfF} lålnËL hLjx¿;Fu hLg sNr/ u/L :jfefljs lålnËL x'g] k|of; hf/L /fv]sf 5g\ . pgLx¿ lålnËL hLjdf ;a}eGbf xflgxLg / pko'Qm hLjsf] ¿kdf uF8\Øf}nfnfO{ 5fg]/ hLg sNr/ u/L uF8\Øf}nf±dfG5] Ö uF8\|of}nfG5]sf] cfljisf/ u5{g\ .


cf7f}F cª\s M cf7f}F cÍdf lålnËL ;dfhn] hGdfPsf] uF8\Øf}nfG5] ;+:s[lt k"0f{ ljsl;t eO;s]sf] cj:yf lgoGqs …sÚ …vÚ nfO{ b[Zok6df b]vfpF5 .


gjf}F cª\s M gjf}F cÍsdf uF8\Øf}nfG5]x¿ cf}krfl/s ¿kdf :yflkt ul/G5g\ . uF8\Øf}nfG5]sf] k"j{ k|of]u / k/LIf0f eO;s]kl5 ;j{;fwf/0fsf] hfgsf/Lsf nflu b[Zo oGqåf/f k|;fl/t ul/G5 . uF8\Øf}nfG5]df uF8\Øf}nfs} d"n k|s[lt 5 . pm hGdgf;fy hldgd'lg k:g vf]H5 . To; ;dosf] lålnËL lgoGqsn] efjljef]/ x'Fb} uF8\Øf}nfG5]nfO{ cfˆgf] :tg r';fpF5 . uF8\Øf}nfG5]nfO{ vfg pko'Qm df6f]sf] ljsf; ul/Psf] 5 . uF8\Øf}nfG5]nfO{ g} eljiosf] s0f{wf/, pQ/flwsf/L / k[YjLsf] dflnssf ¿kdf :jLsfl/G5 .


bzf}F cª\s M bzf}F cÍdf dflg;sf] ;+:s[ltsf] k"0f{ cGTo eO{ uF8\Øf}nfG5] ;+:s[ltsf] k"0f{ :yfkgf eO;s]sf] cj:yf b]vfOPsf] 5 . uF8\Øf}nfG5]nfO{ x]bf{–x]bf{ dfG5]sf] ;'Gb/tf ;DaGwL wf/0ff g} kl/jlt{t x'g hfG5 . nQfsk8fx¿ ;d]t uF8\Øf}nfG5]nfO{ ;'Fxfpbf] kf/fdf lgld{t 5g\ . lxF8\bf klg uF8\Øf}nfG5] k|s[ltn] lxF8\g] km];g ;[lh{t 5 . x/]s xf]6n /]i6'/]06df uF8\Øf}nfG5]n] vfg] df6f] pknAw 5 . pgLx¿ dfG5]eGbf bzf}F u'gf a'l4dfg\ 5g\ . dfG5]sf efjgfx¿ cleJoQm x'g'k"j{ g} yfxf kfpF5g\ . k|of]uzfnfaf6 cToGt ljsl;t uF8\Øf}nfG5]x¿ pTkflbt x'Fb} ljt/0f ul/G5g\ . tL aRrf u|x0f ug{]x¿sf] nfdf] k|tLIff ;"rL 5 . k|foM ;De|fGtx¿n] dfq aRrf kfpg] l:yltn] uF8\Øf}nfG5] pTkfbgsf] a9\bf] nf]slk|otf emlNsG5 . uF8\Øf}nfG5]sf] c;fwf/0f Ifdtfsf k5fl8 dflg;x¿sf] lgolt lg/Lx bf;sf] ¿kdf ;Lldt x'g k'U5 . uF8\Øf}nfG5]x¿ k[YjLleq cg's"n jftfj/0fn] o'Qm gu/ ;[hgf u/L P]; cf/fdsf ;fy a:5g\ eg] bf];|f] bhf{sf dfgjx¿nfO{ k[YjLdfly cnUu} a:g] kl/l:ylt ;[hgf ul/lbPsf 5g\ .


P3f/f}F cª\s M :jefjuLtfsf] !! cf}F cÍdf dfgj j+zsf] ljhf]u / To;af6 d'lQm kfpg] k|of;sf b[Zox¿ b]vfOG5g\ . dfG5]sf] pTkfbg k"0f{t aGb 5 . uF8\Øf}nfG5]sf] af]nafnf 5 . lj1fgn] crfSnLsf] pGglt u/]sf] 5 . uF8\Øf}nfG5]sf] a'l4n] hl6n hl6n sfo{ ub}{ hfFbf tL dflg;sf] a'‰g] IfdtfeGbf aflx/sf x'g k'u] . kl/0ffdtM ;Dk"0f{ k|zf;g uF8\Øf}nfG5]n] g} rnfpg yfN5g\ . uF8\Øf}nfG5]sf b[li6df dflg; cg'TkfbgzLn, cg'kof]uL / cof]Uo ;flat x'G5g\ clg pk]lIft x'g nfU5g\ . dfgjhfltsf] s'g} bhf{ ePg . dflg;n] g} lgdf{0f u/]sf af}nfxf ;kgfsf] cGtkl5 pgLx¿ ylst eP/ cfˆgf] p4f/sf] ;DaGwdf ;Nnfx ug{ Pslbg k[YjLsf] ;txdf e]nf x'5g\ . lxhf] k|s[ltsf] d"n k|jfxnfO{ anft\ kl/jt{g ub{} cfˆgf] OR5fcg';f/ k|jflxt ug{ ul/Psf ljleGg l;h{gfs} sf/0f cfkm"x¿ lj:yflkt ePsf] s'/fdf 5nkmn x'G5 . pgLx¿ ca s'g} ljsf; / cfljisf/sf] dbdf gafFrL k'/fgf d"Nosf] vf]hL ub{} dlxnfjfb, k'?ifjfb, 7"nf]–;fgf], wgL, u/Ljsf] e]befj TofuL ;xof]u / ;xcl:tTjsf cfwf/df cl3 a9\b} uF8\Øf}nfG5] ;+:s[ltnfO{ lj:yflkt u/L dfgj ;+:s[ltsf] :yfkgfsf nflu cl3 a9\g Ps l9Ssf x'G5g\ .


afx|f}F cª\s M afx|f}F cÍdf lgoGqs j0f{g k|f/De u5{ . ca dflg;x¿ ;'–;ª\ul7t eP/ Oltxf; lgdf{0fsf] sfo{df nflu;s]sf 5g\ . dlxnfjfbL lålnËL ;+:s[ltsf] lj/f]w ugf{n] h]ndf k/]/ aGWofs/0f ul/gaf6 ar]sf lålnËL bf]sfg]n] jif{}lkR5] dfgjj+z pTkfbg ub{} hfg yfN5g\ . pgLx¿ ;f]x| jif{df kGw| aRrf pTkfbg u5{g\ . klxnf] / bf];|f] ;Gtfg 5f]/L g} lyP . pgLx¿ rf}w / kGw| jif{ k'u]kl5 tL aRrLx¿df klg hGdbftf afa's} jLo{sf] :yfkgf u/]/ dfgjj+z j[l4 ul/G5 . qmdzM pgLx¿af6 ;d]t pTkflbt efn] kf]yLx¿n] ldn]/ dfgjj+znfO{ cufl8 a9fpF5g\ . uF8\Øf}nfG5] ;+:s[ltsf vfg]s'/f alxisf/ ub{} dfgjx¿ cfkm}F Rofp cflb dfgj vfGsL vf]Hg yfN5g\ . dfgjx¿ uF8\Øf}nfG5]x¿n] k|of]u u/]/ hldgdf kmfn]sf k'/fgf k|ljlw ;'/lIft /fVg yfN5g\ . bf;sf] ¿kdf k|of]u ul/Psf dfgjx¿n] uF8\Øf}nfG5] sxfF sfd ug{ hfFbf ToxfFsf uf]Ko /x:osf] 1fg lng yfN5g\ . qmdzM k|fljlws ¿kn] ;DkGg x'Fb} uPkl5 dfgjx¿ uF8\Øf}nfG5]sf] e"ldut gu/df /]l8of]wdL{ ufdfls/0f k|If]k0f u/L uF8\Øf}nfG5] hfltnfO{ leqsf] leq} ;vfk kfg{] of]hgf agfpF5g\ .


t]x|f}F cª\s M t]x|f}F cÍdf dflg;x¿ uF8\Øf}nfG5]sf] e"ldut gu/df ufdfls/0f k|of]u u/L uF8\Øf}nfG5] ;vfk kfg{] of]hgfdf ;kmn x'G5g\ . t/ uF8\Øf}nfG5]n] cfˆgf] ;]jfy{ lgdf{0f u/]sf oflGqs uF8\Øf}nfG5]sf] af/]df eg] dflg;nfO{ yfxf lyPg . ltgLx¿ dflg;;/x g} ;f]Rg ;Sy] . ;fy} oflGqs ePsf x'gfn] k[YjL aflx/sf] jftfj/0fn] ;d]t ltgLx¿nfO{ s'g} c;/ ug{ ;St}GYof] . oflGqs uF8\Øf}nfG5]n] k[YjL;txdf cfP/ ;Dk"0f{ st{'t dfG5]sf] ePsf] yfxf kfOxfn] . pgLx¿ qmf]lwt eP/ dfG5]sf] a:tLdfly cfuf] a;f{pg yfn] . dfgjx¿åf/f n]h/ aGb'sn] cfqmd0f ubf{ tL oflGqs uF8\Øf}nfG5]leqsf Go"lSno/ lj:kmf]6g x'g k'Uof] . w]/} dfG5]x¿ o; lj:kmf]6gn] 89L ;vfk eP . afFr]sfx¿ klg cf0fljs ufdfls/0fn] hLg / qmf]df]hf]d ljs[t eP/ pgLx¿ dfG5] /x]gg\ . dfG5] hfltsf jLo{ g} ljs[t eP/ ;xL :j¿kdf dfG5] g} hGdg 5f]8L cs}{ hLjsf ¿kdf dfG5]hflt afFRg ljjz ePsf] s'/f lgoGqs …sÚ …vÚ nfO{ hfgsf/L u/fpF5g\ .


rf}wf}F cª\s M rf}wf}F cÍdf klg lgoGqsåf/f cfˆgf s'/f /fVg] sdhf/L 5 . dfG5]n] :jfefljstfsf] lj?4 uO{ cfˆgf] ;an / ;Ifd r]tgfsf] b'¿kof]u ub{} lj1fgnfO{ …u'8 ;e{]G6Ú agfpg'sf] ;f6f] …Aof8 df:6/Ú df kl/0ft u/fof] . lj1fgsf] unt k|of]usf sf/0f cfh dfG5] g} dfG5]sf] zq' eP/ plePsf] 5 . r]tgfsf] pGdfbdf dbdQ ePsfx¿n] cfh dfgj Oltxf;sf] w/f]x/ g} Wj:t agfOlbPsf 5g\ . To;} sf/0fn] ca gofF kf/fn] gofF ;+;f/sf] ;[li6 ug{ tkfOF{x¿nfO{ oxfF NofOPsf] xf] egL lgoGqs …sÚ …vÚ nfO{ eG5 . hjfkmdf xfdLx¿ cÍ vfP/ afFRb}gf} . xfd|f] Jojxf/, ;+:s[lt / ;dfhn] xfd|f] d"No lgwf{l/t u/]sf] 5 . ;dfhsf] cledt g} xfd|f] d"No lgwf{/0fsf] d"n cfwf/ xf] . xfdLnfO{ xfd|f ;fdflhs d"No / dfGotfn] gft]bf/LaLr zf/Ll/s ;Dks{ /fVg] dfGotf gbLPsfn] o;f] x'g ;Sb}g egL …sÚ …vÚ lgoGqsnfO{ ;DemfpF5g\ . lgoGqs …sÚ nfO{ ;dosf] cfjZostf cg'¿k :jefj;Ddt ¿kdf k|:t't eO{ dfgjj+zsf] /Iff ug{'xf];\ egL ljgo u5{ . lgoGqsn] u/]sf] ofrgfn] …vÚ sf] dft[Tj kUnG5 . pgL …sÚ nfO{ :jfefljstftkm{ pGd'v eP/ dfgjj+zsf] /Iff u/f}F egL …sÚ nfO{ elG5g\ . gft]bf/Ls} s'/f ug{] xf] eg] xfdL ;d:t dfgjx¿ Pp6} aLhaf6 emfFluPsf xf}F eGg] s'/f wd{zf:qd} jl0f{t 5 . ef}ltsjfbL b[li6n] x]bf{ dfG5] afFb/sf ;Gtfg x'g\ / afFb/leq gft]bf/L aGb]h 5}g eg] xfdLnfO{ klg ;dosf] dfu cg';f/ cfˆgf] st{Jo kfng ug{ aGb]h gx'g' kg{] xf] eg]/ …vÚ …sÚ nfO{ elG5g\ . …sÚ / …vÚ sf] dt af‰5 . pgLx¿sf] emG8} ;DaGw ljR5]b h:t} kl/l:ylt l;h{gf x'G5 . cfkm" d]l;g / afFb/ b'j} gePsfn] To;f] x'g g;Sg] s'/f …sÚ atfpF5g\ . …vÚ n] k6s—k6s clek|]l/t u/]kl5 zf/Ll/s ;+;u{ gu/L b'j}sf jLo{ / l8Da lems]/ k/LIf0f af]tndf uef{wfg u/fpg] s'/fdf …sÚ sf] ;xdlt x'G5 .


kGw|f}F cª\s M kGw|f}F cÍdf k|of]uzfnf sIf cGtu{t k/LIf0f af]tn leq …sÚ / …vÚ sf] aRrf ljsl;t eO/x]sf] b]]lvG5 . …sÚ of] gx'g'kg]{ eof] egL cK7of/f] dfG5 . …vÚ …sÚ nfO{ ;DemfpFb} eG5] — ltdLn] slxNo} ;kgfdf gft]bf/L ;Dks{ /fv]sf 5}gf} < o;nfO{ klg Pp6f ;kgf dfq ;Dem . kfksf] cjwf/0ff eg]sf] ;fdflhs d"No dfq xf], h'g s'sd{;Fu ;DalGwt 5 . ltd|f] PSsfO;f}F ztfAbLsf] ts{n] cfh s'g} cy{ lbFb}g . ltd|f] o'un] o;/L jLo{ / l8Dadfq lbP/ ;Gtfgf]Tkfbg ug{ ;SYof] < ltd|f] jLo{ s]jn :vng dfq x'GYof] / d]/f] l8Da ktgdfq x'GYof] . To;}n] ;do ;fk]lIft xf]pm ==========. cflb .

;f]x|f}F cª\s M ;f]x|f}F cÍdf …sÚ / …vÚ n] dfgjj+znfO{ lbPsf] j/bfgk|lt s[t1 eP/ ToxfFsf gful/sx¿ hohosf/ ub}{ :jfut ub{5g\ . rf/}lt/ …huGdftfsf] hoÚ Wjlg ;'lgG5 . …sÚ / …vÚnfO{ pg}sf PSsfO;f}F ztfAbLsf d"No / dfGotfx¿sf ;fy k'/fg} ;dodf kmsf{Og] tof/L x'G5 . …sÚ / …vÚ nfO{ cfˆgf] o'udf s'g} cK7of/f] gk/f];\ eg]/ PstL;f}F ztfJbLsf ;Dk"0f{ :d[ltx¿ lj:d[t u/fOG5g\ . PstL;f}F ztfAbLsf] ;dodf pgLx¿n] 5 dlxgf latfO;s]sf 5g\ t/ PSsfO;f}F ztfAbLsf nflu of] 5306f dfq ePsf] x'G5 . …sÚ / …vÚ nfO{ klxn] nu]s} k|s[of cg';f/ PSsfO;f}F ztfAbLdf k'¥ofOG5 .

;qf}F cª\s M ;qf}F cÍdf …sÚ / …vÚ cfˆg} o'u / :yfgdf cfOk'U5g\ pgLx¿n] cfkm"x¿n] r6\ØfË k/]/ a]xf]; ePsf] cg'dfg u5{g\ . xfdLn] unt ljrf/ /fVgfn] kfksf]] ;hfo ldn]sf] xf], d em'G8]/ d5{' egL …vÚ elG5g\ . …sÚ / …vÚ b'j} ca unt sfd gu/L k|folZrt ug]{ lgwf] u5{g\ .

pGtL; lbg;Dd b'j}sf] e]63f6 x'Fb}g . …vÚ sf] Ct':gfgsf] ;do cfpg nfu]sf] x'G5 . pgnfO{ cfˆgf] z/L/ k|k'mlNnt / ?jfeGbf xNsf ePsf] cg'e"lt x'G5 . pgL Pp6f ;kgf b]Vg k'lU5g\ . ;kgfdf b]jnf]saf6 lbJok'?if k|s6 eO{ ;[li6sf] ;do ePsf sf/0f …sÚ n] pgLnfO{ Zn]ifdfGtsdf vf]lh/x]sf] ;"rgf cg'/f]w u5{g\ . …vÚ cfTdf¿kdf p7]/ bu'b}{ …sÚ ;dIf k'lU5g\ . b]jtfx¿ k'ika[li6 u5{g\ . …sÚ / …vÚ k"mnsf] la5\Øf}gfdf of}gfGbdf 8'aL ;+;f/nfO{ e'N5g\ . /lt;'v k|flKtkl5 …vÚ of}g;'vdf olt cfgGb eg{ ;Sg] ljwftfnfO{ ;fb/ k|0ffd ul5{g\ . lbJok'?if k|s6 eP/ …vÚ sf] k]6df l;lh{t lbJo afnsx¿nfO{ aflx/ lgsfNg] cg'dlt dfuL ue{ leq k;]/ b'O{{ xhf/ lbJo afnsx¿ lgsfN5g\ . lbJok'?if ;a} afns lnP/ hfG5g\ . …vÚ d]/f aRrf ======d]/f aRrf=====egL lrRofpFb} p7\l5g\ . s]xL ;dokl5 6]lnkmf]gsf] 3G6L aH5 . kmf]gdf …sÚ …vÚ nfO{ e]6\g cft'/ ePsf] s'/f ;'gfpF5 . pxL r§fgdf e]6\g] ;Nnfx u5{g\ .


c7f/f}F cª\s M gf6ssf] c7f/f}F cÍdf klg …sÚ / …vÚ sf] kmf]gjftf{ hf/L 5 . …vÚ cfˆgf] ;kgf …sÚ nfO{ ;'gfp5] . …sÚ klg To:t} ;kgf b]v]sf] s'/f eG5 t/ …sÚ sf ;kgfdf j}1flgs k|tLsx¿ lyP eg] …vÚ sf ;kgfdf cfWoflTds k|tLsx¿ lyP . of] pgLx¿sf] ;f]rfOsf sf/0fn] b]lvPsf] xf] . xfd|f cr]tgdf xfdL b'j} gflËg' / ;DaGw /fVg' kfk /x]g5 . To;}n] ;kgfdf o:tf] b]lvPsf] pgLx¿n] dfg] . xfd|f] r]tg dg k/Dk/fut ;fdflhs dfGotfn] u|l;t 5 . xfd|f d"n k|j[lt ;w}F cfˆgf :jefj cg';f/ kl/rflnt x'G5g\ . ltdL ljkgfdf xfd|f] gft]bf/L k|]d ;DaGwnfO{ 3[0ff u5\Øf}{ . t/ x/]s dlxgf sfdf]Q]lht xF'b} Zn]idfGts jgdf cfOk'U5\Øf} . dfG5] d"n k|j[ltaf6 xfg{ ;Sb}g . dlxgf lbg;Ddsf nflu cfhnfO{ labf egL …sÚ …vÚ nfO{ eG5 . o;/L …:jefjuLtfÚ gf6ssf] syfj:t' 6'lËG5 .


kfq÷rl/q


sljtf/fdsf] …:jefjuLtfÚ gf6s :j}/sNkgfTds k|of]ujfbL gf6s xf] . o;df k|of]u ePsf kfqx¿df …sÚ kfq, …vÚ kfqf zflGtb"t, lgoGqs, cf0fljs b'3{6gfa; ljs[t dfgjhflt, lålnËL / uF8\Øf}nfG5], oflGqs uF8\Øf}nfG5] cflb x'g\ . logLx¿df …sÚ / …vÚ d'Vo kfq x'g\ eg] cGo ;Dk"0f{ kfqx¿ uf}0f jf ;xfos kfq cGtu{t kb{5g\ . pko'{Qm kfqx¿sf] rl/qlrq0f lgDgfg';f/ ug{ ;lsG5—


d'Vo kfqx¿

sÚ kfq M …sÚ kfq o; gf6ssf] k|d'v k'?if kfq xf] . lj=;+= #)$^ cyf{t\ !))) jif{ kl5sf] ;dosf] j}1flgs oGq0ff / dfgjd"Nosf] ;dGjofTds cleJolQm JoSt ug]{ s|ddf n]vsn] …sÚ kfq k|:t't u/]sf 5g\ . …sÚ kfqnfO{ j}1flgs b'3{6gfn] ;dfKt k|foM ePsf] dfgjj+znfO{ k'gM lg/Gt/tf lbgsf nflu afFsL ar]sL Psdfq kf]yL …vÚ kfqf;Fu of}g ;Dks{ ug{ clek|]lt ul/G5 t/ Tof] kff]yL kfq;Fu cfˆgf] xhf/ jif{ k"j{s} ;f+:s[lts d"Nodf cfwfl/t gftf ;DaGw kg]{ x'gfn] To;f] ug{df pm c;xdlt hgfpF5 . o;/L k|f/Dedf pm l:y/ kfqsf ¿kdf b]vf k/] tfklg lgd{nLs/0f k|lqmof nufotsf 36gfdf p;n] …vÚ kfqfnfO{, ;Demfpg'n] p;df klg ultzLntf ylkFb} uPsf] b]lvG5 . gf6ssf] cGtlt/ dfgjj+zsf] ;'/Iffy{ gftf kg]{ kf]yL;Fu ;Def]u u/L dfgj pTkfbg ug{kg]{ cg'/f]w p;nfO{ :jLsfo{ x'Fb}g . …vÚ sf] cg'/f]w klg lg/y{s x'G5 . o;/L …sÚ kfq …vÚ kfqfsf] t'ngfdf a9L l:y/ / kf/Dkl/s :jefjsf] b]lvG5 . uef{wfg u/fpg of}g;+;u{df tTk/ geO{ cfˆgf] jLo{bfg u/L k|of]uzfnfdf …vÚ kfqfsf] l8Dadf of]u u/fP/ ;Gtfg lbg ;xof]u ug'{n] …sÚ kfq klg dfgjj+zk|lt ;r]t ;hu ePsf] eg] cjZo} kfOG5 . o; gf6snfO{ d~rg ug{'kbf{ …sÚ kfq k|ToIf ¿kn] cfa4 ;d]t 5 . …sÚ kfq / …vÚ kfqf k|f/Deb]lv cGTo;Dd /xg' gf6ssf] cfˆg} j}lzi6\Øsf] ¿kdf b]vfk5{ . b'j} Ps}rf]l6 b]lvG5g\ / Ps}rf]l6 cGTodf lj;lh{t x'G5g\ . cGttM …sÚ kfq gf6ssf/sf] d"n :jefjjfbL lrGtgsf] ;Dk|]if0f ug{ ;kmn 5 . :jfefljs ¿kd} Pp6f efn] Pp6L kf]yL:fFu / Pp6L kf]yL Pp6f efn];Fu cf;Qm x'g;Sg] ;fdfGo :jefjjfbL dfGotf gf6ssf] cGTodf k|:t't 5 . :jKgdf cjr]tgaf6 k|]l/t eO{ Pscsf{nfO{ e]6L :vlnt x'g k'Ug' o;}sf] kl/0flt xf] / :jo+ gf6ssf/sf] Wo]o ;d]t ToxL xf] . lgisif{df …sÚ kfq ;fdflhs ;+:sf/ / k/Dk/faf6 d'Qm eO{ cGTodf gf6ssf/sf] ;flxlTos dfGotfdf PsLs[t x'g k"0f{ tTk/ 5 .


vÚ kfqf M …vÚ kfqf o; gf6ssL k|d'v :qL kfqf x'g\ . gf6ssf/n] dfgjLo zfZjt :jefjnfO{ k|s6 ug]{ p2]Zon] …vÚ kfqfsf] :yfkgf u/]sf x'g\ . pgL PSsfO;f}F ztfAbLsf] d"No / dfGotf;Fu PstL;f}F ztfAbLsf] d"Nosf] t'ngf ubf{ k|of]u ul/PsL l5g\ . PstL;f}F ztfAbLsf] k|j]zdf k'¥ofO{ dfgjhflt gePsf] cj:yfdf cfkmGt kg]{ efn];Fu ;+;u{ u/fOP pgLaf6 gofF z'4 dfgj gZn pTkfbg ug]{ nIo n]vssf] 5 tfklg n]vs d"Nosf] cufl8 w's'r's 5g\ . oxfF …vÚ kfqf l:y/ kfqsf ¿kdf k|:t't l5g\ . kl/l:yltsf] af]w kZrft\ pgn] k/Dk/fut d"Nodf gft]bf/ dflgg] efn];Fu ;+;u{ u/]/} ePklg z'4 gZn pTkfbg ug]{ gjLg cfu|xdf ;xdlt hgfPsL x'gfn] pgdf ultzLntf b]vfP/ ultzLn kfqsf] ¿kdf pkl:yt l5g\ . n]vs d"Nosf] lj?4df ljb|f]xL em}F b]lvP tfklg pgsf kfq w'sr's u5{g\ . o;af6 n]vssf] wf/0ffdf klg k/Dk/fut d"Nosf] c1ft c:jLs[lt emlNsG5 . …vÚ kfqf dfgjj+zsf] lxtsf nflu cfkm"n] ;j{:j 7fGb} cfPsf] kljq zf/Ll/s of}g;DaGwsf] 3]/f gf3]/} ePklg dfgj sNof0fdf nfUg] c7f]6df l5g\ . o;nfO{ pgsf] cg's"n k|j[lQ 7fGg'kb{5 . pgL cGTodf uP/ j}1flgs k|ljlwåf/f gftf kg]{ efn]sf] jLo{ cfˆgf] l8Dadf ldnfO{ k|of]uzfnfdf aRrf k}bf u/L gi6k|foM dfgjhfltsf] k'gM ljsf; ePsf] k|lt ;Gt'i6 l5g\ . o;nfO{ pgsf] hLjg r]tgfdf qmflGtsf/L ;f+:s[ltstfsf] kl/k"0f{tf 7fGg}k5{ . pgLåf/f k|]d ul/Psf] efn] …sÚ kfq pgs} gft]bf/ x'G5 t/ pgnfO{ yfxf x'b}g . cfkm"aLrsf] gftf ;DaGw yfxf ePkl5 pgL zf/Ll/s ;DaGw g/fVg] k|0f ul5{g\ tfklg k|mfo8Lo :jKg dgf]lj1fgsf] l;4fGt cg';f/ pgL ;wF} k/flht x'lG5g\ . /h:jnf cjlwsf sfdkLl8t ;dodf pgL :jKgdf gft]bf/ efn]k|lt cf;Qm eO{ ;Def]u qmL8fdf :vlnt x'g k'lU5g\ / :jKg 6'6\gf;fy kmf]g u/L cfˆgf] efn] k|]dLnfO{ lglZrt PsfGt :yndf e]6\g rfxlG5g\ . o;/L :jfefljs ¿kdf ePsf] efn]kf]yL aLrsf] :jfefljs cfsif{0fnO{ pgL kf/Dkl/s s[lqd / ;+:sf/sf kbf{df n'sfpg c;dy{ eO{ cfTd;dk{0f ul5{g\ . Ps tl/sfn] pgL n]vssL d'v kfqf x'g\ . n]vssf] k/Dk/fut dfGotfk|lt cfˆg} c:jLs[lt ljb|f]x 5 / oxL c:jLs[lt kf]Vg …vÚ kfq k|of]u ePsL l5g\ / oxL jf:tjdf dfgjLo h}ljs :jefj xf] eGg] wf/0ff n]vsLo b[li6sf]0f ePcg';f/ …vÚ kfqf ;f]xL cg'¿k k|:t't b]lvlG5g\ .


uf}0f jf ;xfos kfq

zflGtb"t M zflGtb"t o; gf6ssf] uf}0f kfqdWo]sf] Ps xf] . gf6ssf] k|f/Dedf …sÚ kfq / …vÚ kfqfnfO{ !))) jif{kl5sf] ;dodf n}hfg] qmdb]lv g} zflGtb"tsf] k|j]z 5 . zflGtb"t ;xfos kfq xf] . p;sf lqmofsnfk / ultljlwx¿n] gf6snfO{ k|ToIf ¿kdf s'g} df]8 jf lgb]{zg jf gsf/fTds k|efj lbPsf 5}gg\ . d~rgsf b[li6n] zflGtb"t klg d~rLo kfqsf ¿kd} pkl:yt x'G5 . pm PSsfO;f}F ztfAbLsf] k'?if kfq xf] . zflGtb"t :jefjsf b[li6n] cg's"n kfqsf] ¿kdf lrlqt 5 .

lgoGqs M lgoGqs o; gf6ssf] csf]{ uf}0f kfq xf] . xhf/ jif{ kl5sf] ;dout d"No / dfGotf / jt{dfg o'u aLrsf] k|flKtnfO{ k|:t't kfqn] k|s6 u/]sf] 5 . p;sf z/L/sf x/]s cjojdf sDKo'6/ hl8t 5g\ . p;sf] dl:tis / x[bosf efjgfx¿ ;d]t oGq :jrflnt k|ljlwåf/f kl/rflnt 5g\ / pm x/]s sfo{ / lg0f{o ljgfljnDa ug{;Sg] Ifdtf /fVb5 . pm cg's"n kfq xf] . p;sf] clGtd Wo]o g} o; tYosf] k|df0f xf] . sfo{ nIok|flKtsf] nflu p;n] …sÚ …vÚ nfO{ :jLs[lt hgfpg cg'/f]w ug]{ qmddf cg]s nrstfx¿ k|:t't ub}{ cGTodf kl/l:ylt cfˆgf] cg's"ntfdf tfGg lgoGqs ;Ifd 5 . o;/L pm Ps ;kmn / ultzLn kfqsf] ¿kdf k|:t't 5 . k|:t't kfq lgoGqs klg n]vssf w]/} efjgfsf] k|s6Ls/0fdf ;kmn b]lvG5 .


;fd"lxs kfq

gf6ssf] dWoefud} uf}0f ¿kdf k|:t't eP/ cfˆgf] e"ldsf k"/f u/L labf x'g] ;fd"lxs kfqsf ¿kdf cf0fljs b'3{6gfdf k/]/ dg{af6 ar]sf t/ IftljIft k|foM ljs[t dfgjhflt k'?ifx¿af6 s'lkt v/f] gf/Ljfbn] l;lh{t lålnËL dfgjx¿ / uF8\Øf}nfG5]x¿ /x]sf 5g\ . ;Defljt cf0fljs b'3{6gfaf6 dfgjhfltnfO{ x'g ;Sg] vt/fk|lt j}1flgs o'unfO{ ;r]tgf lbg ljs[t dfgjx¿ k|:t't ul/Psf x'g\ . bf];|f] ljZjo'4sf lx/f]l;df gfuf;fsLdf b]lvPsf] cf0fljs zlQmsf] ljs[t ¿k h:tf 36gfx¿ dfgjn] km]l/ a]xf]g'{ gk/f];\ eGg] k|ToIf ;Gb]z ljs[t dfgjdfkm{t\ n]vsn] lbPsf 5g\ . :jR5, ;'Gb/ / zfGt dflg; jf :j¿kdf k|:t't x'g ltgLx¿n] d'v'08f] wf/0f ug{'kg]{ afWotf 5 eg] c;nL] / ljs[t gePsf] ;'Gb/ dflg;sf] cg'xf/ b]Vg' klg pgLx¿sf nflu b'n{e 5 . s'g} Ps ;dodf lj1fgn] tf08j g[To ug]{ qmddf o;f] klg ug{ g;Snf < eGg] zÍf ;d]t gf6sdf k|:t't 5 .


;fd"lxs kfqs} ¿kdf k|of]u ePsf csf{ ;d"xkfq x'g\ lålnËL dfgjx¿ . syfdf k'?ifsf] cwLg :jLsfg{ grfxg] dlxnfx¿åf/f z/L/df xfdf]{gsf] pkrf/kl5 cfˆg} z/L/df lålnË :yfkgf ug{ ;kmn ePsf] b]vfOPsf] 5 . o;kl5 ;+;f/df :qLx¿sf] cefj x'Fb} hfG5 / sltko k'?ifx¿ ;d]t :qLx¿sf] cefjdf pkrf/ ljlwåf/f lålnËL aGg afWo x'G5g\ . o;/L lålnË;Fu} hlGdPsf] lålnËL ;+:s[ltn] lålnËjfb g} hGdfP/ k'?if / :qLsf] n}lËs k|s[lqdfly g} k|ZglrGx nufOlbPsf] kl/l:yltsf] dfld{s lrq0f ug{ oL kfqx¿ k|of]udf cfPsf 5g\ . uF8\Øf}nfG5] klg o:t} ;fd"lxs kfq x'g\ . :jfefljs n}ª\lustfdf cfwfl/t dfgjhfltnfO{ lgld6\ØfGg kfb}{ df}lns dfgjg:nnfO{ gi6 kfg]{ lj1fgsf] ;Defljt If0fk|ltsf] vt/f b]vfpg uF8\Øf}nfG5] k|:t't 5g\ . lålnËL ;+:sf/n] klg k"0f{ lån}lËstf gkfPsfx¿ lålnËL hLj dWo]sf] uF8\Øf}nfdfly dflg;sf] hLg k6sk6s ld>0f u/L uF8\Øf}nfG5]sf] hGd lbG5g\ . p;sf] cfsf/ / :j¿k dfG5]s} glhs ePklg :jefjrflxF uF8\Øf}nfs} x'G5 . To;}n] klg p;nfO{ uF8\Øf}nfG5] gfdfs/0f ul/Psf] xf] . uF8\Øf}nfG5]sf] pTkltkl5 dfgj ;+:s[ltsf x/]s kIfx¿ uF8\Øf}nfG5]jfbL x'g k'U5g\ . o;/L ;a} ¿kdf ;vfk x'g k'u]sf jf x'g;Sg] dfgj, uF8\Øf}nfG5] / lålnËL k|:t't u/]/ n]vs, lj1fg Pp6f cf1fsf/L bf; dfq x'g'k5{ clgolGqt df:6/ x'g'x'Gg eGg pBt ePsf] cfef; x'G5 .


lzNk

sljtf/fdsf] …:jefjuLtfÚ gf6s lj=;+= @)$* df ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzgaf6 k|sflzt s[lt xf] . pgsf x/]s s[lqdf em}F o;df klg jfXo cfj/0f k[i7df c:jLs[lthGo 9fFrf tyf sfnf] /Ë kf]ltPsf] 5 . e"ldsfsf bz k[i7 / gf6ssf (( k[i7 u/]/ hDdf !)* k[i7df k|:t't gf6s /lrt 5 . ljwfut ljZn]if0f u/]/ cfˆgf] gf6ssf] cWoog ubf{ gf6s eof] ePg eGg] s'/fdf n]vssf] ljZjf; 5}g . of] gf6s gf6s±pkGof; Ö gf6sfGof; ;d]t ePsf] x'g;Sg] n]vssf] cfzon] g} o;df ljwfut ljrng 5 eGg ;lsG5 .121 k|:t't gf6s c7f/ cWofodf afFl8Psf] 5 . gf6ssf] ;fdfGo lgod cg';f/ o;nfO{ cÍ / b[Zodf juL{s/0f ul/Psf] 5}g . g]kfnL gf6s k/Dk/fdf j}1flgs ljifoj:t'nfO{ k|j]z u/fO{ :j}/sfNklgs k|ljlw cFufNb} gofFkg lbFbf s]xL ljwfut ljrngtf a]xf]g'{k/]sf] ;d]t x'g;S5 . kfZrfTo gf6ssf/ Pr=lh= j]N;sf] sfnoGq -6fod d]lzg_ gf6s;Fu s]xL xb;Dd …:jefjuLtfÚsf] j}1flgs ljifoj:t'sf] cfwf/df ;fdLKo 5 eGg ;lsG5 . j}1flgs sNkgfsf] cfsfzdf k|z:t kmGsf] df/]sf] k|:t't gf6s :j}/sfNklgs k|ljlwdf cfwfl/t 5 . gf6ssf] cGTolt/ :jKg z}nLsf] ;d]t k|of]u kfOG5 .


efiff z}nL

k|:t't gf6s j}1flgs ljifoj:t'df cfwfl/t gf6s xf] . o; gf6ssf] efiff z}nLdf j}1flgs zAb, zAbfjnLsf] k|of]u x'g' :jfefljs} xf] . ;fy} o; gf6sdf ljleGg tT;d cfuGt's em/f]{ zAb tyf cgf}7f zAbfjnLx¿sf] ;d]t k|of]u kfOG5 . o; gf6sdf k|o'Qm zAb z}nLsf] ;fdfGo ;j]{If0f o; k|sf/ 5 M


j}1flgs zAbfjnLx¿ M xf8{ 8f6f, gLnf] afkmsf] kmf]x/f, ;fOs]8]lns ofqf, lxkf]qm];L, hLg, qmf]df]hf]d, /]l8of]wdL{ ufdfls/0f, Uof;f]–cfO;f]6k, /f]8]G6, rLK;, ;ls{6, h}ljs, uF8\Øf}nfG5], Go"lSno/ dNo"So"N;, 8f]d zx/, ;'k/ sDKo"6/, oGqdfgj, cflb .


tT;d zAbx¿ M ljlIfKt, kZrftfk, clwgfosjfbL, a|Dxrf/L, cfb|{tf, WjlgoGq, huGcfdf, l8Daktg, s'df/LTj, jLhf0f', dxfdlxd, tYofÍ, cflb .


gjLg zAbsf] k|of]u M k|of]ufG5], uF8\Øf}nfG5] . OToflb .


df}lns kbfjnLx¿sf] k|of]u M tLg cfofdL 5fFof lrq, lgd{nLs/0f k|lqmof, k'/ftg /f]u, cfFvfsf] 7fpFdf Sofd]/fsf] n]G;, Joy{sf kl/0flt, Joy{sf sf/0f, lål+nËL ;+:s[lt, s[lqd uef{wfg cflb .


lgisif{df eGg'kbf{ k/Dk/fut gf6\Ø dfGotf / ;}4flGts cjwf/0ffnfO{ k"0f{ cg';/0f gu/] tfklg lzNk ;+/rgfut / efiff z}nLut cfwf/df k|:t't gf6s cToGt sf}t'xnk"0f{ / df}lnstfn] cfj]li6t 5 .


p2]Zo÷efj


x/]s l;h{gfsf] cfˆg} p2]Zo x'G5 . sljtf/fdsf] k|:t't lj1fg gf6s cfkm}Fdf p2]Zo kIfut b[li6sf]0fn] cToGt ;an b]vfk5{ . pgL efiff, ljwf, ljifoj:t'sf] 5gf}6 cflb ;flxTosf k|fljlws kIfdf cNdlng emGem6 dfG5g\ . cfkm"n] eGg vf]h]sf] jf cfˆgf] p2]Zo kIfsf] wf/0ffdf ;Lw} k|j]z ug'{ pgsf] cfˆg} ljz]iftf xf] . To;}n] pgsf s[ltsf] p2]ZokIf ljwfut ;+/rgfeGbf ;zQm eP/ b]vfkg]{ u/]sf] kfOG5 . ;f/f+zut ¿kdf …:jefjuLtfÚsf] p2]ZokIfnfO{ lgDgfg';f/n] pb\3f6g tyf ljZn]if0f ug'{ ;fGble{s x'G5 .

s= /fhg}ltstf

v= j}1flgstf

u= :jefjjfbL bz{g÷c:jLs[t bz{g


/fhg}ltstf M sljtf/fd aL;sf] bzsb]lv b]vfk/]sf ;flxTosf/ x'g\ . pgsf] k|:t't gf6s …:jefjuLtfÚ lj=;+= @)$* ;fndf ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzg sf7df8f}Faf6 k|sfzg ePsf] b]lvg cfP tfklg k|:t't s[lt k~rfotL zf;gsfnsf] sfn/flq ;do cGtu{t n]lvPsf] s'/f cleJolQmdf o;sf s]xL c+z klxn] g} k|sflzt ePsfn] k|:6 x'G5 . …:jefjuLtfÚ cfkm}Fdf tTsfnLg Joj:yfk|ltsf] c:jLs[lt xf] . :yflkt ;flxlTos ;+:yfdf cf;Lg sltko k/Dk/fjfbL dfGotf / wf/0ffnfO{ lnP/ gjLg d"No / dfGotf g?rfpg]x¿sf lj?4sf] c:jLs[lt xf] eGg] s'/f gf6sdf p4[t sltko jfSof+zaf6 k|:6 x'G5 . …:jefjuLtfÚsf] ;ftf}F b[Zofg'qmdsf] uF8\of}nfG5] zLif{sdf o:t} cfzo b]lvG5g\ . …==== ljb|f]xsf] g]t[Tj ug]{ ;a} vfn] JolQmTjx¿nfO{ c/fli6«o / c;fdflhs tTTj egL 3f]if0ff u/]/ cfhLjg sf/fjf;sf] ;hfo lbOP . Ú …==== otf ;dfh k"0f{tM cfGbf]lnt cj:yfdf k'u]sf] lyof] .==== Ú oxfF uF8\of}}nf±dfG5] Ö uF8\Øf}nfG5]sf] cfljisf/sf] k|;Ë 5 . gf/L k'?if j}dg:o :j¿k dflg; cfkm}F uF8\Øf}nfsf] lålnËL hLg;Fu ld>0f u/L lålnËL uF8\Øf}nfG5] x'g k'U5 . Tof] o'udf c;nL dg'ioTjsf] dxTTjaf6 jl~rt 5 . c;nL /fi6«eQm OdfGbf/ tyf b]zk|]dLx¿ lsgf/f nufOg] k/Dk/fsf] ljsf; ePsf] 5 . ef6 k|j[lQsf rf6'sf/x¿ rd]/] k|j[lQsfx¿ cyf{t\ uF8\Øf}nfG5]x¿n] :yfg kfO/x]sf] Tof] lg/Í'z zf;sLo ljs[ltnfO{ k|tLsfTds ¿kdf k|:6\ØfOPsf] 5 . gf6sdf kl/wfgdf, lxF8fOdf, vfgkfgdf ;a}lt/ uF8\Øf}nfG5]x¿sf] cg's'ntfnfO{ dxTTj lbOPsf] 5 . uF8\Øf}nfG5]x¿ df6f] vfg] ePsf] x'Fbf df6f]df g} ljleGg kf}li6s tTTjx¿sf] ;dfof]hg u/L df6} vfg tof/ ul/Psf] 5 . pko'{Qm k|tLsx¿n] tTsfnLg zf;sx¿åf/f rDr] k|j[lQnfO{ dxTTj lbOPsf] k|lt n]vsn] Joª\Uo u/]sf 5g\ . uF8\Øf}nfG5] k|j[lQsfx¿ ;w}F ;De|fGtsf cwLgdf /x]sf] k|;Ë JoQm 5 . uF8\Øf}nfG5] hldgsf] ;txsf] tfk vKg g;sL hldgd'lg 3';|g vf]Hg'n] bf;Tjsf] ljsf;, ;w}F v'§fd'lg 3';|g rfxg] / 3':g nufpg] k|j[lQsf] ljsf; tTsfnLg /fhgLlts kl/j]zdf /x]sf] / To;k|lt Joª\Uo ug'{kg]{ n]vsLo wd{ cg';f/ sljtf/fdn] /fhg}lts p2]Zo ;dflxt u/]sf] x'g'k5{ .

j}1flgstf M k|:t't gf6s cfkm}Fdf lj1fg gf6s xf] . lj1fg ;flxTo n]Vg] yf]/} lj1fg ;flxTosf/ leq sljtf/fdsf] gfd lng'k5{ . j}1flgs p2]ZonfO{ :j}/ sfNklgstfdf 9fn]/ r/d sf}t'xntfdf k'¥ofpg' gf6ssf] j}lzi6\Ø xf] . gf6ssf] k|f/Deb]lv g} j}1flgs cfljisf/sf rdTsf/x¿ b]vfOPsf] 5 . lj1fg Ps gf]s/sf] ¿kdf /xg ;Snf t/ o;}nfO{ dflg;n] cfˆg} dflns agfpg vf]Hbf To;sf] b'ikl/0flt x'G5 . lj1fgsf zlQmx¿sf] clgolGqt / cljj]sL k|of]un] dflg;nfO{ kfg{ ;Sg] c;/ / b'ikl/0ffdk|lt gf6s ;r]t 5 . gf6s k9\bf :j}/sNkgfTds dfq geO{ cjZoDefjL 36gf klg x'g;Sg] cfef; x'G5 . ;g\ !($% sf] ;dodf bf];|f] ljZjo'4tfsf k/df0f' lj:kmf]6gn] lgDTofPsf] gfuf;fsL / lx/f]l;dfsf] eGbf klg cem ljs[t / ljeT; ¿k o; gf6sdf lrq0f ul/Psf] 5 . cf0fljs ljls/0fn] ;Dk"0f{ dfgjj+z ljgfz k|foMeO;s]sf] x'G5 . ar]sfx¿ klg bGTosyfsf /fIf;x¿h:tf z/L/ 89]sf cË ljs[t ePsf afËf / s'k|f 5g\ . qmdzM dfgjhLg / qmf]df]hddf ljs[lt cfP/ gofF g:nsf] zf/Ll/s ;+/rgfg} ljeT; kl/jt{g b]lvg yfn]sf] kl/l:ylt 5 .


zf/Ll/s ljs[lt / j+zljgfz dfq xf]Og, lj1fg tyf k|ljlwsf] r/d pTsif{tfn] gf/L k'?ifaLrsf] :ff}xfb{|k"0f{ hLjgdf g} tLtf]kgf NofOlbPsf] 5 . k'?if cfˆgf] ansf] e/df :qL hfltnfO{ cfˆgf] lgoGq0fdf /fVg rfxGy] . :qLx¿ ans} cfwf/df k'?ifsf] cwLgTj :jLsf/ ug{ rfxFb}gy] . dlxnfx¿df c;Gt'li6 a9\b} uPkl5 dlxnfjfbsf] gf/f cfof] sfnfGt/df . xfdf]{g k|ljlwsf] pkrf/kl5 pgLx¿ lålnËL agL :qLx¿sf] cefj x'g yfn]kl5 qmdzM k'?ifx¿ klg pkrf/ k4ltåf/f lålnËL x'g afWo eP . o;/L oxL lålnËLnfO{ uF8\Øf}nf;Fu} hLg ;dfof]hg u/L dflg; lålnËL uF8\Øf}nfG5] ag]sf] b'Mvb\ kl/l:ylt 5 . lj1fgsf] b'¿kof]un] n+}lËs ;+:s[lt dfgjLo ;+j]bgf ;b\efj n'Kt x'g k'u]sf 5g\ . dfgjtfsf] :yfg oflGqstfn] lnPsf] 5 . oflGqstfdf ;+j]bgzLntfsf] cefj 5 . o;/L Pp6f l/Qm / ltQm ;dfhsf] kl/l:ylt b;f{OPsf] 5 . k|Nxfb gf6sdf afns[i0f ;dsf] egfO …1fg db{5 xfF;]/ /f]O{ lj1fg db{5Ú ;Fu w]/} xb;Dd gf6ssf] df}g :jLs[lt 5 . lj1fgsf] k|of]uk|lt ;r]t gePdf eljiodf dflg;sf] ;[li6n] dflg;nfO{ g} zf;g ug]{ k|:6 5 .

:jefjjfbL bz{g M sljtf/fd c:jLs[t hdft dWo]sf k|d'v Ps x'g\ . pgsf] /rgfwld{tf :jefjjfb xf] . pgsf s[lqdf c:jLs[tut dfGotf / :jefjjfbL dfGotf b'j} h]lnP/ cfPsf x'G5g\ . jt{dfg kl/j]zdf cfˆgf dfGotf v'n]/ /fVg ;fdflhs cledt gldNg] x'gfn] g} #)$^ ;fnsf] ;donfO{ :j}/sfNklgs ¿kdf k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . gf6ssf/sf] dtdf e"OFdf vGofOPsf] kfgLsf] ultzLntf h:t} x'g' g} :jefjjfb xf] . kfgL ;/ntflt/ aU5 o;}nfO{ pgL t/njfb eG5g\ . t/njfb eGg' g} k|fs[ltstf xf] . k|s[ltsf] ;/n lgod cg';f/ t/n kfgL ;/nlt/ aUg] u5{ . oxL s'/fnfO{ k|:6 kfg{ pgn] gf6sdf of}gnfO{ k|of]u ul/g'kg]{ jftfj/0f tof/ u/]sf 5g\ . n]vs cfˆgf] ceLi6 of}gdf s]lGb|t gePsf] atfpF5g\ tfklg x/]s k|tLsx¿df, /rgfsf] s]Gb|Lotfdf pgL of}gnfO{ g} pbfx/0f t'ngf cflbsf ¿kdf k|of]u ug{ k'U5g\ . cf0fljs ljls/0fsf] b'ikl/0ffdn] dfgjj+z gi6 ePsf] kl/l:yltdf @)$^ sf] ;doaf6 Ps hf]8L gft]bf/ efn] / kf]yL nu]/ :jfefljs ¿kdf of}g;+;u{ u/fO{ pgLx¿af6 dfgjj+z j[l4 ul/g'nfO{ cfzosf] ¿kdf /fvL gf6ssf/ ltgLx¿NfO{ of}g;+;u{df /t u/fpg rfxG5g\ . t/ ltgLx¿ gft]bf/ ePsf x'gfn] o;f] ug{ c:jLsf/ u5{g\ . oxL s'/fsf] åGådf gf6ssf] cfBf]kfGt 3'd]sf] 5 . gf6ssf] dfGotf cg';f/ b'O{{ ljk/Lt lnËLx¿sf] k/:k/ cfsif{0f x'g' g} :jefjjfbL bz{g xf], :jefjjfb xf] . ;fdflhs cledt eg]sf s[lqd tTTj x'g\ . oxL ;+;f/df klg x/]s ;dfhsf cfcfˆg} dt 5g\ . sltko ;dfhn] of}gnfO{ :jtGq aUg lbPs} 5g\ . d"No lgwf{/0fsf] cfwf/ :jfefljs t/n, / nrsbf/ x'g'k5{ hl6n, ?vf] / cuDo ;fdflhs dfGotfn] dflg;nfO{ c:jfefljstflt/ ws]Ng ;S5 . dfgjLo ;dfhdf hlGdPsf of}gljs[lt h:tf s'/fx¿ log} c:jfefljstfs} sf/0fn] cfPsf x'g\ eGg] wf/0ff n]vssf] /x]sf] kfOG5 . /hgLz …;+ef]uaf6 ;dflwlt/Ú df of}g;Fu n8fOF ug{ gx'g] s'/f JoQm u5{g\ . kz'x¿ :jfefljs 5g\ . cfjZostf, OR5f / df};d cg';f/ of}gsf] pkef]u u5{g\ / ;Gt'i6 5g\ . o;sf ljk/Lt dflg;n] of}g;Fu n8fO u/]/ k/fho dfq ef]u]sf] 5 . ;dn+}lËs ;DaGw h:tf cg]sf}F ljs[ltx¿ ;dfhdf c:jfefljs ¿kn] hlGdPsf 5g\ eGg] dfGotf;Fu n]vssf] ;d]t df}g :jLs[lt b]lvG5 . dflg;n] tYosf] cfwf/df rNg'k5{ . ;+:sf/ut dfGotfdf rNg' eg]sf] efj's lg0f{o dfq xf] eGg] s'/fdf dfgjsf k"j{hsf ¿kdf n]vsn] afFb/nfO{ lnPsf 5g\ . afFb/df of}g;+;u{sf nflu gft]bf/L aGwg 5}g . dfgjn] of}gut gft]bf/L aGwgnfO{ sfnfGt/df ¿l9ut ;+:sf/sf ¿kdf lnPsf] xf] eGg]tkm{ klg gf6sLo wf/0ff au]sf] 5 . cem k/ k'u]/ gf6ssf/n] kf}/fl0fs ts{ /fVb} k|f/Dedf dfgj Pp6} jLhsf ;Gtfg x'g\ bfh'alxgLs} aLrdf ljjfx u/fP/ j+zj[l4 u/fOPsf] kf}/fl0fs k|;ËnfO{ :jefjjfb cGtu{ts} gd"gfsf] ¿kdf lnPsf 5g\ .

n]vsn] cfˆgf] kl/kSj wf/0ff cg';f/ o; dfGotfdf kIf / ljkIf b'j} /fv]sf 5g\ . lj=;+= @)$^ ;fnsf …sÚ / …vÚ kfqx¿ ;fdflhs d"No / dfGotfdf ljZjf; u5{g\ eg] lj=;+= #)$^ ;fndf lgoGqs nufotsf kfqx¿ :jfefljstfdf ljZjf; u5{g\ . ck|ToIf ¿kdf o'uut ;ª\3if{ / åGå;d]t ;+:sf/ut ;ª\3if{;Fu hf]l8P/ cfPsf] 5 . lgisif{df n]vs ;dGjojfbL x'g k'u]sf 5g\ . …sÚ / …vÚ sf] z'qmsL6 / l8Da lems]/ k|of]uzfnfsf] af]tndf ue{wf/0f u/fO{ dfgjj+z j[l4 ug'{ g} ;dGjo xf] . o;/L ;+:sf/ut dfGotf / of}gk|ltsf] :jtGq, :jR5Gb b[li6sf]0fnfO{ :jefjjfbsf] ts{df k|:t't u/fP/ cGTodf n]vsn] :jefjjfbL÷;/njfbL bz{gs} ljho b]vfPsf 5g\ . …sÚ / …vÚ gft]bf/ x'g\ . k/Dk/fut dfGotfcg';f/ ltgL b'O{{aLr of}g;+;u{ jlh{t 5 . o;/L x]bf{ ltgLx¿ aLrsf z'qmsL6 / l8Dasf] ;+;u{df uef{wfg gx'g'kg]{ lyof], lsg of] :jfefljs b]lvof] < o;/L ck|ToIfaf6 :jtM k|ToIf ghL/ lbP/ :jefjjfb g} ;To xf] / dfgjLo :jefjdf cgfjZos aGwg klg g};lu{stfnfO{ 5]Sg] tTTj x'g ;S5g\ eGg] cfzo gf6ssf/n] /fv]sf 5g\ . o;/L sljtf/fd cfˆgf x/]s s[lqdf gjLg d"No, dfGotf, /f]rstf / b[li6sf]0f lnP/ b]vfk5{g\ h'g k/Dk/feGbf k"0f{ leGg x'G5 . oxL g} pgsf] n]vsLo j}lzi6\Øtf klg xf] eGg' ;fk]lIft x'G5 .



kl/R5]b– cf7


sljtf/fdsf sljtf, lgaGw / ;xn]vg ul/Psf s[ltx¿sf] cWoog


sljtf/fd >]i7sf] hLjgj[Q x]bf{ pgL sljtf n]Vg] ePs} sf/0f /fdaxfb'// >]i7af6 sljtf/fd ePsf x'g\ eGg] a'lemG5 . ;fgf]df >L % dx]Gb| ;/sf/sf] cf]vn9'Ëf ;jf/L x'Fbf ;d]t cfkm}F sljtf n]v]/ ;'gfpg] sljtf/fdn] ljBfnosf] leQ]klqsfdf sljtf n]v]/ 5fKg lbg'sf ;fy} w/fgdf ;flxlTos ;lrj x'Fbf;d]t ;flxlTos sfo{qmdx¿df k|:t't ug{ cGo /rgfsf ;fy} sljtf;d]t n]v]sf] e]l6G5 . sljtf/fd eP tfklg n]vg k|j[lQsf sf]0faf6 pgL Tolt sljtf/fd 5}gg\ . sljtf/fdeGbf a9L pgL syf/fd, pkGof;/fd, ;+:s[lt/fd, lgaGw/fd, afn;flxTo/fd b]lvG5g\ . pgsf] ;flxlTos ofqfsf] k[i7e"ld / k|yd r/0fdf pgn] a9L g} sljtfdf snd rnfP klg kl5 c¿ ljwfsf] t'ngfdf sljtftkm{ sd rnfPsf 5g\ . ;fwf/0ftof To; ;dosf /rgfx¿åf/f n]vsn] cfkm"nfO{ ;flxlTostfdf k|j]z u/fpg u/]sf k|of;x¿ g} dfGg'k5{ .

sljtf/fdsf km'6s/ sljtfx¿ ljleGg kqklqsfx¿df klg k|sflzt ePsf 5g\ . tL sljtfx¿ cg';Gwfgsf] qmddf ;dfj]z ul/Psf 5}gg\ . lj=;+= @)!& b]lv @)@* ;Dddf ;ª\VofTds b[li6sf]0fn] …d]/f c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿Ú df pNn]lvt pgsf hDdf rf/j6f sljtfx¿ b]lvPsf 5g\ . qmlds ¿kn] oL

sljtfx¿ lgDg cg';f/ k|sflzt b]lvG5g\ .

sljtf k|sflzt ;do ;ª\u|lxt k':ts / klqsf

sfn… @)!* …d]/f c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿Ú

slj rSsf s'Dxfn]sf]Ú @)@@ …d]/f c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿Ú

3f]if0ffkqÚ @)@^ …d]/f c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿Ú

;8sdf sljtf/fdÚ @)@* …lj:yflkt cg'xf/x¿Ú

sfnÚ sljtf

t]x| jif{sf] pd]/df n]lvPsf] o; …sfnÚ sljtfsf rf/ x/km dfq ;ª\u|lxt 5g\ . …sfnÚ;Fu dflg;nfO{ g8;\, k/ hf elgPsf] 5 . o;} sljtf;Fu sljn] !$ jif{sf] pd]/df 5Gbdf n]v]sf] elgPsf] csf]{ lagf zLif{ssf] sljtf lbPsf 5g\ .

==== jgsf kG5Lsf ;fydf

j;Gt k|s[ltsf ufydf ===

rf}w x/kmdf n]lvPsf] pQm sljtf l;l4r/0f >]i7sf] d]/f] lkof/f] cf]vn9'Ëfsf] cg's/0ffTdstfdf cfwfl/t ePsf] cfef; x'G5 . of] lagf zLif{ssf] sljtfdf klg k|s[lts} j0f{g ul/Psf] 5 .

sljrSsf s'Dxfn]sf]Ú sljtf

sljrSsf s'Dxfn]sf]Ú sljtf efg' klqsfdf @)@@ ;fndf k|sflzt /rgf xf] egL n]vsn] …d]/f c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿Údf pNn]v u/]sf 5g\ . of] sljtf klg …d]/f c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿Ú df ;ª\u|lxt 5 . o; sljtfdf s'Dxfn]sf] efF8f agfpg] rSsf 3'd] em}F dflg;sf] hLjgsf] cf/f]xcj/f]xnfO{ kfgLs} hLjgrqmsf] ¿kdf j0f{g ul/Psf] 5 . o; sljtfnfO{ u|flkms sljtfdf 9flnPsf] 5 . n]vs cfkm}Fn] o; /rgfnfO{ u|flkms sljtfsf] ;+1f lbPsf 5g\ . kfgL ;fu/df tfltP/ jfkm eP/ xfjfdf p8\b} hfFbf lah'nLdf rDsFb}, d]3df s8\sFb}, zLt, jiff{, e]n, lxdgbL x'Fb}, wtL{leq k:5 / k'gM em/gf Hjfnfd'vL cflbaf6 aflxl/O{ gbLdfkm{t\ ;fu/df nxl/Fb} sljsf] hLjg em}F kmGkmgL 3'D5 / km]l/ pxL jflkmFb} jflkmFb} xfjfdf p8]/ k'/fgf] k|s[of bf]x¥ofpg k'U5 . To;tfsfsf] ;dodf sljtf/fd k|j[lQsf ;h{sx¿n] :jfefljs ¿kdf l;h{gzLn x'g rfxFbf cg]sfF}F k'/fgf dfGotf / ljwfx¿;Fu n8\g'k/]sf] tLtf] oyfy{ kfgLsf] hLjgrqmdfkm{t\ JoQm 5 . k|tLsfTds / efjut b[li6n] sljtf cToGt ;zQm b]lvG5 .

3f]if0ffkqÚ sljtf


sljtf/fdn] @)@& ;fnlt/ cfkm"nfO{ c:jLs[t hdftdf ;+nUg u/fPsf] kfOG5 . o;} qmddf o; hdft;Fu ;DalGwt k|foM x/]sn] cfcfˆgf dfGotfnfO{ …3f]if0ffkqÚ sljtf egL k|:t't ug]{ qmddf sljtf/fdn] klg …3f]if0ffkqÚ sljtf n]v]sf 5g\ . of] …3f]if0ffkqÚ sljtf …d]/f c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿Úsf] k[i7 !@ df ;ª\u|lxt 5 . k|:t't …3f]if0ffkqÚ sljtf uB sljtfTds z}nLdf ePs} sf/0f o;nfO{ sljtfsf] ¿kdf x]g{ vf]lhPsf] xf] . o; sljtfdf pgsf t/njfb, :jefjjfb / c:jLs[tjfbsf dfGotfx¿ kf]lvPsf 5g\ . pgL eG5g\ –

cfh d :jfefljs 5'

cfh d]/f] gofF hGd 5

d s'g} klg cfofddf s;}u/L klg hfg;S5'

d s'g} klg cfofddf s;}u/L ghfg klg ;S5'

slt xfF;p7\bf] s'/f

o; clglZrt l:yltdf /x]/ d …3f]if0ffkqÚ sljtf n]Vb}5'

3f]if0ffkqÚ sljtf ====

sljtfTds z}nLdf n]lvPsf] k|:t't /rgfdf sljtfTds sf]dntfeGbf j}rfl/s pR5ngsf] k|fr'o{ 5 .

;8ssdf sljtf/fdÚ sljtf

sljtf/fdsf k|sflzt sljtfdWo]sf] ;f/ule{t sljtf xf], …;8sdf sljtf/fdÚ . of] sljtf …/]iffÚ af6 ;fef/ u/L dGq ^, @)@* df ;ª\u|lxt ul/Psf] 5 . of] sljtf uBz}nLdf 5 . rjfnL; x/kmdf /lrt pQm sljtfdf af}l4s sljtf/fd / ef}lts sljtf/fdsf] cGt;{DaGw / t'ngf ul/Psf] 5 . @)@^ b]lv #) tfsfsf] ;dosf sljtf/fdn] ef]u]sf cfly{s, ;f+:s[lts / /fhgLlts ;d:ofx¿nfO{ sljtf/fd kfqnfO{ ;8sdf lgsfn]/ JoQm ul/Psf] 5 . ;8snfO{ ;dfh / sljtf/fd kfqnfO{ c:jLs[t kfqsf] ¿kdf o;/L lrq0f ul/Psf] 5 .

===========;8sdf lxFl8lxF8\g] sljtf/fd

eft]lkF9Lsf] Pp6f ljjz sljtf/fd xf] . ====

==== pm Pp6f ;8sdf hGdG5 / ToxfF gc3fP/

csf]{ ;8sdf bjf{g elt{jfn] cyjf s'NnL aGg hfG5 ========

========

Pp6f sljtf/fd ;f]rfOdf afFR5 .

csf]{ sljtf/fd ;8sdf afFRg ljjz 5 .

;f]rfOdf afFRg] sljtf/fdnfO{

@%) kfp08sf] xf8df;' lnP/ ;8sdf lxF8g]

e';lt3|] sljtf/fdsf] kl;gfn] kfN5 .========

===== ;8saf6 sljtf/fdx¿ lgif]lwt 5g\ .

;8saf6 ef]sf sljtf/fdx¿ c:jLs[t 5g\ .


pko'{Qm sljtfn] sljsf] hLjgsf] k|f/DesfnLg ljb|f]xfTds efjgf JoQm u/]sf] 5 . k"jf{4{df b]lvPsf] sljsf] sljtfsf] ljwfut :km"/0fn] pQ/f4{df lg/Gt/tf gkfPsf] b]lvG5 .

sljtf/fdsf lgaGwsf] ;ª\lIfKt rrf{

;flxTosf/ sljtf/fdn] syf pkGof; gf6seGbf km/s cGo uBfTds s[ltx¿ klg n]v]sf 5g\ . tL s[ltx¿nfO{ lgaGw eGg' ;fGble{s x'G5 . tL k':tsx¿ o; k|sf/ 5g\ M

s= …d]/f c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿Ú

v= …s] lsg elgof] <Ú

pko'{Qm b'j} lgaGwfTds s[ltx¿sf] cfwf/df n]vssf] lgaGwsf/ JolQmTjnfO{ ;flxlTos lgaGwsf/ JolQmTj / ;f+:s[lts lgaGwsf/ JolQmTj u/L cWoog ug{ ;lsG5 .

d]/f c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿Ú lgaGw ;ª\u|x

n]vssf] Psdfq ;flxTos lgaGwfTds s[lt …d]/f c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿Ú xf] . of] s[lQ @)$^ ;fndf cleJolQm k|sfzg sf7df8f}Faf6 k|sflzt b]lvG5 . nueu *% k[i7df k|sflzt pQm s[lqdf $% j6f zLif{s pkzLif{sx¿ /x]sf 5g\ . n]vsn] cfˆgf] hLjgL ;flxlTos yfngL / ofqfnufot c:jLs[t hdft ;DaGwL wf/0ff dfGotf cflbnfO{ o;} s[lqdfkm{t\ v'n:t kfg]{ sfd u/sf 5g\= . c:jLs[t hdft;Fu ;DalGwt eP/ cfkm"n] n]Vg rfx]sf / eGg vf]h]sf dfGotfx¿sf] vf]tnvftn tyf lr/kmf/ o; s[lqdf ul/Psf] 5 . c:jLs[t hdftdf ;+nUg cGo n]vsx¿sf ;fy} sljtf/fdsf] …3f]if0ffkqÚ sljtf klg o; s[lqdf ;ª\u|lxt 5 . a'6kfln; ;flxlTos cfGbf]ng h:tf] g]kfnL ;flxTodf gofF OF6f yKg] 36gfsf] lj:t[t vf; tYo ;d]t o; s[lqdf 5flkPsf] 5 . vf;u/L c:jLs[t hdftsf] ;flxlTos cfGbf]ngnfO{ lrGg k|:t't k':ts g} Psdfq ljlzi6 / ;fGble{s s[lt x'g ;S5 .

s] lsg elgof] <Ú lgaGw ;ª\u|x

n]vss} egfO cg';f/ @)#! ;fndf g} n]vL …s] lsg elgof] <Ú lgaGw ;ª\u|x /fhsLo k|1f klti7fgnfO{ 5fKg lbOPsf] lyof] t/ s[ltsf] uxgtf / n]vssf] pd]/nfO{ t'ngf u/]/ lkmtf{ lbOPsf] s'/f pgn] …d]/f c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿Údf pNn]v u/]sf 5g\ .122 oxL s[ltnfO{ lj=;+ @)%* ;fndf au/ kmfpG8];gn] k|sflzt u/]sf] 5 . of] k':tsdf @&% k[i7 5g\ . h; cGtu{t #! j6f zLif{s ;d]l6Psf 5g\ . o; s[lqdf k/Dk/f, ;+:s[lt, k|frLg ;f+:s[lts tyf wfld{s :yn, cf}hf/, gbLgfnf, cflbsf ljifodf pknJw nf]ssyfx¿sf] j}1flgs 9Ën] ljZn]if0ffTds rrf{ ul/Psf] 5 . k/Dk/fut ¿kdf nf]sf]lQmsf ue{df dfq n's]/ /x]sf sltko dfGotfx¿nfO{ j}1flgs b[li6sf]0fn] k|:6\ØfOPsf] k|:t't k':ts cGoGt pkof]uL b]lvG5 . o; k':tsnfO{ g]kfnL ;f+:s[lts s]Gb| a]nfotn] ;g\ @))* df cfsif{s gub /flz;fy OGgf]e]l6e cjf8{ klg k|bfg u/]sf] 5 .


;flxTosf/ sljtf/fd >]i7åf/f ;xn]vg ul/Psf s[ltx¿sf] ;ª\lIfKt rrf{

sljtf/fd >]i7n] ;+o'Qmn]vgdf ;d]t snd rnfPsf] kfOG5 . g]kfnL ;flxTo n]vgdf …cfsfz ljeflht 5 .Ú pkGof;af6 ;+o'Qm n]vgsf] k|of; ePsf] b]lvG5 . 123 o;} qmddf sljtf/fdn] …cjtf/ lj36gÚ / …lj:yflkt cg'xf/x¿Ú u/L hDdf @ j6f s[ltx¿df ;xn]vg u/]sf 5g\ .

cjtf/ lj36gÚ

cjtf/ lj36gÚ lj=;+= @)$% ;fndf ;xn]vgdf k|sflzt ul/Psf] pkGof; xf] . o;df k|sflzt cÍx¿ lj=;+= @)$# ;fn cflZjgb]lv lj=;+= @)$% r}q;Dd qmdzM ;dli6 klqsfdf k|sflzt ePsf lyP . kl5 ltg} cÍx¿nfO{ ;ª\u|lxt u/L lj=;+= @)$% df hgfb{g hf]zLn] ;dli6sf nflu …cjtf/ lj36gÚ gfd lbO{ pkGof;sf] ¿kdf k|sfzg u/]sf x'g\ .124 Ps;o krf; k[i7df k|sflzt k|:t't pkGof;df rf}w kl/R5]b 5g\ . k|:t't s[ltsf n]vsx¿ qmdzM o; k|sf/ 5g\ –

z}n]Gb| ;fsf/, sljtf/fd, 1fg'jfs/ kf}8]n, b]j]Gb|k|tfk zfx, bf}ntljqmd lji6, h}g]Gb| hLjg, w'|jrGb| uf}td, s'd'b b]jsf]6f, gs'n l;njfn, w'|j dw'sdL{, ;Ltf kf08], w|'j ;fksf]6f, hgfb{g hf]zL .

sljtf/fdåf/f o; pkGof;sf] bf];|f] cWofo n]lvPsf] xf] . pkGof;sf] bf];|f] cWofodf z]v/ / ljdn b'O{{ d'Vo kfq 5g\ . tLdWo] n]vs :jo+ ljdn cyf{t\ d kfqsf] ¿kdf ePsf] cfef; x'G5 . pkGof;df ;]S;, ;/fa, /fhgLlt, ;fdflhs tyf juL{o ljifdtf, cfd dflg;sf ljjztf / afWotf, of}g dgf]j}1flgstf, cltoyf{yjflbtfsf ljifoj:t'x¿nfO{ 5n{ËØfOPsf] 5 .

lj:yflkt cg'xf/x¿Ú

sljtf/fdåf/f ;xn]vg ul/Psf] klxnf] s[lt …lj:yflkt cg'xf/x¿Ú xf] . c:jLs[t hdftsf ;b:ox¿åf/f @)@) ;fndf cfˆgf] hdftsf] d'vkq :j¿k ;+o'Qm ¿kdf ….. dGq .. ^Ú nfO{ g} k':tsfsf/ ¿kdf …lj:yflkt cg'xf/x¿Ú gfd lbO{ k|sflzt ul/Psf] xf] . o; k':tsdf hDdf % hgf n]vssf lgDg cg';f/ /rgf 5g\ .

c~hL/ k|wfg kLl8t M ;+j]bgf -sljtf_, s]jn ;'?jft -sljtf_, kf;f kmfln/x]5' -sljtf_, vflnkgsf] ;Í]t -sljtf_, hGdlbjz -sljtf_, lsg d ?v h:tf] gfËf] x'g ;lSbgF -sljtf_ .


z}n]Gb| ;fsf/ M k|:yfg -sljtf_, ;do -sljtf_, ;Dk"0f{ oGq0ffx¿aLr -sljtf_, If -syf_, ;lGweË cfjfhx¿ -PsfÍL_, ljrf/ dGyg -lgaGw_ .


efpkGwL M lgif]lwt lkF9L -sljtf_, cgf:yfsf] d[To' -sljtf_, Tof] rLh dnfO{ b]pm -sljtf_, a"9f] lu4 -sljtf_, gjo'jf n]vg -lgaGw_ .

/d]z >]i7 M cfw'lgs g]kfnL ;flxTodf ;]S; / ;dfh -lgaGw_, ;Gqf;sf] j}olQms sljtf -lgaGw_, k':tsfno -lgaGw_, /IffaGwg -lgaGw_, sLlt{k'/nfO{ h"gdf ;Daf]wg -sljtf_ .


sljtf/fd M lj:yflkt lkF9L / c:jLs[t ;flxTo -lgaGw_, sljtf/fd ;8sdf -sljtf_, askq M :jefjjfb -lgaGw_, s}bLsf] 5f]/f -syf_, oflGqs /fIf; -syf_ .

pko'Qm s[ltsf] k|f/Dedf g} sljtf/fdsf /rgfx¿ /x]sf 5g\ . h; cGtu{t pgn] k|yd zLif{sdf c:jLs[t hdftsf dfGotf tyf wf/0ffx¿ JoQm u/]sf 5g\ . bf];|f] zLif{ssf] sljtfdf cfˆgf ljb|f]xx¿ kf]v]sf 5g\ . t];|f] zLif{sdf :jefjjfbL bz{gdfly lrGtg ul/Psf] 5 . rf}yf] zLif{s n]vssf] k|f/lDessfnLg gfËf]jfbnfO{ emNsfpg] syfsf] ¿kdf k|:t't 5 eg] clGtd tyf oflGqs /fIf; zLif{ssf] syfdf x/]s :yflkt k/Dk/fut d"No / dfGotfsf lj?4df cfˆgf wf/0ff JoQm u/]sf 5g\ .

;du|df eGg'kbf{ @)@) b]lv #) sf]] ;dosf] c:jLs[t hdft / To;;Fu ;DalGwt n]vssf wf/0ffx¿nfO{ a'‰g ;lsg] z}nLsf /rgfx¿ o; s[ltleq ;ª\u|lxt 5g\ . o;sf cltl/Qm n]vssf] !)! x:tfIf/ gfds s[lt;d]t ePsf] pNn]v eP tfklg vf]hdf pQ s[lt ck|fKo /x]sf] 5 .


kl/R5]b – gf}

c:jLs[t hdftsf] ;ª\lIfKt rrf{

kfZrfTo d'n''sdf dfq xf]Og, g]kfndf klg oyf ;dodf cg]sfF}F ;flxlTos cfGbf]ngx¿ på]lnt ePsf 5g\ . ds}kj{, em/f]{jfbL cfGbf]ng, cfofd]nL cfGbf]ng, /fNkmfnL cfGbf]ng, c:jLs[t hdft, cdn]v, of]Ë /fO6;{ k|mG6, a'6kfln; cleofg, ;8s sljtf qmflGt, t/njfb, nLnf n]vg, ;8s gf6s cleofg cflbh:tf cg]sfF}F gfdx¿ g]kfnL ;flxlTos cfGbf]ngdf u0fgf ug{ of]Uo 5g\ . o:t} cfGbf]ng cGtu{tsf] Pp6f ;zQm ;flxlTos cfGbf]ng xf] c:jLs[t hdft . sljtf/fd o; hdftdf @)@^ ;fnlt/ 3f]lift¿kdf b]vf k/]sf x'g\ . tTsfnLg lg/Í'z k~rfotL Joj:yfdf :jtGq ljrf/ nfO{ rnv]n ug{ k|ltaGw lyof] . :jfefljstf / ultzLntf c:jfefljstfsf] cfj/0fdf 5f]lkPsf lyP . ;Qf :yflkt ;flxlTos d"No / dfGotf lj?4 ljz]if u/L o'jfhdft ljb|f]xL aGb} uO/x]sf] lyof] . o:t} kl/k|]Ifdf of] hdftsf] k|f/De ePsf] xf] .

;flxTo /fhgLlt cflb If]qdf b]lvPsf] Psflwsf/ / k/Dk/fjfbL ;f]rn] gj pn{Fbf] lkF9L cfxt lyof] . o;} kl/j]zdf @)@^–#) sf] ;dodf of] hdft k"0f{ :yflkt eof] . o; k"j{ klg c:jLs[t ljifodf w]/} ;flxTosf/x¿ n]Vb} lyP . kl5sf lbgx¿df t s]jn gfdfs/0f dfq ePsf] xf] .125 dflg; ;du|df ;'Gb/ dfq 5}g . s'¿k klg 5 . u'0fLdfq klg 5}g cju'0fL klg 5 . log} dflg;x¿sf] ;du| lrq0fkIfdf c:jLs[t hdftn] hf]8 lbPsf] 5 .126 sljtf/fdn] :jefjjfb t/ntfjfb / c:jLs[tjfbnfO{ Pscsf{sf] k"/s / ;dfgfyL{ ¿kdf lnPsf 5g\ . st} pgL :jefjjfbL x'g k'U5g\ st} c:jLs[ltdf ljb|f]x u5{g\ eg] st} t/ntfdf kf]lvG5g\ . sljtf/fdsf] c:jLs[t hdftsf] :jefjjfbnfO{ dfS;{sf] 8fOn]lS6sn d]6]l/olnHd / Yof]/L ckm ;'k/:6«Sr/ PG8 ;a–:6«Sr/, afs'lggsf] cgfls{Hd, cu:6 sfD6sf] kf]lhl6leHd, / lxGb"zf:q cGtu{tsf] rfjf{s nufot jfddfuL{ zfQmdtsf l;4fGtn] klg k|efj kf/]sf 5g\ .

;du|df sljtf/fd Pp6f ;flxlTos :s'ns} ¿kdf :yflkt tyf b]zs} Pp6f ax'cfoflds JolQmTj -;]lna|]6L_ sf ¿kdf b]lvPsf] k|;ª\u dbgdl0f bLlIftn] o;/L pNn]v u/]sf 5g\ – æsljtf/fdHo"sf] n]vsLo eljio s'g lbzfdf cu|;/ x'Fb}5 eGg] ljifonfO{ eljion] lglZrt ug]{5 . of] k':ts x]bf{ / pxfFsf clxn] d}n] k9]sf syf / sljtfx¿dfly Wofg lbFbf pxfF Pp6f ;flxlTos :s'nsf] ¿kdf :yflkt e};s]sf] n]vs xf] eGg] lgisif{df d k'u]sf] 5' . k|:t't k':tssf] clGtd cWofo æd]/f] ;flxlTos ofqfÆ k9]kl5 sljtf/fd lglDt cfhsf]eGbf k[ys, lgs} pHofnf], hLjgjfbL, oyfy{jfbL, dfgjjfbL ;flxlTos hLjg v'Ng]df d]/f] ljZjf; a9]sf] 5 .Æ127

c:jLs[t hdftsf ;b:ox¿

@)@^ ;fnb]lv b]vf k/]sf c:jLs[t cfGbf]ngsf k|0f]tf dWo]sf Ps sljtf/fd x'g\ . sljtf/fd o; cfGbf]ngdf PSn} eg] lyPgg\ gfdn] g} k|:6 5 of] hdft lyof] . c:jLs[t hdftdf pgs} egfOdf pgsf cltl/Qm /d]z >]i7, z}n]Gb| ;fsf/, k/z'k|wfg, s'df/ g]kfn, k'is/ nf]xgL, w'|jrGb| uf}td, xl/ clwsf/L, gjLgk|sfz hË, ;flj 7fs'/, hubLz l3ld/], efpkGyL, ljgf]b bLlIft, dg' a|fhfsL, k|]dgf/fo0f k|]dL, hut/~hg, xl/z adhg, jf;'zzL, df]xg l3ld/], lvnWjh yfkf, vu]Gb| ;ª\u|f}nf, g]kfne"if0f Gof}kfg], kfl/hft, d~h'n, OGb| /fhe08f/L, df]xgzDz]/ yfkf, cflb ;flxTosf/x¿ ;+nUg lyP .128 ;~hLjgLn] o; hdftsf] 3f]if0ff ugf{;fy sltko ;xefuLx¿n] cfkm" hdftdf gePsf] jQmJo klg lgsfn] . cleJolQm, ;'gfv/L, ljZjb"t ;fKtflxs cflb klqsfn] lj/f]w ug'{sf ;fy} o; hdftsf n]vsx¿nfO{ cfnf]rgfTds cj;/ klg lbPsf lyP . ;a}eGbf a9L v'n]/ lj/f]w ug]{df efg' klqsfdfkm{t\ >Lk|;fb lyP . >Lk|;fbn] c:jLs[t hdftnfO{ $ kGgf;Dd kmf]xf]/L ufnL u/]sf lyP, h;df c:jLs[t hdftnfO{ === c/fli6«o, c;fdflhs, cfw'lgs /fIf;, hËaxfb'/, af}l4s Hofgdf/f, cfw'lgs c5't, lrD6f lnP/ lxF8\g] gfuf, n'y/lsË, ufGwL, eLd;]g yfkf, nf]ShDau{ bDklt, / Uoflnlnof]sf xTof/f, e|i6frf/L, /fi6«b|f]xL, g]kfnsf zflGtk"0f{ k//fi6« gLltsf l/k', o'4vf]/, dfgj lgld{t eJo pBf]uwGbf, snf ;+:s[lt ;flxTo cflbnfO{ 89]nf] nufpg] 9'Ë]o'usf 6f]nL, v'Nnf ;8sdf d}y'g ug]{ c/fhstfjfbL, /fIf;, xfd|f] b]znfO{ 3f]8f r9\g vf]Hg] ljb]zL cultsf b'u{lGwt ;f;, KofG6d} kmf]xf]/ u/]/ lxF8g], cfFvfdf lrk|f, gËdf kmf]xf]/ /fvL l3peft vfg vf]Hg] g]kfnL lxKkL, j;Gtk'/sf /ftf]lbg ufO{ vf]lhlxF8\g] a;fxf cflbh:tf gfdx¿ lbPsf] / To; hdftnfO{ ;a} ldn]/ u7]dËndf kf]8]nfO{ em}F gf}/Ë bn]/ gs{6sf] la6fdfly r9fP/ l3;fb}{ lji0f'dtL / wf]aLvf]nf s6fOlbg'k/]sf] 5 === egL o; klqsfsf] ;fdlos rrf{df rrf{ u/]sf 5g\ .129

;~hLjgLsf] k|sfzgsf] sf/0fn] c~rnfwLz sfof{nodf ;Dkfbsx¿nfO{ w]/}k6s s'bfof] . sfnfGt/;Dd c:jLs[t hdftsf] laNnf lnP/ lxF8g] sljtf/fd dfq /x] . pgL xfn klg o; dfGotfdf c6n 5g\ .

3f]if0ffkqÚ

c:jLs[t hdft cfkm}Fdf Pp6f :yflkt ;flxlTos ;d"x xf] tfklg tTsfnLg kl/j]zdf cleoGtfx¿n] :jtM:km"t{¿kdf …3f]if0ffkqÚ sljtfsf] k|sfzg u/] . of] …3f]if0ffkqÚ sljtf ;du|df ;+:yfut¿kdf Pp6} ePsf] eP ;'gdf ;'uGw x'g] lyof] . …3f]if0ffkqÚ sljtf lgsfNg]x¿df efpkGyL, ;f=la= 7fs'/, z}n]Gb| ;fsf/, hut /~hg, sgsåLk, OGb| /fhe08f/L, df]xg;Dz]/ yfkf, lji0f'nfn >]i7, k'is/ nf]xgL, k|sfz k|]dL, c~hL/ k|wfg, sljtf/fd /x]sf 5g\ . sljtf/fdsf …3f]if0ffkqÚ sljtf uB nofTds / uBfTds u/L b'O{{ k|sf/sf b]lvG5g\ h;dWo] sljtfTds …3f]if0ffkqÚ sljtfsf] rrf{ sljtfcGtu{t ul/;lsPsf] 5 . uBfTds …3f]if0ffkqÚ o; k|sf/ 5 .

sljtf/fdsf] …3f]if0ffkqÚ

æ;flxTonfO{ d}n] oxfF 7"nf xf]6nx¿df b]v]sf] 5', /S;L / bfdL r'/f]6x¿sf] gzfleq b]v]sf] 5' . e'uf]nkfs{ / /Tgkfs{df km'n]sf] km"nsf] ;f}Gbo{dfly ;'sf]dn p8fg el//fv]sf] b]v]sf] 5' . d slxNo} tL ;flxTox¿sf] ;Dd'v x'g ;lsgF, d Pp6f lg/Lx JolQm ;dfhsf] lgldQ s]xL lbg ;lQmgF . ;dfhn] dnfO{ cg]sfF}F dfGotf dof{bf / lgodx¿ agfP/ lsrf]ln/x]5 . d]/f] :jtGqk]|dL :jfledfgL JolQmTj b'v]/ lrRofpF5 . s/fpF5 / ;w}F cfˆgf] cl:tTjsf] lglDt ljb|f]x ul//xG5 . d}n] ;dfhdf afFRg} sxfF kfPsf] 5' / d ;dfhsf] nflu s]xL lbg;S5' . d t xb{d ;dfhk|lt g} ljb|f]x ul//x]5' .Æ

æef]sf] x'g', lj/fdL k/]/ km'6kfydf nl8/xg' csf{sf] k};fn] k]6 eg'{, s8f d]xgt ug'{, wgLaf6 zlQmaf6 lkl6g', rf]/L ug'{, 8s}tL ug'{, Hofgdfg'{, wgL / zlQmnfO{ oyf;So lk6\g', efUg', n'Sg'h:tf lbgel/sf ;ª\3if{x¿af6 yfs]/ d]/f] lkF9L a]n'sLkv ;w}F rfpl/Fb} uPsf] cg'xf/ :jf:gL / 5f]/f5f]/L;fd' k'¥ofpF5 . pm 5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ ;'D;'DofpF5 . h]h:tf] 5 vfG5 . 5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ v'jfpF5 . gk'u] s]xL vfFb}g / cGTodf cf]5\Øfgdf cfˆgf] a'l9ofsf] cFufnf]leq lbgel/sf ;a} s6'tfx¿nfO{ lal;{lbG5 .Æ

æoxL lbgrof{ d]/f] lkF9Lsf] n]vg ljifo xf] . ;flxTo s] xf] < Tof] stf 5 < xfdL To;nfO{ x]b}{gf}F / cfvf lrDn]/ cfˆgf cleJolQm kf]V5f}F . d}n] ;flxTo n]V5' eg]/ s]xL n]v]sf] 5}g . ;flxTosf] nflu eg]/ klg s]xL n]v]sf] 5}g / ;flxTosf] nflu ;flxTo eg]/ s]xL s'/f] ;Dkfbg u/]sf] 5'OgF .Æ

æqm'4, cl:y/, clgof]lht d]/f] lkF9Ln] :yflkt ;flxTosf] zflAbs cy{, kl/j]z / ljwfsf] xTof ul/;s]sf] 5 . d cfhsf] dfG5]sf] t]l/h x'F, cf8Da/xLg, gfËf], s'¿k, :jefjjfbL, b]zxLg, c;+k[Qm, cg'zf;gxLg, 5f8f, ;dfhb|f]xL, k|tLs[ofjfbL, 8/5]?jf, eu'jf, :jfyL{ / cjflG5t . d]/f] cfˆg} :jfy{ 5 / cfˆg} lsl;dsf] dfGotf 5 . d cfˆgf n]vx¿df oxL ptf5'{ .Æ

æxfd|f] lkF9Lsf] ;flxTo Pp6f l;Ëf] dfG5] xf] . xfdL dfG5]nfO{ dfGotf, dof{bf, cf}krfl/stf, s[lqdtf / 9f]Fux¿af6 gËØfpFg rfxG5f}F . Tof] dfG5] g} xfd|f] n'ufljxLg gfËf] dfG5] xf] . Tof] gfËf] dfG5] dfq g} oyfy{ ;flxTo xf] . / Tof] oyfy{tf xfd|f] gfËf]jfb xf] . gfËf]jfb oyfy{ ;flxTonfO{ x]g]{ jf lvRg] dfWod xf] . cem kmf]s; xf] . of] kmf]s; s'g} k|efjxLg, bz{gxLg / :jfefljs 5 . bz{gxLgtf of :jfefljstf g} o;sf] bz{g xf] . of] kmf]s; :jefjjfbsf] b[li6sf]0f xf] . :jefjjfbdf of}g cfkm}F cfˆg} :yfgel/ cfˆg} lsl;dn] dxTTjk"0f{ 5 . g t of] cZnLn of cjf~5gLo g} 5 g t hLjgsf] ;Dk"0f{tf g} .Æ130

æd hGdgf;fy d]/f ;ª\3if{x¿ ;'? x'G5g\ . dnfO{ hah{:tL cfhsf dfG5]x¿n] cfkm}Fn] leb}{ cfPsf, cf]9\b} cfPsf yf]qf dfGotfx¿ cf]9fP . o;df s6\sl6Psf don, plS;/x]sf] uGw, / ;nanfO{/x]sf h'd|fx¿ lj?4 d}n] w]/} ;ª\3if{x¿ ug'{k¥of] . d eG5' ca d gfË} afFR5' . gfË} /x]/ l:yltx¿ ef]U5' . gfË} /x]/ 3fdkfgL hf8f]nfO{ lhT5' . lhTg] cEof; u5'{. . n'ufdf km]l/ don hD5 . kl;gf blËG5 . h'd|f kb{5 .Æ

æd]/f c:jLs[ltnfO{ jf:tljstf of :jfefljstf dflysf] hf]8 eGg ;Sg'x'G5 . ePg, cem hf]8 lbP/ eGg ;lsG5 . …gfËf]kg dflysf] hf]8Ú cyf{t\ d]/f] gfËf]kg g} d]/f] c:jLs[lt xf] . Æ 131



a'6 kfln;df ;+nUgtf

sljtf/fdsf] hLjgnfO{ ;flxlTos cfGbf]ng cleoGtf JolStTjsf] ¿kdf pEofpg] rlr{t cfGbf]ngsf ¿kdf a'6 kfln;cfGbf]ngsf] rrf{ ug}{k5{ . …d]/f c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿Ú gfds ljrf/f]Q]hs k':tsdf pSt cfGbf]ngsf] af/]df Jofks rrf{ ul/Psf] 5 . cleJolSt k|sfzgn] ljz]iffÍsf ¿kdf pSt k':ts k|sflzt u/]kl5 ;flxTohut\df Jofks xnrn cfPsf] lyof] . oxfF pSt k':tsaf6 h:tfsf]t:t} ljj/0f pb\w[t ul/Psf] 5–æ============o;} qmddf d}n] a'6 kfln; cleofgdf cfˆgf] ;ª\nUgtf klg k~hLs[t ug'{ kg]{ x'G5 . ;flxlTos cleofgx¿df c:jLs[t hdftkl5 a'6 kfln;sf] qmd b]lvPsf] 5 / o;n] lgs} g} k|lti7f klg kfof] . jf:tadf c:jLs[t hdftsf] h:tf] ;}4flGts ljb|f]x xfdLn] o;df ;f]r]sf klg lyPgf}F . ;fdflhs ;ª\sngsf] k|sfzg aGb ul/Psf] lyof] / klqsf btf{ ug{ xfd|f] k""FhLsf] IfdtfeGbf aflx/sf s'/f lyP . xfdL;Fu klqsf /x]gg\ / lstfa 5fKg ;Sg] klg s'g} cf}sft ePg . xfd|f] snddf 7Kkf nfu]sf] lyof] . To:t} kl/l:yltdf l56f], ;lhnf] / k|efjsf/L k|ltsf/ jf c;Gt'i6Lsf] k|bz{g ToxL x'g ;SYof]– æa'6 kfln;Æ . a'6 kfln; u/]/ sdfPsf] k};fn] lstfasf] k|sfzg . wf]jLwf/fsf] j/k/ ;fsf/, d / df]xg l3ld/] a:bYof}F .Æ hfu/0fÆ sf] clkm; Tot} lyof] . s'd'b, gf/fo0f 9sfn, ;Gtf]if e§/fO{ / efpkGyL klg a]nfa]nfdf cfpFy] / 5f]onf, slrnf / P]nfsf sfo{qmdx¿ glhs}sf] e§Ldf ub{y] . cfkm" k/]F glkpg] . glkpg] ePkl5 ;fy klg :jtM sd} x'g] /x]5 . o;} tfsf s'/} s'/fdf ;fyLx¿n] Young Writers Front -gj n]vg_ klg u7g u/]5g\— dnfO{ kQ} ePg .

Ps lbg ;fyLx¿ t]h v/]n -hfu/0fsf ;Dkfbs_ sf clkm;df cfOk'u] . Young Writers Front sf] ldl6Ë ug{ . d klg k'u]F . s'/}s'/fdf ;fyLx¿n] cfˆgf lstfax¿ k|sflzt x'g g;s]sf tLtf–dL7f k|;Ëx¿ lgsfn] . ;fdlos ;Íngsf] k|sfzgdf nfu]sf] k|ltaGw / ;femf / k|1f–k|lti7fgsf gLltx¿af6 jfSs ePsf s'g} Pshgf ;fyL ;Gtf]if jf gf/fo0f 9sfn jf df]xg, s'g}n] a'6 kfln; u/]/ lstfa lgsfNg] cfj]u kf]v] . l5§} g} ;a}sf] lbdfudf k;]5 . Ps} :j/df …xf]Ú …xf]Ú lgl:sof] . t'?Gt} ef]lnkN6} gofF ;8sdf a'6 kfln; ug]{ eOxfNof}F . d r'k lyPF . efpkGyLn] …s] ;f]r]sf] <Ú eg]/ sf]6\ofP . d}n] eg]F— …;f]r]/ ug'{ k5{ .Ú df]xgn] k|Zg /fVof]– …s] ;f]Rg' k5{ <Ú d}n] eg]F– …of]hgfj4 sfd u¥of}F eg] /fd|f] x'G5 xtf/ ug'{x'Gg .Ú ;fsf/n] :jLs[lt hgfof] . lszf]/ …em'q]Ú hlËof]– …ltdLx¿ ;'6–6fO nfpg] dfG5] a'6 kfln; ug{ ;Qm}gf} ==== xfdL t ef]ln u/]/} 5f8\5f}F .Ú d cjfs ePF . ;fsf/ cjfs eof] . cjfs x'g'sf] dtna c:jLs[lt lyPg . ;a} ;fyLx¿ 3/ kmls{P . …a'6 kfln;Ú ;f]em} a'6 kfln; u/]/ cy{ ;Íng ug]{ cleofg dfq lyPg . o;sf k5fl8 alnof] …c:jLs[tjfbÚ klg lyof] . slxF st} ulNt eP Oltxf;n] xfF;f] p8fpg ;SYof] . of] p5[ª\vn dflgg ;SYof] / ;/sf/sf cfFvfdf klg laemfpg] s'/f x'g ;SYof] . To;}n] of]hgfa4 sfd ug'{ Psbd} h?/L lyof] .

;fsf/, d / df]xg eP/ /ftel/ sfo{qmd agfof}F . o;nfO{ Publicize ug{ Psbd} h?/L lyof] . ;DalGwt lgsfox¿nfO{ xfFs k'¥ofpg k|rf/ klg x'g' h?/L lyof] . To;}n] xfdLn] krf{x¿ n]Vof}F .Æ æ;flxTosf nflu a'6 kfln;Æ ægj o'jf n]vgsf k':ts k|sfzgfy{ a'6 kfln;Æ OToflb . gf} ah] laxfg gofF ;8s k'Uof}F . of]hgf cg'¿k a'6 kfln; ug]{ s]6fx¿ b'O{j6f afs;, s]xL kfln; / a|;x¿ lbg el/sf] !). – ¿k}+ofF lbP/ ef8fdf lnof}F / dlxnf ;+u7gsf] laqmL e08f/sf] klZrd kl§ uof}F . ToxfF klxnf kf]i6/x¿ 6fF:of}F . tLghgfdf s]xL nHhf lyof] . z'? ug{ lgs} ufx|f] k¥of] . dfG5]x¿sf] eL8 a9\g nfUof] . eL8n] xfdLnfO{ g5f]k'~h]n kf]i6/ 6fF:g] Jo:ttfleq nfhnfO{ n'sfpg sf]l;; u¥of}F . cl3Nnf] lbg hf]l:;g] ;fyLx¿ cfOk'u]gg\ . t]h v/]nn] eL8 hDdf u/] . eL8n] /fd|} 5f]k]kl5 xfdLn] eL8af6 h'Qf dfUof}F . h'Qf cfpg nfu]kl5 xfdLnfO{ nfh nfUg 5f8\of] . s]xLIf0fd} sfzLgfy tdf]6, gf/fo0f 9sfn, w'|j ;fksf]6f, efpkGyL ub}{ ;fyLx¿ ylkP . ljZjgfy cfP t/ kl5 n';'Ss lxF8] . s'd'b cfP/ klg k/k/} efu]5 . lszf]/ em'q] h;n] oxL ug{ xfFs lbPsf] lyof] b]v} k/]g . hflu/ hfg] 8/ eP5 . ejfgL l3ld/], gu]Gb|/fh zdf{, g[k]Gb| k'?if / t]h v/]n eL8af6 u|fxs tfGg nfu] . o:t} k|]d s}bL / cfgGb hËnLn] klg s]xL ;fyLx? NofP / xfdL;Fu} a;]/ a'6 kfln; ug{ ;3fP . ck/fGx kl5 b]lvof]— xfd|f] a'6 kfln;sf] nfd @)÷@% hgfsf] eP5 . xfdLn] ;a} ;xof]uLx¿nfO{ lrg]gf}F . ;fFem ^M#) ah] xfdLn] p7\g] lgwf] lnof}F . w]/} cfP . xft ldnfP . wGojfb lbP . kmf]6f] lvr] / ltg}dWo] s]xL o:tf klg lyP h;n] ækm];gsf nflu a'6 kfln;Æ jf æ;:tf] gfdsf nflu a'6 kfln;Æ eGg] h:tf sd]G6 klg u/] .

k};f uGof}F hDdf @)( ¿k}+ofF $) k};f p7]5 . ef]ln kN6 o'lgel;{6Ldf a'6 kfln; ug]{ cfu|x o'lgel;{6Lsf ;fyLx¿n] u/] t/ ef]lnkN6 cfOTTjf/ lyof] / xfdL— ;fsf/, df]xg / d}n] ;do lbg ;s]gf}F . ef]lnkN6 ljwfyL{ ;fyLx¿n] o'lgel;{6Ldf ;fFRr} a'6 kfln; u/]5g\ / em08} kfFr;o ¿k}+ofF xfdLnfO{ a'emfpg NofP . ;f] hDdf /sd ? ;ft ;of a}sdf df]xg l3ld/] / w'|j ;fksf]6fsf] ;+o'Qm gfddf /fVof}F . b'O{ xhf/sf] cfjZostf lyof] . kl5 xfdLn] rflxFbf] /sd hDdf ug{ ;s]gf}F . cfh;Dd g} Tof] k};f a}+sd} 5 / xfd|f] lstfa cem} lg:sg ;s]sf] 5}g .

a'6 kfln; cleofg lgs} rrf{df cfof] . w]/} kqklqsfx¿n] n]v] . oL dWo] ck{0f, rrf{, /fi6«Wjlg -)#!, cflZjg !$_, k|lt1f -cflZjg !@_, ;do b}lgs, ;xL cfjfh b}lgsn] o; cleofgsf] ;/fxgf u/] . ;dLIffn] æ;8s af]N5 :tDeÆ df ;8ssf dtx¿ ;d]t k|sflzt u¥of] . ef/tsf] b}lgs cË|]hL æ6fOD; ckm Ol08ofÆ n] ;–;Ddfg va/ lbof] eg] lbgdfgn] æ;j{ >L lszf]/ g]kfn ;ª\nUg ePsf cleofgÆ eg]/ em"7f] ;dfrf/ klg 5fKof] . la/f6gu/af6 k|sflzt æsf]z]nLÆ dfq o:tf] klqsf b]lvof], h;n] To;a]nf b]lvPsf, ;'lgPsf / ;d:t dgu9Gt, gsf/fTds s'/fx¿ ;ª\sng u/L 5fKof] . l5§} g} xfdLn] dx;'; u¥of}F— o; cleofgaf/] s]xL k|sfzg ug'{k5{ . xfd|f;fydf t]h v/]n lyP . pgsf] klqsf æhfu/0fÆ jif{ @, cÍ #, )#! n] æa'6 kfln; kl/lzi6fÍÆ k|sflzt ul/lbof] . o;df xfdL ;a}h;f] a'6 kfln;]x¿sf cleJolQmx¿ 5flkPsf 5g\ .=========Æ



c:jLs[t hdft s]xL cjwf/0ff

k|:t'ltdf k|of]uwld{tf

c:jLs[t hdftnfO{ cfBf]kfGt ¿kdf lg/Gt/tf lbg]x¿df xfn;Dd sljtf/fd g} /x]sf 5g\ . o; dfGotf cjwf/0ffnfO{ klg lg/Gt/tfsf] cfwf/df ;d]t pgs} ;flxlTos ultljlwaf6 7Dofpg a9L ;lhnf] k5{ . c:jLs[t hdft cfˆgf] k|f/Deb]lv g} ljwfut lj>[ª\vntfdf /rgfwld{tf b]V5 . z}nLut cfwf/df ljwfnfO{ eGbf efjnfO{, cd"t{tfnfO{ a9L dxTTj lbg' o; hdftsf] ljz]iftf xf] . sljtf/fd eG5g\– …d}n] Pp6f n]v]F / To;nfO{ sljtf dfUg]x¿nfO{ sljtf eg]/ lbPF, Tof] pgLx¿n] lnP . To;}nfO{ syf eg]/ csf]{nfO{ lbPF Tof] pgLx¿n] syf eg]/} lnP . == Tof] a]nf :yflkt ;flxTosf ljwf / d"No wd{/df lyP .Ú …=== uf]i7Lx¿df Pp6} s'/fnfO{ slxn] sljtfsf] no xfn]/ k9]F t slxn] uBsf] nodf . st}af6 s]xL lj/f]w ;'lgPg ======== .Ú132 of] cfkm}Fdf Pp6f gofF k|of]u klg xf] . o:tf cg]sfF}F cGo pbfx/0fx¿ c:jLs[t n]vgdf kfOG5g\ .

ljifout d"Nodf gjLgtf

sljtf/fd ljifout b[li6n] ;d]t gjLg d"No / dfGotfdf a9L k|of]u u5{g\ . ;dfhsf ckx]lnt / ;fdfGo ju{sf ljifoj:t' ckgfpF5g\ . pgsf kfqx¿ tNnf] txaf6 l6lkG5g\ . askqdf /f]lugL, /G8L / afpGgLn] ef]u]sf ljifo, qf;, / h~hfn o;}sf pbfx/0fx¿ x'g\ . k/Dkl/t ljifoj:t'eGbf s]xL k[ys /x]/ jf b]lvP/ /rgf ug'{ pgsf] j}lzi6\Ø xf] . pgsf afn;flxlTos s[ltx¿df ;d]t ljifout d"Nodf gjLgtf kfOG5 . k/Dk/fjfbL elQm, cfbz{ / dfGotfsf hudf csf]{ kIf yKb} pgn] j}1flgs, ;do;fk]lIft, ;d;fdlos tyf 1fgj4{s ljifox¿sf] k|of]u u/]sf 5g\ . …jgb]jLÚ, …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ, …cgf}7f] ofqfÚ, cflb afns[ltx¿ o;sf pbfx/0f x'g\ .

c:jLs[t dfGotfsf] lj1fg ;flxTodf k|of]u

sljtf/fdnfO{ csf]{ tl/sfn] lrgfpg' kbf{ pgL lj1fg ;flxTosf/ ;d]t x'g\ . ;flxTodf lj1fg xfn]/ pgn] k|of]u u/]sf 5g\ . ;flxlTos d"No / dfGotfsf] lj1fg;Ddt Jofvf pgsf] Wo]o xf] . k/Dk/faf6 :jLs[lt k|fKt wf/faf6 j}1flgs wf/f k|of]u u/L gjLgtfsf] yfngL u/sf 5g\ . …:jefjuLtfÚ lj1fg gf6s o;sf] gd"gf pbfx/0f xf] . lj1fgsf] gjLg vf]hn] dflg;nfO{ xHhf/f}F jif{cufl8 jf k5fl8 nfg;Sg' / d"Nox¿sf] s'g} j:t'k/s dfkgsf] cfwf/ gx'g' h:tf wf/0ff JoQm u/L n]vs lj1fg ;flxTo dfkm{t\ klg cfˆgf] c:jLs[lt kf]V5g\ .

c:jLs[t dfGotfsf] ;+:s[lt ;flxTodf k|of]u

;f+:s[lts kIfsf] ;d]t plQs} ?lr lng] sljtf/fdsf] cWoogsf] ljifo ;+:s[lt klg xf] . pgn] …s] lsg elgof] <Ú ;f+:s[lts lgaGw ;ª\u|x k|sflzt u/]sf 5g\ . pgn] o;} lgaGwdfkm{t\ klg cfˆgf] dfGotfnfO{ ;+:s[lt ;flxTodf k|:t't u/]sf 5g\ . ;+:s[ltnfO{ :jLs[ltk|fKt k/Dk/fut dfGotfn] dfq gx]/L ;+:s[ltleq n's]sf j:t'k/s / j}1flgs tYosf ;sf/fTds kIfsf cfwf/df pgn] ;+:s[ltnfO{ ljZn]if0f u/]sf 5g\ . s'g}klg ;+:s[ltkIfsf] cGweQm dfq x'g'eGbf To;n] ;dfhnfO{ lbg] kmfObfsf] tYok/s j}1flgs ljZn]if0fsf] cfwf/df cWoog ul/g' g} cfˆgf] dfGotf ePsf] n]vsLo wf/0ff /x]sf] 5 .

c:jLs[t dfGotfsf] afn;flxTodf k|of]u

sljtf/fd cfˆgf] afNosfnb]lv g} afn;flxTodf b]lvPsf] cefj dx;'; ub{y] . cfbz{, g}ltstf, elQmefj, k/Dkl/t d"NoeGbf k/ ;d;fdlos afnf]kof]uL 1fgj4{s ;fdu|Lsf] cefj v6\lsPs}n] pgn] afn;flxTonfO{ ;d]t gf}nf]ky lbPsf x'g\ . pgsf afn;flxlTos /rgfx¿n] pko{'Qm dfGotfx¿sf] ;f6f] j}1flgstf, j:t'k/stf / ljZn]if0ffTdstf l;sfpF5g\ . …sldnfsf] syfÚ, …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ, …cgf}7f] ofqfÚ cflb pgsf afn;flxlTos s[ltx¿ lj1fg;Ddt pTs[i6 gd"gf ePs} sf/0fn] /fli6«o cGt/f{li6«o ljleGg ;+:yfdfkm{t\ k'/:s[t ;d]t eO;s]sf 5g\ .

of}g ;flxTodf

sljtf/fdn] ;a}eGbf a9L jf 7f]; ¿kdf c:jLs[ltjfb hgfPsf] If]q jf ljifo of}g xf] . r]tg, cw{r]tg / cr]tgsf] u'h'N6fdf h]lnPsf] k/Dk/fut d"NonfO{ kfnL afFr]sf] of}g kl/lw / ljs[lqdf pgsf] 3f]/ ljb|f]x 5 . o;} ljs[ltnfO{ …askqÚ pkGof;sf /f]lugL, /G8L / afpGgL kfqdfk{mt Joª\Uo ul/Psf] 5 . ljs[lto'Qm n's]sf] of}geGbf ljs[lt/lxt v'nf of}gk|;Ë pgsf] ceLi6 b]lvG5 . …:jefjuLtfÚ lj1fg gf6sdf b]vfOPsf] d"Nout dfGotf / of}g ljZn]if0f pgsf] dfGotfsf] Bf]ts xf] .

lgisif{

c:jLs[t hdftn] sfNklgs ljifosf] ulx/fOdf k'¥ofP/ kf7snfO{ em'Sofpg'sf] ;f6f] yf]qf bDex¿;Fu lj/f]w ug{ rfx]sf] 5 . hLjg hut\sf] hl6ntf cefj, kL8f cflbnfO{ kl/lrt u/fpg] sfd o; hdftsf] /x]sf] 5 . dfG5]nfO{ ;Dk"0f{ ;+:s[lt, k/Dk/f / d"Noaf6 k[ys u/L Pp6f k|fs[lts :jR5 dfG5]sf] ¿kdf dfq x]g{ rfx]sf] 5 .133 jf:tadf o; hdftn] k|z+;fsf k'ik dfq xf]Og k|xf/sf d'Ssf klg k|z:t} ;x]sf] 5 . s]xL n]vsLo ljrngtf eP klg sljtf/fdn] eGg'kg]{ s'/fx¿ 7Ls rf]6df eg]sf 5g\ . zAb jfSo rogn] dd{e]bg ug{ pgL k"0f{ ;kmn 5g\ . tTsfnLg Joj:yfdf :yflkt kl/kf6Lsf lj?4df 3f]lift ¿kdf c:jLs[lt hgfpg ;Sg'nfO{ 7"n} qmflGt 7fGg ;lsG5 .

kl/R5]b – bz


pk;+xf/

;flxTosf/ sljtf/fdsf JolQmTj / s[ltTjsf] cWoog ubf{ pgL cToGt ;ª\3if{zLn JolSt b]lvG5g\ . hLjgL kIfsf] v08af6 x]bf{ pgsf] afNosfn ;ª\3if{do g} b]lvG5 . To:tf] clzlIft jftfj/0fdf x'ls{P/ oxfF;Ddsf] pGglt ug{;Sg' ;fdfGo JolStsf] Ifdtfsf] s'/f xf]Og . cf]vn9'ª\ufb]lv w/fg x'Fb} sf7df8f}F;Ddsf] of] hLjgofqf sd sxfnLnfUbf] 5}g . pgsf] hLjgsf x/]s kf6f h:t} – ;fdflhs, cfly{s, /fhg}lts, ;f+:S[mlts, ;flxlTos, kfl/jfl/s cflb kf6fx¿df ;dfg'kflts ljsf; b]lvG5 . pgL b'u{d :yfgdf hlGdP/ /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o cfsfzdf rlDsg k'u]sf Pp6f ;kmn ;[hgzLn JolQmTj b]lvG5g\ . pgsf !)^ j6f /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o:t/sf s[ltx¿ k|sflzt 5g\, h;df @* j6f ;flxlTos, ## j6f cg';Gwfgd"ns, $@ j6f k|lzIf0fd"ns jf k|fljlws s[lt 5g\ eg] @ j6f rnlrq / Pp6f ;fËLlts PNad klg 5 . pgn] ## j6f ;dfh;]jL ;+:yfx¿df ;+nUgtf hgfPsf 5g\ / ^ j6f k'/:sf/ tyf 5fqj[lQx¿ :yfkgf u/]sf 5g\ . sljtf/fdsf] JolQmTj ax'cfoflds 5 . pgL ;flxlTos JolQmTj, /fhg}lts JolQmTj, ;+:s[ltsdL{ JolQmTj, cfGbf]ngsf/ JolQmTj, k'/:sf/ ;+:yfks JolQmTj cflb ¿kn] kl/lrt 5g\ / x/]sdf plTts} ;an / ;kmn kl/ro lbPsf 5g\ .

sljtf/fdleqsf] ;flxTosf/ sljtf/fd cem ;ls|o b]lvG5 . pgsf] ;flxlTos ofqfsf] yfngL lj=;+= @)!& ;fnb]lv ;'? ePsf] xf] . krf; jif]{ ;flxlTos ofqf lbgk|ltlbg kl/kSj x'Fb} cfPsf] 5 . afn;flxTo xf];\, syf ;flxTo xf];\, pkGof; ;flxTo xf];\, gf6s ;flxTo xf];\, x/]s ljwfdf ;zQmtf kfOG5 . afn ;flxTosf] If]qdf k'/ftgjfbL, elStjfbL wf/0ffsf] lj?4df kfgLsf] yf]kf, cgf}7f] ofqf, jgb]jLh:tf j}1flgs dfGotfsf cfwf/df /lrt /rgfn] l;Ëf] g]kfnL afn dfgl;stfdf cfd"n ¿kdf ;sf/fTds kl/jt{g u/fpg] sfddf dxTTjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]n]sf 5g\ . kfgLsf] yf]kf, cgf}7f] ofqf, jgb]jL, sldnfsf] syfh:tf ch]o s[ltx¿ afn ;flxTodf b'n{e s[lt eGg' cTo'lSt x'Fb}g . pgL afn;flxTodf lj1fg ljifo k|j]z u/fpg] k|yd ;flxTosf/ x'g\ . cfw'lgs g]kfnL syf ;flxTodf ;d]t pgL :yflkt 5g\ . @)!& b]lv n]vg ofqfsf] yfngL u/]/ tL;sf] bzsdf pgL ;d;fdlos o'usf lgtfGt cnu wf/sf] kfof]lgo/ syf n]Vg] c:jLs[t ljrf/nfO{ syfs[t ug{] ;Lksf clb\jtLo k|ltli7t syfsf/sf] ?kdf :yflkt eO;s]sf] k|;ª\u bof/fd >]i7, s[i0frGb|l;+x k|wfg, dbgdl0f bLlIft, /fh]Gb| ;'j]bL, cle ;'j]bL, b]jL ;'j]bLh:tf jl/i7 ;dfnf]rsn] pNn]vgLo ¿kdf rrf{ u/]sf 5g\ . pgsf] Psdfq gf6\os[lt …:jefjuLtfÚ g]kfnL gf6s ;flxTod} ljlzi6 s[lt xf] . ;fob tTsfnLg /fhg}lts kl/j]zdf k/Dk/fjfbL ;dfnf]rgfTds b[li6sf]0fsf] r:dfn] dfq ;flxTonfO{ ku]{Ng]x¿, ;flxTosf] cTofw'lgs wf/nfO{ lt/:sf/ ug]{x¿ ;ª\s'lrt dgl:ylt af]s]sf s]xL JolQmx¿n] o:tf] pTs[i6 gf6snfO{ pk]Iffdfq u/]gg\, c:jLsf/ ;d]t u/] . pgsf w]/}h;f] s[ltx¿n] ;fob cem klg ;f]xL df/ vlk/x]sf 5g\ . sljtf/fdsf] pkGof; …askqÚ klg k/Dk/feGbf leGg 5 . ;De|fGt kfqnfO{dfq dxTTj lbOg] k/Dk/fsf] ;f6f] /f]lugL, /G8L, afpGgLh:tf l;dfGtLs[t lt/is[t kfqx¿ k|of]u u/L lgtfGt HjnGt ;d;fdlos sYo af]Ng] pQm s[ltsf] cfkm\g} j}lzi6\o 5 . ;flxTo]t/ n]vgdf ;d]t pgL c;fwf/0f 5g\ . …s] lsg elgof] <Ú lgaGw ;ª\u|xn] ;g\ @))( sf] cGt/f{li6«o k'/:sf/ lhTg'n] pQm s'/f cfkm}F k|:6 x'G5 . g]kfnL ;flxTodf ax'rlr{t c:jLs[t cfGbf]ngdf pgsf] g]t[TjbfoL e"ldsf cfkm}Fdf cfGbf]ngsf/ JolQmTjnfO{ k'li6 ug]{ k|df0f xf] . tTsfnLg ;flxlTos ;fdGtx¿nfO{ o; cfGbf]ngn] /fd|} r8\sg rvfPsf] s'/f cWoogaf6 yfxf kfOG5 . pgn] $) jif{b]lv g]kfnL ;flxToleqsf ?l9nfO{ ;dfKt kf/L o;nfO{ cu|ufdL agfpg] cys cfGbf]ng u/]sf 5g\ / cfˆgf z'4 ;flxlTos kl;gfsf sdfOaf6 ;+:yfut sfo{ klg u/]sf 5g\ . pgn] !( j6f /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o k'/:sf/ / clegGbgx¿sf ;fy} $ j6f /fli6«o uj{sf] /fhgLlts lgo'lQmsf] ;Ddfg ;d]t kfPsf] b]lvG5 . pgn] pNn]Vo k'/:sf/ tyf pknlAwx¿ k|fKt u/]sf 5g\, h;dWo] ;flxTotkm{ …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ sf] nflu cGt//f{li6«o afnsf]ifsf] k'/:sf/, rnlrqtkm{ …d'lQm;ª\3if{Ú rnlrqsf] nflu …Pl;of clk|msf ;f]ln8fl/6L cjf8{Ú, /fhgLlttkm{ hghflt ljsf; ;ldltdf /fHodGqL:t/sf] pkfWoIf kbdf /fhgLlts lgo'lQm, k];ftkm{ hf]G;xlKsG; o'lgel;{6Lsf] cGt/f{li6«o ljz]if1df cg'alGwt, cWofkgtkm{ Pjl8{g o'lgel;{6Ldf cGt//f{li6«o lelhl6Ë k|f]km];/sf ¿kdf cWofks cflb pNn]vgLo 5g\ .


;du|df sljtf/fd Pp6f ;flxlTos :s'ns} ¿kdf :yflkt tyf b]zs} Pp6f ax'cfoflds JolQmTj -;]lna|]6L_ sf ¿kdf b]lvPsf] k|;ª\u dbgdl0f bLlIftn] d]/f c:jLs[t dfGotfx?df pNn]v u/]sf 5g\ . sljtf/fdsf] ;flxlTos If]qsf ;fy} cGo If]qx¿df klg pNn]Vo of]ubfg 5 . cWoog, l;h{gf, / ;dfh;]jf pgsf ;an kIf x'g\ / ToxL pmhf{af6 pgL cfˆgf ceLi6df cys ¿kdf cu|;/ 5g\ . pgL kl/jt{gsfdLx¿sf tkm{af6 k'/:s[t t ePsf 5g\ t/ oyfl:yltjfbLx¿sf tkm{af6 eg] c:jLs[t x'Fb} cfPsf 5g\ . hlt pGglt u/]/ klg gc3fpg] sljtf/fdn] kl/jf/, ;dfh, g]kfnL ;flxTo, b]z / cGt/f{i6«nfO{ hlt of]ubfg lbPsf 5g\, To; cg'¿k pgn] cem w]/} k|flKtsf] ck]Iff /fVg' cGoyf x'g]5}g .

–––

–––kl/lzi6



ISBN 978-99946-849-7-7

cltl/Qm ;fdu|L


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#=


;Gbe{ u|Gy

  1. cjtf/ lj36g, hgfb{g hf]zL, sf7df8f}F, !(*( .

  2. OGb|axfb' /fO{, g]kfnL pkGof;sf cfwf/x¿, ;femf k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)%@ .

  3. Clif/fh j/fn / s[i0fk|;fb lwld/], g]kfnL syf efu #, ;femf k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F @)%% .

  4. sljtf/fd >]i7, cgf}7f cleofgsf cgf}7f cg'e"ltx¿, cleJolQm, dfl;s, ================== n]v_ .

  5. sljtf/fd >]i7, sldnfsf] syf, afnsf];]nL k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)%% .

  6. sljtf/fd >]i7, …sfnf] syfÚ, ;f/ ;ª\u|x k|sfzg, sf7df08f}F, @)#^ .

  7. sljtf/fd >]i7, s] lsg elgof] <, au/ kmfpG8];g, sf7df8f}F, @)%* .

  8. sljtf/fd >]i7, k|nfk, ;femf k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)#* .

  9. sljtf/fd >]i7, df6f]sf] Joyf ljb]zsf] ;kgf, ;flxlTos kqsf/ ;ª\3, sf7df8f}F .

  10. sljtf/fd >]i7, d'lQmk|;Ësf c:jLs[t syfx¿, ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)$& .

  11. sljtf/fd >]i7, d]/f c:jLj[mt dfGotfx¿, cleJolQm k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)$^ .

  12. sljtf/fd >]i7, :jefjuLtf, ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, !((@ .

  13. sljtf/fd >]i7, gjo'jf, dfl;s, sf7df8f}F, >fj0f @)%# .

  14. sljtf/fd >]i7, a'l4aËf/fsf] kmf]g, ljj]s l;h{gzLn k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @))@ .

  15. s[i0frGb|l;x k|wfg, g]kfnL pkGof; / pkGof;sf/, ;femf k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)%@ .

  16. s[i0frGb|l;+x k|wfg, c:jLs[t ljb|f]xleq :jLs[ltsf] ;Í6, ;dsfnLg, jif{ !, cÍ @, j}zfv–c;f/, @)$* .

  17. s[i0frGb|l;+x k|wfg, ;d;fdlos syf M Ps b[li6, Ps cjnf]sg, ul/df, jif{ *, cÍ %, k"0ff{Í, j}zfv @)$& .

  18. uf]ljGb/fh e§/fO{, sflJos cfGbf]ngsf] kl/ro, g]=/f=k|=k|=, sf7df8f}F, @)$( .

  19. uf}td bfxfn, …/fhgLlts ;Gof;sf] clGtd tof/LdfÚ ;t\dfu{ – dfl;s, jif{ !, cÍ !!, a};fv @)%( .

  20. hut If]qL, afnsyf ;flxTosf] ;+/rgf / k|f¿k, dw'kj{m, jif{–@*, cÍ–!), sf7df8f}F, @)%@ .

  21. l6r;{ cfOl8of k|]; ==========

  22. 6Ík|;fb Gof}kfg], g]kfnL ;flxTosf] ¿k/]vf, ;femf k|sfzg, lå=;+, sf7df8f}F @)$( .

  23. bof/fd >]i7, g]kfnL ;flxTosf s]xL k[i7, ;femf k|sfzg, sf7df8fF}+, @)$* .

  24. bof/fd >]i7, kRrL; jif{sf g]kfnL syf, g]kfn /fhsLo k|1f k|lti7fg, sf7df8f}F, @)#( .

  25. bof/fd >]i6, kRrL; jif{sf g]kfnL syf, g]=/f=k|=k|=, sf7df8f}F, @)#( .

  26. bof/fd >]i7 / df]xg/fh zdf{, g]kfnL ;flxTosf] ;ª\lIfKt Oltxf;, ;femf k|sfzg, r=;+= sf7df8f}F, === .

  27. @)$( g]kfn e"if0f Gof}kfg] tyf sljtf/fd, ;~hLjgL–!, jif{–!, cÍ–!, sf7df8f}F, h]7 @)@^ .

  28. k|df]b k|wfg, g]kfnL afn;flxTosf] ;ª\lIfKt ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog, ul/df, jif{ !@, cÍ %, j}zfv @)%! .

  29. k|df]b k|wfg, g]kfnL efiffdf lnlvt afn;flxTo– Ps l;+xfjnf]sg, dw'kj{m -;dfnf]rgf ljz]iffÍ_, jif{–#!, cÍ–$, sf7df8f}F, ebf} @)%% .

  30. k|df]b k|wfg, o;/L cufl8 a9]sf] 5 g]kfnL afnaflnsf, dw'kj{m, jif{–#), cÍ–%, sf7df8f}F, c;f]h @)%$ .

  31. ax'd"vL k|ltef M 8f= sljtf/fd, tGg]/L k|sfzg, @)%( .

  32. afns[i0f kf]v/]n / cGo g]kfnL j[xt zAbsf]z, g]=/f=k|=, kfF=;+=, sf7df8f}F, @)%* .

  33. /fNkm kmS;, lb gf]e]n P08 bL lkk'n, sf]j]6 k|sfzg ln=, k'gd'{lb|t, n08g, !(($ .

  34. /fh]Gb| ;'j]bL, :gftsf]Q/ g]kfnL syf, cleJolQm 5fkfvfgf, sf7df8f}F, @)%! .

  35. /fh]Gb| ;'j]bL, g]kfnL pkGof; k/Dk/f / k4lt, e"ldsf k|sfzg, k|=;+=, jf/f0f;L, @)%# .

  36. ljj]rs, ljZjb"t ;fKtflxs, sf7df8f}F, ebf} @)#& .

  37. lj:yflkt cg'xf/x¿, ;f/ ;ª\u|x k|sfzg, sf7df08f}F, !(&@ .

  38. z}n]Gb| ;fsf/ / sljtf/fd, .. dGq .. %, sf7df8f}F, @)@^ .

  39. z}n]Gb| ;fsf/ / sljtf/fd, .. dGq .. cÍ ^, @)@* .

  40. lxdf+z' yfkf, ;flxTo kl/ro, ;femf k|sfzg, t]=;+=, sf7df8f}F, @)$& .

  41. @)%( Ho]i7 @# sf lbg c:jLj[mt ljrf/ ;flxTo k'/:sf/ ljt/0f sfo{qmddf ljtl/t kq .

  42. Teachers Ideas Press; Resource Books for Elementary& Secondary Teachers; 19-1997, Catalog; Librararies Unlimited; Englewood, Co 80155-6633.

  43. http://cc.bingj.com/cache.aspx¿q=from+the+mango+tree+and+other+folktales+from+nepal&d=4635669911702460&mkt=en-US&setlang=en-US&w=2434a34c, c5fbb071

  44. http://aswikrit.com/index.php?linkId=276 .

  45. http://aswikrit.com/index.php?linkId=4&lang= .

  46. http://aswikrit.com/index.php?linkId=26.

  47. http://aswikrit.com/index.php?linkId=276 .

  48. http://aswikrit.com/index.php?linkId=258

  49. Socio-cultural aspects of a gap between knowledge and practice amongst home caretakers of childhood diarrhoea in rural Nepal; Doctoral Philosophy in Sociology; By Ram Bahadur Shrestha (Kavitaram), Gorakhpur, 1997.

























1!= c:jLs[t cfGbf]ng g]kfndf Pp6f sfo{ut Pstfsf] klxnf] gd"gf xf], -sljtf/fd;Fu lnOPsf] lnlvt cGtjf{tf{_ ax'd'vL k|ltef M 8f= sljtf/fd, tGg]/L k|sfzg, @)%(, k[=!(! .

2@=k"j{jt\, tyf sljtf/fd;Fu ePsf] yk jftf{nfkaf6 k|fKt hfgsf/L .

3 sljtf/fd >]i7, d[To'sf] cg'e"ltsf] j}1flgs k|s/0f, s] lsg elgof] <, au/ kmfpG8];g, sf7df8f}FF, k[i7 @#! .

4 c:jLs[t cfGbf]ng g]kfndf Pp6f sfo{ut Pstfsf] klxnf] gd"gf xf], -…sljtf/fdsf] hLjgL JolQmTj / s[ltTjÚ zf]wkqsf] nflu lnOPsf] lnlvt cGtjf{tf{_ ax'd"vL k|ltef M 8f= sljtf/fd, tGg]/L k|sfzg, @)%(, k[=!(@, tyf sljtf/fd;Fu ePsf] yk jftf{nfkaf6 k|fKt hfgsf/L .

5 c:jLs[t cfGbf]ng g]kfndf Pp6f sfo{ut Pstfsf] klxnf] g d"gf xf], -…sljtf/fdsf] hLjgL JolQmTj / s[ltTjÚ zf]wkqsf] nflu lnOPsf] lnlvt cGtjf{tf{_ ax'd"vL k|ltef M 8f= sljtf/fd, tGg]/L k|sfzg, @)%(, k[=!(!–(@, tyf sljtf/fd;Fu ePsf] yk jftf{nfkaf6 k|fKt hfgsf/L .

6 k"j{jt\, k[=!(@–(&, tyf sljtf/fd;Fu ePsf] yk jftf{nfkaf6 k|fKt hfgsf/L .

7 k"j{jt\, k[=!(*, tyf sljtf/fd;Fu ePsf] yk jftf{nfkaf6 k|fKt hfgsf/L .

8 sljtf/fdaf6 k|fKt cBfjlws yk hfgsf/L .

9 k"j{jt\ .

10 http://aswikrit.com/index.php?linkId=276 / yk cGtjf{tfaf6 hfgsf/L

11 k"j{jt\ .

12 http://aswikrit.com/index.php?linkId=295 .

13 c:jLs[t cfGbf]ng g]kfndf Pp6f sfo{ut Pstfsf] klxnf] gd"gf xf], -…sljtf/fdsf] hLjgL JolQmTj / s[ltTjÚ zf]wkqsf] nflu lnOPsf] lnlvt cGtjf{tf{_ ax'd"vL k|ltef M 8f= sljtf/fd, tGg]/L k|sfzg, @)%(, k[=@)#, tyf sljtf/fd;Fu ePsf] yk jftf{nfkaf6 k|fKt hfgsf/L .

14 sljtf/fd >]i7, d]/f c:jLj[mt dfGotfx¿, cleJolQm k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)$^, k[i7 ^$ .

15 http://aswikrit.com/index.php?linkId=26.

16 8f= sljtf/fd >]i7sf] hLjgj[Q -http://aswikrit.com/index.php?linkId=276_ .

17 8f= sljtf/fd >]i7sf] hLjgj[Q -http://aswikrit.com/index.php?linkId=276_ .

18 Teachers Ideas Press; Resource Books for Elementary& Secondary Teachers; 19-1997, Catalog; Librararies Unlimited; Englewood, Co 80155-6633.

20 k"j{jt\ .

21 k"j{jt\ .


22 k"j{jt\,

23 k"j{jt\,

24 k"j{jt\,

25 k"j{jt\,

26 k"j{jt\ .

27 k"j{jt\ .

28 k"j{jt\ .

29 uf}td bfxfn, …/fhgLlts ;Gof;sf] clGtd tof/LdfÚ ;t\dfu{ – dfl;s, jif{ !, cÍ !!, a};fv @)%(, k[i7 @#

30 sljtf/fdaf6 k|fKt hfgsf/L .

31 Socio-cultural aspects of a gap between knowledge and practice amongst home caretakers of childhood diarrhoea in rural Nepal; Doctoral Philosophy in Sociology; By Ram Bahadur Shrestha (Kavitaram), Gorakhpur, 1997.

32 afnj[mi0f kf]v/]n / cGo a[xt\ g]kfnL zAbsf]if, g]=/f=k|=k|=, sf7df8f}F, t[=;+= k[i7 !@$% .

33 sljtf/fd >]i7, d]/f c:jLj[mt dfGotfx¿, cleJolQm k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)$^, k[i7 &) .

34 k|df]b k|wfg, g]kfnL afn;flxTosf] ;ª\lIfKt ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog, ul/df, jif{ !@, cÍ %, j}zfv @)%!, k[i7 #*) .

35 sljtf/fd >]i7, df6f]sf] Joyf ljb]zsf] ;kgf, ;flxlTos kqsf/ ;ª\3, sf7df8f}F, k[i7 3 .

36 bof/fd >]i7, df]xg/fh zdf{, g]kfnL ;flxTosf] ;ª\lIfKt Oltxf;, ;femf k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, rf}=;+= @)$(, k[i7 !!& .

37 k"j{jt\, k[i7 (# .

38 s[i0frGb|l;+x k|wfg, c:jLs[t ljb|f]xleq :jLs[ltsf] ;Í6, ;dsfnLg, jif{ !, cÍ @, j}zfv–c;f/, @)$*.

39 s[i0frGb|l;+x k|wfg, ;d;fdlos syf M Ps b[li6, Ps cjnf]sg, ul/df, jif{ *, cÍ %, k"0ff{Í, j}zfv @)$& .

40 bof/fd >]i7 …;DejÚ, g]kfnL ;flxTosf s]xL k[i7;femf k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, rf}=;+= @)$*, k[i7 ##$ .

41 uf]ljGb/fh e§/fO{, sflJos cfGbf]ngsf] kl/ro, g]=/f=k|=k|=, sf7df8f}F, @)$(, k[i7 !%*, k[i7 ##$ .

42 bof/fd >]i7, kRrL; jif{sf g]kfnL syf, g]kfn /fhsLo k|1f k|lti7fg, sf7df8f}F, @)#( .

43.. dGq .. cÍ ^, @)@* .

44 sljtf/fd >]i7, d]/f c:jLj[mt dfGotfx¿, cleJolQm k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)$^, k[i7 %*, %( .

45 cd/s'df/ k|wfg, bf]nvfdf /fdaxfb'/b]lv sljtf/fd;Dd, ax'd'vL k|ltef M 8f= sljtf/fd, tGg]/L k|sfzg, @)%(, k[i7 !@# .

46 sljtf/fd >]i7, d]/f c:jLj[mt dfGotfx¿, cleJolQm k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)$^, k[i7 %* .

47 cd/s'df/ k|wfg, bf]nvfdf /fdaxfb'/b]lv sljtf/fd;Dd, ax'd'vL k|ltef M 8f= sljtf/fd, tGg]/L k|sfzg, @)%(, k[i7 !@# .

48 8f= sljtf/fd >]i7sf] hLjgj[Q -http://aswikrit.com/index.php?linkId=276_ .

49 cd/s'df/ k|wfg, bf]nvfdf /fdaxfb'/b]lv sljtf/fd;Dd, ax'd'vL k|ltef M 8f= sljtf/fd, tGg]/L k|sfzg, @)%(, k[i7 !@# .

50 8f= sljtf/fd >]i7sf] hLjgj[Q -http://aswikrit.com/index.php?linkId=276_ .

51 k"j{jt\ .

52 k"j{jt\ .

53 k"j{jt\ .

54 sljtf/fdsf] hLjgj[Q -http://aswikrit.com/index.php?linkId=276_ .

55 http://aswikrit.com/index.php?linkId=295

56 @)%( Ho]i7 @# sf lbg c:jLj[mt ljrf/ ;flxTo k'/:sf/ ljt/0f sfo{qmddf ljtl/t kq .

57 http://aswikrit.com/index.php?linkId=258

58 sljtf/fd >]i7, cgf}7f cleofgsf cgf}7f cg'e"ltx¿, cleJolQm, dfl;s, ================== n]v_, k[i7 % .

59 sljtf/fd d]/f c:jLj[mt dfGotfx¿, cleJolQm k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)$^, k[i7 %*–^) .

60 sljtf/fd, ;femf k|sfzg, k|nfk syf;ª\u|xsf] k|sfzsLo e"ldsf .

61 k"j{jt\\ .

62 g]kfn e"if0f Gof}kfg] tyf sljtf/fd, …c:jLj[mt hdftÚ, ;~hLjgL–!, jif{–!, cÍ–!, sf7df8f}F, h]7 @)@^, k[i7 @ .

63 z}n]Gb| ;fsf/ / sljtf/fd, .. dGq .. %, sf7df8f}F, @)@^, k[i7 @) .

64 z}n]Gb| ;fsf/ / sljtf/fd, .. dGq .. ^, sf7df8f}F, @)@* .

65 sljtf/fd >]i7, d]/f c:jLj[mt dfGotfx¿, cleJolQm k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)$^, k[i7 ^^–^& .

66 k|df]b k|wfg, g]kfnL afn;flxTosf] ;ª\lIfKt ljZn]if0ffTds cWoog, ul/df -;dfnf]rgf ljz]iffÍ_, jif{–!@, cÍ–%, sf7df8f}F, j}zfv @)%!, k[= #&# .

67 k|df]b k|wfg, o;/L cufl8 a9]sf] 5 g]kfnL afnaflnsf, dw'kj{m, jif{–#), cÍ–%, sf7df8f}F, c;f]h @)%$, k[i7 % .

68 hut If]qL, afnsyf ;flxTosf] ;+/rgf / k|f¿k, dw'kj{m, jif{–@*, cÍ–!), sf7df8f}F, @)%@, k[i7 ^ .

69 sljtf/fd >]i7, d]/f c:jLj[mt dfGotfx¿, cleJolQm k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)$^, k[i7 ^(–&) .

70 Teachers Ideas Press; Resource Books for Elementary& Secondary Teachers; 19-1997, Catalog

71 k|df]b k|wfg, g]kfnL efiffdf lnlvt afn;flxTo– Ps l;+xfjnf]sg, dw'kj{m -;dfnf]rgf ljz]iffÍ_, jif{–#!, cÍ–$, sf7df8f}F, ebf} @)%%, k[i7 !)) .

72 bof/fd >]i7, df]xg/fh zdf{, g]kfnL ;flxTosf] ;ª\lIfKt Oltxf;, ;femf k|sfzg -r=;+_, = sf7df8f}F @)$(, k[i7 &@ .

73 k"j{jt\, k[i7 ** .

74 k"j{jt\, k[i7 (# .

75 /fh]Gb| ;'j]bL, :gftsf]Q/ g]kfnL syf, cleJolQm 5fkfvfgf, sf7df8f}F, @)%! k[i7 $* .

76 k"j{jt\, k[i7 %# .

77 ljj]rs, ljZjb"t ;fKtflxs, sf7df8f}F, ebf} @)#& .

78 sljtf/fd >]i7, …sfnf] syfÚ, syf;ª\u|xsf] eGbf eGgkg]{ s'/fx¿ -e"ldsf_, ;f/ ;ª\u|x k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, !(&( .

79 t:ok'qf] dxfof]uL ;db[ª\lglj{sNksM . PsfGtdlt?lGgb|f] u"9f] d"9 Oj]ot] .

b[i6\jfg'ofGtd[lifdfTdhdKogUg+ . b]Jof]x[of kl/bw'g{ ;'t:o lrqd\ .

tåLIf k[R5lt d'gf} hub':tjfl:t :qLk'lDebf g t' ;'t:o ljljQm b[i6] .

- >Ldb\ efujt dxfk'/f0fsf] k|yd:sGw cGtu{t rt'y{ cWofo_

80 Clif/fh j/fn / s[i0fk|;fb lwld/], g]kfnL syf efu #, ;femf k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F @)%%, k[i7 # .

81 sljtf/fd >]i7, …sfnf] syfÚ, ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzg, e"ldsf, sf7df8f}F, @)#^ .

82 k"j{jt\ .

83 ljj]rs, ljZjb"t ;fKtflxs, sf7df8f}F, ebf} @)#& .

84 bof/fd >]i7, kRrL; jif{sf g]kfnL syf, g]=/f=k|=k|=, sf7df8f}F, @)#( k[= ! .

85 Clif/fh a/fn / s[i0fk|;fb lwld/], g]kfnL syf efu #, ;femf k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F @)%%, k[i7 # .

86 sljtf/fd >]i7, d'lQmk|;Ësf c:jLs[t syfx¿, ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)$&, k[i7 ª .

87 sljtf/fd >]i7, d]/f c:jLj[mt dfGotfx¿, cleJolQm k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)$^, k[i7 ## .

88 sljtf/fd >]i7, k|nfk, ;femf k|sfzg, e"ldsf, k|=;+=, sf7df8f}F, @)#* .


89 sljtf/fd >]i7, d'lQmk|;Ësf c:jLs[t syfx¿, ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)$&, k[i7 s .

90 k"j{jt\ .

91 sljtf/fd >]i7, k|nfk, ;femf k|sfzg, n]vsLo e"ldsf, sf7df8f}F, @)#* .

92 sljtf/fd >]i7, d]/f c:jLj[mt dfGotfx¿, cleJolQm k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)$^, k[i7 #$ .


93 sljtf/fd >]i7, a'l4aËf/fsf] kmf]g, k':tssf] ;DaGwdf n]vssf] egfO, ljj]s l;h{gzLn k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @))@ .

94 afnj[mi0f kf]v/]n / cGo j[xt\ g]kfnL zAbsf]z, t[=;+=, g]=/f=k|=k|= sf7df8f}F, k[i7 !@^@ .

95 sljtf/fd >]i7, a'l4aËf/fsf] kmf]g, k':tssf] ;DaGwdf n]vssf] egfO, ljj]s l;h{gzLn k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @))@ .

96 6Ík|;fb Gof}kfg], g]kfnL ;flxTosf] ¿k/]vf, ;femf k|sfzg, lå=;+, sf7df8f}F @)$( .k[i7 !&* .

97 /fNkm kmS;, lb gf]e]n P08 bL lkk'n, sf]j]6 k|sfzg ln=, k'gd'{lb|t, n08g, !(($ .

98 s[i0frGb| l;x k|wfg, g]kfnL pkGof; / pkGof;sf/, ;femf k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)%@, k[i7 $ .

99 OGb|axfb' /fO{, g]kfnL pkGof;sf cfwf/x¿, ;femf k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)%@, k[i7 $) .

100 /fh]Gb| ;'j]bL, g]kfnL pkGof; k/Dk/f / k4lt, e"ldsf k|sfzg, k|=;+=, jf/f0f;L, @)%#, k[i7 * .

101 bof/fd >]i7 / df]xg/fh zdf{, g]kfnL ;flxTosf] ;ª\lIfKt Oltxf;, ;femf k|sfzg, r=;+= sf7df8f}F, @)$(, k[i7 !)@ .

102 k"j{jt\, k[i7 !)% .

103 /fh]Gb| ;'j]bL, g]kfnL pkGof; k/Dk/f / k4lt, e"ldsf k|sfzg, k|=;+=, jf/f0f;L, @)%#, k[i7 @& .

104bof/fd >]i7 / df]xg/fh zdf{, g]kfnL ;flxTosf] ;ª\lIfKt Oltxf;, ;femf k|sfzg, r=;+= sf7df8f}F, @)$(, k[i7 !)( .

105 k"j{jt\, k[i7 !!^ .

106 k"j{jt\, k[i7 (& .

107 k|= afns[i0f kf]v/]n / cGo g]kfnL j[xt\ zAbsf]z, g]=/f=k|=, kfF=;+=, sf7df8f}F, @)%*, k[i7 *&# .

108 /fh]Gb| ;'j]bL, g]kfnL pkGof; k/Dk/f / k|j[lQ, e"ldsf k|sfzg, jf/f0f;L, k|=;+= @)%#, k[i7 * .

109 s[i0frGb|l+;+x k|wfg, g]kfnL pGof; / pkGof;sf/, ;femf k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)#&, k[i7 $ .

110 lxdf+z' yfkf, ;flxTo kl/ro, ;femf k|sfzg, t]=;+=, sf7df8f}F, @0$&, k[i7 !#& .

111 s[i0frGb|l+;+x k|wfg, g]kfnL pGof; / pkGof;sf/, ;femf k|sfzg, t]]=;+= sf7df8f}F, @)%@, k[i7 !! .

112 sljtf/fd >]i7, sldnfsf] syf, afnsf];]nL k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)%%, k[i7 @! .

113 cf]vn9'Ë]nL ;dfhdf rËf r'Fl8bf k|of]u ul/g] zAb .

114 j[mi0frGb|l;+x k|wfg, g]kfnL pkGof; / pkGof;sf/, ;femf k|sfzg, t];|f] ;+:s/0f, nlntk'/, @)%@, k[i7 & .

115 /fh]Gb| ;'j]bL, g]kfnL pkGof; k/Dk/f / k|j[lQ, e"ldsf k|sfzg, jf/f0f;L, @)%#, k[i7 !& .

116 sljtf/fd >]i7, gjo'jf, dfl;s, sf7df8f}F, >fj0f @)%#, k[i7 #) .

117 k"j{jt\ .

118 k"j{jt\, c;f/, k[i7 #! .

119 k"j{jt\, k[i7 $) .

120 8f= sljtf/fd >]i7sf] af6 k|fKt hfgsf/L .

121 sljtf/fd >]i7, :jefjuLtf, ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, !((@ .

122 sljtf/fd >]i7, d]/f c:jLj[mt dfGotfx¿, cleJolQm k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)$^, k[i7 &! .

123 s[i0frGb|l;+x k|wfg, g]kfnL pkGof; / pkGof;sf/, ;femf k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, t].;+=, @)%#, k[= @)$ .

124 cjtf/ lj36g, hgfb{g hf]zL, sf7df8f}F, !(*( .

125 sljtf/fd >]i7, d]/f c:jLj[mt dfGotfx¿, cleJolQm k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)$^, k[= #^ .

126 uf]ljGb/fh e§/fO{, sfJosf cfGbf]ngsf kl/ro, g]=/f=k|=k|=, sf7df8f}F, @)$(, k[= !%* .

127 dbgdl0f bLlIftsf] e"ldsf, sljtf/fd >]i7, d]/f c:jLj[mt dfGotfx¿, cleJolQm k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)$^, k[= s

128 sljtf/fd >]i7, d]/f c:jLj[mt dfGotfx¿, cleJolQm k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)$^, k[= #& .

129 k"j{jt\, k[= #*, #( .

130 lj:yflkt cg'xf/x¿, ;f/ ;ª\u|x k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, !(&@ .

131 .. dGq .. ^ @)@*, k[= $^–$* .

132 sljtf/fd >]i7, d]/f c:jLj[mt dfGotfx¿, cleJolQm k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F, @)$^, k[i7 !( .

133 bof/fd >]i7, g]kfnL ;flxTosf s]xL k[i7, ;femf k|sfzg, sf7df8fF}+, @)$*, k[= #$% .

 



 

 




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