कवितारामका बालउपन्यासको अध्ययन- यशोधा अधिकारी (एम ए नेपाली शोध))

sljtf/fdsf afnpkGof;sf] cWoog

zf]wstf{ M ozf]wf clwsf/L

-lqe'jg ljZjljBfno, dfgljsL tyf ;fdflhszf:q ;ª\sfocGtu{t /Tg/fHonIdL SofDk;, g]kfnL ljifosf] :gftsf]Q/ tx bf];|f] jif{_

 

kl/R5]b Ps

zf]wkl/ro

 

!=! zf]wzLif{s

o; zf]wkqsf] zLif{s sljtf/fdsf afnpkGof;sf] cWoog /x]sf] 5 .

 

!=@ zf]wsfo{sf] k|of]hg

k|:t't zf]wsfo{ lqe'jg ljZjljBfno, dfgljsL tyf ;fdflhszf:q ;ª\sfocGtu{t /Tg/fHonIdL SofDk;, g]kfnL ljifosf] :gftsf]Q/ tx bf];|f] jif{sf] b;f}F kqsf] k|of]hgsf nflu tof/ kfl/Psf] xf] .

 

!=# ljifo-kl/ro

sljtf/fdn] g]kfnL ;flxTosf] sljtf, syf, lgaGw, gf6s, pkGof;sf If]qdf snd rnfPsf 5g\ . afn;flxTosf If]qdf pgn] afnsyf afnpkGof; /rgf u/]sf 5g\ . k/Dk/fut afn;flxToeGbf leGg ¿kdf cfˆgf afn;flxlTos s[ltx¿ /rgf ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ . ljZjsf ljsl;t b]zx¿n] lj1fg;flxTosf] If]qdf tLj| pGglt ul//x]sf] cj:yfdf g]kfnL afn;flxTodf ltn:dL / bGTosyfsf] cflwSo lyof] . sljtf/fdn] klxnf]k6s g]kfnLdf lj1fg afn;flxTosf] k|j]z u/fP . pgsf xfn;Dddf jgb]jL
-@)#^_, kfgLsf] yf]kf -@)#*_, sldnfsf] syf -@)$*_, cgf}7f] ofqf -@)%*_ / dfjnLsf] ofqf -@)%(_ u/L kfFr afnpkGof; k|sflzt 5g\ . k|:t't zf]wsfo{df pgsf k|sflzt kfFrj6f afnpkGof;sf] cWoog-ljZn]if0f ul/Psf] 5 .

 

!=$ ;d:ofsyg

k|:t't zf]wsfo{ lgDglnlvt ;d:ofdf s]lGb|t /x]sf] 5 M

s_   sljtf/fdsf] ;flxlTos /rgfwld{tf s]-s:tf] 5 <

v_   g]kfnL afnpkGof;sf] pb\ej / ljsf; s] s;/L eO/x]sf] 5 <

u_   afnpkGof;sf] dfgs tŒjsf cfwf/df sljtf/fdsf afnpkGof; s]-s:tf 5g\ <

3_   sljtf/fdsf] afnpkGof;df s]-s:tf] j}1flgs r]tgfsf] k|of]u ePsf] 5 <

ª_   g]kfnL afnpkGof;sf If]qdf sljtf/fdsf] s]-s:tf] of]ubfg 5 <

 

!=% zf]wsfo{sf] p2]Zo

k|:t't zf]wsfo{sf lgDglnlvt p2]Zo /x]sf 5g\ M

s_   sljtf/fdsf] ;flxlTos /rgfwld{tfsf] klxrfg ug{',

v_   g]kfnL afnpkGof;sf] pb\ej / ljsf;sf] lgSof}{n ug{',

u_   afnpkGof;sf] dfgs tŒjsf cfwf/df pgsf afnpkGof;sf] ljZn]if0f ug{',

3_   sljtf/fdsf afnpkGof;df kfOg] j}1flgs r]tgfsf] lg¿k0f ug{',

ª_   g]kfnL afnpkGof;sf] If]qdf pgn] k'¥ofPsf] of]ubfgsf] d"Nofª\sg ug{' .

 

!=^ k"j{sfo{sf] ;dLIff

sljtf/fdsf] afnpkGof;sf af/]df ljleGg ;dLIfs, ;dfnf]rs / cg';Gwfgstf{n] ;dLIff, ;dfnf]rgf / zf]wsfo{ u/]sf 5g\ . pgsf afnpkGof;sf af/]df h]-hlt k"j{sfo{x¿ ePsf 5g\ ltgsf] sfnqmlds ljj/0f / ;dLIff oxfF k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 .

k|df]b k|wfgn] æg]kfnL efiffdf lnlvt afn;flxTo Ps l;+xfjnf]sgÆ -@)%%_ zLif{ssf] n]vdf afnpkGof;sf If]qdf sljtf/fdn] j}1flgs r]tgf k|j]z u/fO{ ;dofg's"n afn;flxTosf] dxŒjaf]w u/fPsf 5g\ eg]sf 5g\ . pgn] …g]kfnL afn;flxTosf] Oltxf;Ú -@)%&_ zLif{s k':tsdf g]kfnL efiffdf n]lvPsf] afn;flxTo / afn;flxTosf/sf af/]df rrf{ u/]sf 5g\ . pgn] sljtf/fdn] cfˆgf afnpkGof;af6 j}1flgs r]tgf lbg] sfo{sf] yfngL u/]sf] atfPsf 5g\ .

cRo'tz/0f cof{nn] g]kfnL afn;flxTosf] cWoog -@)%*_ zLif{s ljBfjfl/lw zf]wu|Gydf sljtf/fdsf afnpkGof;x¿sf] klg ;ª\If]kdf cWoog u/]sf 5g\ . o;df sljtf/fdsf afnpkGof;x¿dWo] jgb]jL / kfgLsf] yf]kfsf] syfgs, rl/q, n]vsLo p2]Zo / z}nLsf cfwf/df ;ª\lIfKt cWoog u/]sf 5g\ eg] sldnfsf] syf afnpkGof;sf] syfj:t'sf cfwf/df ;ª\If]kdf rrf{ ub}{ kfqsf gfd lbPsf 5g\ .

sljtf/fd >]i7n] ælj1fg;DaGwL kfqsf] k|To'Q/Æ -@)%(_ zLif{ssf] n]vdf cfhsf] j}1flgs o'usf] hLjg;ª\3if{sf nflu / afnaflnsfsf] ?lr k"/f ug{ klg lj1fg;flxTo k9\g cfjZos 5 eGb} lj1fg;flxTosf] dxŒjdfly k|sfz kf/]sf 5g\ . pgn] æsldnfsf] syf kf7\ok':ts aGg'n] dnfO{ yk bfloTjaf]w ePsf] 5Æ -@)%(_ zLif{ssf] cGtjf{tf{df sldnfsf] syf afnpkGof;af/] hfgsf/L lbg'sf] ;fy} lj1fg;flxTosf] dxŒjdfly k|sfz kf/]sf 5g\ .

uf]kfn vltj8fn] s[lt;flxTosf/ sljtf/fd >]i7sf] hLjgL JolQmTj / Tjsf] Ps cWoog -@)%(_ zLif{s :gftsf]Q/, zf]wkqdf sljtf/fdsf ;flxlTos s[ltx¿sf] cWoog ug]{ qmddf pgsf sldnfsf] syf, jgb]jL, cgf}7f] ofqf, kfgLsf] yf]kf u/L rf/ afnpkGof;sf] ;fdfGo ¿kn] rrf{ u/]sf 5g\ .

log} sfo{x¿ o; zf]wsfo{sf nflu k"j{sfo{ x'g\ . oL sfo{x¿df sljtf/fdsf afnpkGof;sf af/]df clt ;ª\lIfKt / ;fdfGo cWoog ePsf] 5 tfklg o; zf]wsfo{sf nflu tL ;xof]uL /x]sf 5g\ .

 

!=& zf]wsf] cf}lrTo / dxŒj

       k"j{sfo{ ;dLIffaf6 s] :ki6 ePsf] 5 eg] sljtf/fd / pgsf /rgfsf af/]df ;dLIff, ;dfnf]rgf, n]v, l6Kk0fL cflb n]lvPsf 5g\ tfklg pgsf xfn;Dd k|sflzt kfFrj6f afnpkGof;sf] ;dli6ut cWoog x'g afFsL g} 5 . o;sf/0f pgsf afnpkGof;sf] ;du|df cWoog ug'{ cfjZos lyof] . o;sf/0f pgsf afnpGof;sf] ;du|df cWoog afFsL x'g' g} k|:t't zf]wsfo{sf] cf}lrTo k'li6 x'g' xf] . o;sf ;fy} k|:t't zf]wsfo{af6 g]kfnL afnpkGof;sf] l:ylt / sljtf/fdsf af/]df ;d]t hfgsf/L lng rfxg]nfO{ ;xof]u k'Ug] ePsf]n] o;af6} o; zf]wsfo{sf] dxŒj :ki6 x'G5 .

 

 

!=* zf]wsfo{sf] ;Ldfª\sg

       o; zf]wsfo{df sljtf/fdsf jgb]jL, kfgLsf] yf]kf, sldnfsf] syf, cgf}7f] ofqf, dfjnLsf] ofqf, u/L xfn;Dd k|sflzt kfFrj6f afnpkGof;sf] cWoog ljZn]if0f ul/Psf] 5 .

 

!=( zf]wljlw

       k|:t't zf]wsfo{ ljZn]if0ffTds, j0f{gfTds / P]ltxfl;s ljlwdf cfwfl/t eP/ ul/Psf] 5 . ;fdu|L ;ª\sngsf qmddf eg] k':tsfnoLo ljlwnfO{ g} d"n¿kdf lnOPsf] 5 .

 

!=!) zf]wkqsf] ¿k/]vf

       k|:t't zf]wkqsf] ¿k/]vf o;k|sf/ /x]sf] 5 M

kl/R5]b Ps     M     zf]wkl/ro

kl/R5]b b'O{     M     sljtf/fd >]i7sf] ;flxlTos /rgfwld{tfsf] kl/ro

kl/R5]b tLg    M     pkGof;sf] pb\ej tyf afnpkGof;sf] ljsf;qmd

kl/R5]b rf/    M     sljtf/fdsf afnpkGof;sf] cWoog

kl/R5]b kfFr    M     sljtf/fdsf afnpkGof;df j}1flgs r]tgfsf] k|of]u

kl/R5]b 5      M     pk;+xf/

 

       pko{'Qm 5 kl/R5]bnfO{ cfjZostfcg';f/ ljleGg zLif{s tyf pkzLif{sx¿df ljefhg ul/Psf] 5 / cGTodf ;Gbe{;fdu|L ;"rL /flvPsf] 5 .

 

 


 

kl/R5]b b'O{

sljtf/fd >]i7sf] ;flxlTos /rgfwld{tfsf] kl/ro

 

@=! sljtf/fd >]i7sf] kl/ro

@=!=! k}t[s k[i7e"ld

;flxTosf/ sljtf/fd >]i7sf lktfsf] gfd gGb/fd >]i7 xf] . pgsf afh] hLtaxfb'/ x'nfsLsf] ¿kdf hflu/] lyP . pgsf lhh'afsf] gfd nIdLljnf; >]i7 xf] . hLtaxfb'/n] NofOt] / AofOt] u/L ;ftj6L >LdtL ljjfx u/]sf lyP . sljtf/fdsf lktf gGb/fd NofOt]kl§sf Ps dfq ;Gtfg lyP . pgL NofOt]kl§sf ;Gtfg ePs} sf/0fn] pgn] k'Vof{}nL ;DklQ kfPgg\ . pgn] cfˆgf] ldlxg]t / a'l4n] Jofkf/ u/L hLljsf rnfPsf lyP . lj=;+= @)!* ;fndf pgL cf]vn9'ª\ufaf6 w/fg a;fOF ;/] . >]i7 kl/jf/sf] k'Vof}{nL ynf] eg] eQmk'/ xf] -vltj8f, @)%(s M (_ .

 

@=!=@ hGd, afNosfn / lzIffbLIff

;flxTosf/ sljtf/fd >]i7sf] hGd lj=;+= @))$ ;fn df3 !! ut] cf]vn9'ª\ufsf] /fdahf/df ePsf] xf] -vltj8f, @)%(v M !(!_ . kl/>dL, ;r]t / Jofkf/Lsf h]i7 ;'k'qsf ¿kdf hGd]sf sljtf/fdsf] afNosfn nfngkfng / :ofxf/;';f/sf b[li6n] ;'vb lyof] .

sljtf/fdsf lktfn] sljtf/fdnfO{ 3/}df cfkm}n] ;fwf/0f g]kfnL n]vk9 ug{ l;sfPkl5 cf]vn9'ª\ufsf] …;u/dfyf ldl8n :s'nÚ w/desf/Ldf egf{ ul/lbP
-vltj8f, @)%(s M !)_ . sIff gf} pQL0f{ ePkl5 sIff !) k9\g a;fOF;/fOsf sf/0fn] w/fg uP . lj=;+= @)@) ;fndf låtLo >]0fLdf P;\=Pn\=;L= pQL0f{ eP
-vltj8f, @)%(v M !(#_ . To;kl5 pgn] jfl0fHo ljifo lnO{ dx]Gb| ax'd'vL SofDk;af6 @)@@ ;fndf cfO= sd= pQL0f{ u/] . lj=;+= @)@* ;fndf pgn] snf ljifodf t[tLo >]0fLdf :gfts tx pQL0f{ u/] -vltj8f, @)%(v M !($_ . o;kl5 pgL lq=lj= df ;+:s[lt ljifo lnO{ :gftsf]Q/ k9\g yfn] . k|yd jif{sf] k/LIff k|yd >]0fLdf pQL0f{ u/] t/ lktf gGb/fdsf] b]xfj;fgn] ubf{ bf];|f] jif{sf] k/LIff lbg kfPgg\ . pgsf] cWoog 6'6\g uof] . To;kl5 sfof{nosf] sfd;Fu ;DalGwt ljifo ePsfn] cfu|f ljZjljBfno k'uL ;dfhzf:q cWoogsf] kmf/fd e/L cfP . pgn] %(Ü cª\s NofO{ bf];|f] >]0fLdf :gftsf]Q/ k/LIff pQL0f{ u/] . pgnfO{ kLPr\= 8L= sf] k|df0fkqsf] cfjZostf eof] . bf];|f] >]0fLdf pQL0f{ u/]sfn] lq=lj=af6 of] cWoogsf] cg'dlt kfPgg\ . pgL uf]/vk'/ ljZjljBfno k'u] . cg';Gwfgsf] If]qdf sfd u/]sf] #* j6f k|df0fkq k|:t't u/]kl5 eg] pgn] kLPr\= 8L= cWoogsf] cg'dlt kfP . ;g\ !((& df pgn] æ;f]l;of]sNr/n cf:k]S6 ckm b Uofk la6\ljg gn]h PG8 k|flS6; Pdf]ª\:6 xf]d s]o/ 6]s;{ ckm rfON8x'8 8fol/of Og ?/n g]kfnÆ
(Sociocultural Aspects of the Gap between Knowledge and Practice amongst Home Caretakers of Childhood Diarrhoea in Rural Nepal) zLif{sdf pgn] ToxfFaf6 ljBfjfl/lw pkflw k|fKt u/] -vltj8f, @)%(v M !(^_ .

 

@=!=# kfl/jfl/s l:ylt

sljtf/fdsf lktf gGb/fdsf rf/efO 5f]/f / b'O{ 5f]/LdWo] sljtf/fd h]7f ;Gtfg x'g\ . pgsf afns'df/L / OGb|s'df/L u/L b'O{ alxgL 5g\ . s'Gbg, a]g' / og' pgsf b'O{ alxgLd'lgsf tLg efO x'g\ .

sljtf/fdsf] ljjfx !# jif{s} pd]/df l5d]sL lhNnf vf]6fª lkkn8fF8fsf] kxndfgl;+x ;fx'sL 5f]/L rGb|f >]i7;Fu eof] . >]i7sf 5f]/L /ZdL, 5f]/f /;f]h clg 5f]/L /hgL u/L tLg ;Gtfg 5g\ . tLg} ;Gtfg cf-cfˆgf] af6fdf ;kmntfsf ;fy ;lqmo /x]sfn] >]i7sf] kfl/jfl/s hLjg ;'vb 5 .

 

@=!=$ k|]/0ff / k|efj

;flxTosf/ sljtf/fd >]i7sf] JolQmTj lgdf{0fdf ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] klxnf] k|]/ssf ¿kdf pgL cfˆg} lktfnfO{ lnG5g\ -vltj8f, @)%(v M @)!_ . cf]vn9'ª\uf ahf/sf] g]jf/ ;d'bfodf jif]{gL ljleGg rf8af8df hfqfx¿ eO/xGy] . 5f]/f] nhfn' :jefjsf] eof] eGg] lrGtfn] gGb/fdn] sljtf/fdnfO{ tL hfqfx¿df k|j[Q u/fP . pgnfO{ s]6L agfP/ grfOof] . g[Ton] ufog tyf jfBjfbgtkm{ cfslif{t u¥of] . ;w}F lxGbL uLtdf gfRg' kg]{ ePsfn] pgnfO{ cfˆg} df}lns g]kfnL uLtdf gfRg] OR5f eof] . kmn:j¿k cf7-gf} jif{s} pd]/df pgn] g]kfnL efiffdf uLt /rgf u/] -lu/L, @)%( M @#@_ .

tTsfnLg ljåfg\ sfª\u|];L g]tf b]j/fh 9sfn sljtf/fdsf bf];|f k|]/ssf ¿kdf lyP . pgn] sljtf/fdnfO{ lbPsf] k|]/0ffn] ubf{ g} sljtf/fd …jgdf/fÚ zLif{ssf] lgaGw n]Vg ;kmn ePsf lyP -vltj8f, @)%(v M @)@_ .

sljtf/fdsf] JolQmTj ljsf; ug]{ csf{ k]|/s eLdk|;fb x'g\ . eLdk|;fb >]i7 sf7df8f}Fsf] cWoogkZrft\ lj=;+= @)!& ;fndf cf]vn9'ª\uf kms]{/ lzIf0f k];fdf nfu]sf lyP . pgs} k|]/0ff / ;xof]ufdf sljtf/fdn] s;/L sljtf /Rg' k5{ eGg] hfg] . eLdk|;fbn] ;Dkfbg u/]sf] …h"gls/LÚ leQ] klqsfsf] sf/0fn] g} lj=;+= @)!* ;Dd sljtf/fd b}lgs !÷@ j6f sljtf n]Vg] ePsf lyP -vltj8f, @)%(v M @)!_ .

cf]vn9'ª\ufaf6 w/fg a;fOF ;/]kl5 sljtf/fd ;flxTo l;h{gfdf emg\ k|]l/t eP . sIffsf rf/hgf /fdx¿dWo] u'?x¿n] pgnfO{ sljtf n]Vg] rflxF /fdsf ¿kdf af]nfpg yfn] . 5f]6f] ;dod} pgL sljtf/fdsf ¿kdf lrlgP . o;af6 pgnfO{ ;flxlTos ultljlwdf nfUg emg\ xf};nf ldNof] .

 

@=!=% ;flxTo ;[hgfdf

sljtf/fdsf sljtfsf] k|sfzg w/fgaf6 ;'? eof] . ;j{k|yd …k|]/0ffÚ klqsfdf lj=;+= @)@@ ;fndf pgsf] …l;Gb'/Ú zLif{ssf] sljtf 5flkof] -lu/L, @)%( M @##_ . o;} jif{ ejfgL l3ld/]sf] …efg'Ú klqsfsf] jif{ @ ls/0f-% sflt{sdf …slj rSsf s'Dxfn]sf]Ú zLif{ssf] sljtf 5flkof] -k|]/0ff, @)%( M @##_ . pgsf] ;flxTo n]vgdf k|]/0ff lbg] / ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] JolQmsf ¿kdf pgL w/fgdf uf]kfn/fh hf]zL / sf7df8f}Fdf k/z' k|wfgsf] gfd uj{sf ;fy lnG5g\ -vltj8f, @)%(v M @)@_ . o;/L @)@@ ;fndf cf}krfl/s ¿kdf sljtf ljwfaf6 ;flxTodf k|j]z u/]sf sljtf/fdn] ;flxTosf syf, lgaGw, gf6s, pkGof;, afnsyf, rnlrq, afnpkGof; h:tf ljljw ljwfdf snd rnfpFb} cfPsf 5g\ . xfn;Dd pgsf b'O{ bh{ghlt k':tsfsf/ s[lt k|sflzt eO;s]sf 5g\ eg] cfwf bh{ghlt zL3| k|sfzf]Gd'v 5g\ . ;flxTosf ljljw ljwfdf snd rnfpg] >]i7sf k|sflzt s[ltnfO{ lgDgfg';f/ ;"rLa4 ul/Psf] 5 .

km'6s/ sljtf                      k|sfzg jif{          k|sfzs                  

l;Gb'/                             lj=;+= @)@@         k|]/0ff klqsf, w/fg                

slj rSsf s'Dxfn]sf]                lj=;+= @)@@         efg' klqsf, sf7df8f}F

3f]if0ffkq                          lj=;+= @)@*         ..dGq.. @ klqsf, sf7df8f}F

;8sdf sljtf/fd                  lj=;+= @)@*         ..dGq.. ^ klqsf, sf7df8f}F

lgaGw;ª\u|x                       k|sfzg jif{       k|sfzs                      

d]/f c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿            lj=;+= @)#^      cleJolQm k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F

s] lsg elgof] <                   lj=;+= @)%*      au/ kmfp08]zg g]kfn

gf6s                       k|sfzg jif{         k|sfzs

:jfefjuLtf                  lj=;+= @)$*        ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzg,  sf7df8f}F

syf;ª\u|x                         k|sfzg jif{          k|sfzs

sfnf] syf                         lj=;+= @)#^   ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzg,  sf7df8f}F

k|nfk                              lj=;+= @)#&   ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzg,  sf7df8f}F

d'lQm ;ª\3if{sf c:jLs[t syfx¿     lj=;+= @)$&  ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzg,  sf7df8f}F

pkGof;               k|sfzg jif{          k|sfzs

askq                 lj=;+= @)$^         ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzg,  sf7df8f}F

s's'/sf] syf           lj=;+= @)%(         gfufh{'g ;flxlTos k|lti7fg, sf7df8f}F

rnlrq n]vg          k|sfzg jif{         k|sfzs

/x:odo u'kmf          lj=;+= @)$%        d~h'>L lkmNd;\ k|f= ln=, sf7df8f}F

d'lQm ;ª\3if{           lj=;+= @)$*        d~h'>L lkmNd;\ k|f= ln=, sf7df8f}F

afnsyf;ª\u|x                  k|sfzg jif{       k|sfzs                         

a'l4aª\uf/fsf] kmf]g -efu !_      lj=;+= @)%%      l;h{gzLn k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F

a'l4aª\uf/fsf] kmf]g -efu @_      lj=;+= @)%%      l;h{gzLn k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F

a'l4aª\uf/fsf] kmf]g -efu #_      lj=;+= @)%%      l;h{gzLn k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F

afnpkGof;                    k|sfzg jif{         k|sfzs                       

jgb]jL                         lj=;+= @)#^        ;femf k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F

kfgLsf] yf]kf                    lj=;+= @)#*        ;femf k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F

sldnfsf] syf                  lj=;+= @)$^        afnsf];]nL k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F

cgf}7f] ofqf                     lj=;+= @)%*       ;femf k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F

dfjnLsf] ofqf                  lj=;+= @)%(        ;femf k|sfzg, sf7df8f}F

 

sljtf/fd >]i7sf cª\u|]hL efiffdf k|sflzt s[ltx¿ lgDglnlvt 5g\ M

Novel

Confession                               1995 A.D.

Folktales

From the Mango Tree and Other Folktales from Nepal                         1996 A.D.

 

Ph. D. Thesis

Sociocultural Aspects of the Gap between Knowledge and practice amongst Home Caretakers of Childhood Diarrhoea in Rural nepal - 1997 A.D.

oL s[ltdWo] Confession g]kfnLdf n]lvPsf] pkGof; …askqÚsf] cg'jfb xf] .

 

@=!=^ ;flxlTos ;]jf k'/:sf/ / ;Ddfg

sljtf/fdn] g]kfnL ;flxTosf] >Lj[l4df of]ubfg k'¥ofPsf 5g\ . pgLaf6 ;[hgf ePsf ljljw s[ltx¿n] pgnfO{ k'/:s[t / ;Ddflgt t'NofPsf 5g\ . pgsf] …jgb]jLÚ afnpkGof; cGt/f{li6«o km/]:6«L k|f]h]S6åf/f ;g\ !(*) df pTs[i6 k':tssf] ¿kdf k'/:s[t 5 -zdf{, @)%( M (*_ . pgsf] bf];|f] afnpkGof; …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ cGt/f{li6«o afn jif{ ;g\ !(*# sf] pknIodf ;jf]{Ts[i6 k':tssf] ¿kdf k'/:s[t ePsf] lyof] -zdf{, @)%( M (*_ . pgsf] t];|f] afnpkGof; …sldnfsf] syfÚnfO{ klg lj=;+= @)$( sf] ;jf]{Ts[i6 n]vgsf] nflu afn;flxTo ;dfhn] k'/:s[t u/]sf] 5 -zdf{, @)%( M (*_ . pgsf] lel8of] rnlrq …d'lQm;ª\3if{Ún] lj=;+= @)$* ;fnsf] lel8of] rnlrq dxf]T;jdf ^ j6f /fli6«o k'/:sf/ k|fKt u/]sf] 5 . tLdWo] syfn]vg / rl/q clegotkm{sf b'O{j6f k'/:sf/ :jo+ sljtf/fdn] g} k|fKt u/]sf lyP -zdf{, @)%( M !&#_ . o; rnlrqn] ;g\ !(($ ;]K6]Da/ @^ b]lv cS6f]a/ $ ;Dd pQ/ sf]l/ofsf] Kof]ªofªdf ;~rflnt c;+Ung /fi6« tyf t];|f] ljZjsf] rf}yf] cGt/f{li6«o lkmNd dxf]T;jdf efu lnP/ #% Pd\ =Pd\= sf ;f]nf]nfO6 rnlrqx¿ dfemdf Pl;of-clk|msf ;f]ln8fl/6L cjf8{ k|fKt u¥of] -nD;fn, @)%( M !*)_ . g]kfnsf] OHht cGt/f{li6«o If]qdf a9fPsfn] …cGt/f{li6«o d~rÚ dfl;sn] sljtf/fd >]i7nfO{ jif{sf] ;j{>]i7 o'jf 3f]lift u/L ;Ddfg u¥of] -nD;fn, @)%( M !*)_ .

 

@=@ sljtf/fd >]i7sf s[lt n]vgsf ljljw cfofd

@=@=! uLt;ª\uLtsf/ sljtf/fd

sljtf/fd cf]vn9'ª\uf ahf/sf] g]jf/L ;f+:s[lts kl/j]zdf x's]{sf lyP . g]jf/L ;f+:s[lts hfqfx¿df pgnfO{ s]6L agfO{ grfOGYof] . g[Ton] pgnfO{ ;ª\uLttkm{ klg cfslif{t u¥of] To;}n] pgL ;ª\uLt klg l;Sg yfn] . ;w}F lxGbL uLtdf gfRg] sljtf/fdsf] dgdf s] g]kfnL df}lns uLtdf gfRg ;lsFb}g eGg] lh1f;f plAhof] . pgn] cf7 gf} jif{sf] pd]/df g]kfnL efiffdf uLt /rgf u/] -vltj8f, @)%(v M @)!_ . lj=;+= @)!# ;fndf /fhf dx]Gb| cf]vn9'ª\uf ;jf/L x'Fbf …of] :s'nnfO{ SofDk; agfOb]pmÚ af]nsf] cg'/f]w uLt n]vL ;'gfP -lu/L, @)%( M @#@_ . pgn] lj=;+= @)!% ;fnsf] ;+;bLo r'gfjdf g]kfnL sfª\u|];sf] tkm{af6 ef]6 dfUg uLt n]v] -vltj8f, @)%( M @)!_ . bf]nvfsf] eLd xfO:s'ndf lzIfssf ¿kdf sfo{/t /xFbf 5fq5fqfnfO{ df}lns g]kfnL uLtx¿ n]vL ufpg l;sfP . pgn] ToxfF k|wfgfWofks d]3/fhåf/f /lrt -k|wfg, @)%( M !#)_ …d]nf 5 oxfF lzIffsf] dftf cfOb]pm zf/b] =======Ú af]nsf] uLtdf ;j{k|yd cfˆgf] no k|bfg u/] .

g]kfn 6]lnlehgsf nflu …df6f] af]N5Ú wf/fjflxs rnlrqdf klg pgn] uLt n]v]sf 5g\ . pgL cfkm}n] lgdf{0f u/]sf] …d'lQm;ª\3if{Ú lel8of] lkmNdsf] uLt n]Vg] / ;ª\uLt lbg] sfd klg cfkm}n] u/]sf lyP -ljqmd, @)%( M !^^_ . afnrnlrq …/x:odo u'kmfÚsf] uLt n]vs / ;ª\uLtsf/ klg pgL cfkm} x'g\ -nD;fn, @)%( M !&^_ .

oLafx]s sljtf/fdn] P8\;af/] hgr]tgf km}nfpg] uLtx¿ klg /rgf u/]sf 5g\ . pgn] /r]sf uLtx¿ /]l8of] g]kfnaf6 piffls/0f clwsf/L / eQm/fh cfrfo{sf :j/df ufOPsf ;'lgG5g\ . pgsf afnuLtx¿ ;ª\sng u/L :j0f{ lzIff Oª\ln; af]l8{ª :s'n, uf]s0f{n] Sof;]6sf] ¿kdf ahf/df NofPsf] 5 . xfn;Dd pgsf uLtx¿ k':tsfsf/ ¿kdf eg] k|sflzt 5}gg\ .

 

@=@=@ slj sljtf/fd

       sljtf/fdn] ljBfnoLo hLjgb]lv g} sljtfn]vg sfo{sf] cf/De u/]sf x'g\ . lj=;+= @)!& ;fndf pgn] klxnf]k6s ljBfnoaf6 k|sflzt x'g] x:tlnlvt …h"gls/LÚ leQ] klqsfdf …sfnÚ zLif{ssf] sljtf k|sfzg u/] -vltj8f, @)%(s M !$_ . pgsf] k|ydk6s 5flkPsf] sljtf …l;Gb'/Ú xf] . of] lj=;+= @)@@ ;fndf w/fgaf6 k|sflzt ePsf] xf] -lu/L, @)%( M @##_ . o;} jif{ sf7df8f}Faf6 ejfgL l3ld/]sf] …efg'Ú jif{ @ ls/0f %, sflt{sdf …slj rSsf s'Dxfn]sf]Ú zLif{ssf] sljtf k|sflzt eof] -lu/L, @)%( M @##_ . To;kl5 lj=;+= @)@^ ;fndf pgsf] csf]{ sljtf …3f]if0ffkqÚ / lj=;+= @)@* df …;8sdf sljtf/fdÚ -..dGq.. ^_ df k|sflzt 5g\ -vltj8f, @)%(s M !@$_ . To;kl5 klg sljtf/fdsf s]xL sljtfx¿ k|sflzt eP klg xfn;Dd k':tsfsf/ ¿kdf pgsf sljtf cfPsf 5}gg\ .

       pgsf] …sfnÚ zLif{ssf] sljtfdf k|s[ltsf] dlxdfufg kfOG5 eg] …slj rSsf s'Dxfn]sf]Údf dflg;sf] hLjgdf cf/f]x / cj/f]x cfO/xG5g\ eGg] efj kfOG5 . To;kl5sf sljtfx¿df sljtf/fdn] ljb|f]xL efj JoQm u/]sf 5g\ . ;fdflhs /fhgLlts, k|zf;lgs d"No / dfGotfn] ;dfhdf ju{sf] l;h{gf u/]sf], tNnf] ju{ dflyNnf] ju{af6 zf]lift / kLl8t ePsf] s'/f tNnf ju{sf] kIfaf6 pgn] cfˆgf sljtfdf ptf/]sf 5g\ .

 

@=@=# lgaGwsf/ sljtf/fd

sljtf/fdsf] lgaGwn]vg afNosfnaf6} cf/De ePsf] xf] . cf]vn9'ª\ufsf] ljBfnodf k9\b} ubf{ Ps sfª\u|];L ljåfg\ g]tf b]j/fh 9sfn -vltj8f, @)%( M @)@_ sf] k|]/0ffdf pgn] …jgdf/fÚ zLif{ssf] lgaGw n]v] . o; zf]wsfo{sf] cjlw;Dd sljtf/fdsf b'O{ lgaGw;ª\u|x k|sflzt eO;s]sf 5g\ eg] s]xL kf08'lnlk tof/ eO;s]sf 5g\ . lj=;+= @)#^ ;fndf k|sflzt …d]/f] c:jLs[t dfGotfÚ pgsf] klxnf] lgaGw;ª\u|x xf] . o;df pgn] ljleGg zLif{sx¿df / j0f{gfTds z}nLdf cfˆgf] ;flxlTos k|]/0ff, ;flxTodf k|j]z, ;flxlTos ofqf, ;flxTok|ltsf] wf/0ff JoQm u/]sf 5g\ . lj=;+= @)%* ;fndf k|sflzt …s] lsg elgof]Ú pgsf] bf];|f] lgaGw;ª\u|x xf] . ljleGg kqklqsfdf k|sflzt eO;s]sf pgsf lgaGwx¿sf] o; ;Fufnfdf @( j6f lgaGwx¿ 5g\ . g]kfnsf ljleGg 7fpFsf] gfds/0f, ;fdflhs d"No / dfGotf, ;dfhdf k|rlnt cfxfg, e"tk|]t, b]jb]jL cflbsf af/]df k|frLgsfnb]lv hgdfg;df /xFb} cfPsf] wf/0ffaf/] j}1flgs sf/0f;lxt k|:6ofOlbg] sfo{ pgn] oL lgaGwx¿dfkm{t\ u/]sf 5g\ . xfd|f ;/n u|fDo hLjgdf pRr / j}1flgs lzIffsf] cefj 5 To;}n] cGwljZjf;sf ufF7f / cdfGo ljZjf;nfO{ km'sfOlbg' o; k':tsdf sljtf/fdsf] p2]Zo /x]sf] 5 -bLlIft, @)%( M !)(_ . sljtf/fdsf cGo k|sfzf]Gd'v lgaGwx¿df …d]/f c:jLs[t ofqfsf c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿Ú / oL …c:jLs[t ;|i6fx¿Úsf kf08'lnlk tof/ eO;s]sf 5g\ .

 

@=@=$ gf6ssf/ sljtf/fd

;flxTosf ljljw ljwfdf snd rnfpg] sljtf/fdsf] Ps gf6s k|sflzt 5 . lj=;+= @)$* ;fndf k|sflzt pgsf] …:jefjuLtfÚ lj1fg-gf6s k/Dk/fut gf6\o l;4fGteGbf k[ys 5 . o;df cª\s, b[Zosf] k|of]u ul/Psf] 5}g . kl/R5]b / zLif{sdf ljefhg ul/Psf] o; gf6sdf :j}/sNkgfsf] k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . xhf/ jif{kl5 j}1flgs If]qdf x'g] pGgltn] ubf{ dfgj ;Eotfdfly cfOkg]{ k|nosf/L b'b{zfsf] JofVof o;df kfOG5 -zdf{, @)%( M %)_ . j}1flgs pknlAwsf] k|of]u ub}{ hfFbf dflg; Pslbg lgliqmo / cof]Uo ;flat x'g] ;DefjgfnfO{ oxfF :j}/sNkgfTds z}nLdf k|:6 kfl/Psf] 5 . csf]{ c:jLs[t gf6s …df6f] af]N5Ú k|sfzf]Gd'v cj:yfdf 5 -k|sfzf]Gd'v s[lt-;"rLaf6_ .

 

@=@=% syfsf/ sljtf/fd

sljtf/fd ;j{k|yd sljtf ljwfaf6 g]kfnL ;flxTodf k|j]z u/]sf x'g\ . pgL sljtf ;dfhdf ;a}n] k9\b}gg\ / a'‰b}gg\ tyf o;n] cfkm"df ePsf] ;Dk"0f{ efjx¿nfO{ af]Sg ;Sb}g eG5g\ . log} ;d:ofaf6 5'6sf/f kfpg cfˆgf efjgf, ljrf/ / cfj]unfO{ syfsf] dfWodaf6 JoQm ug{ yfn]sf] s'/f pgL atfpF5g\ -lu/L, @)%( M @##_ .

sljtf/fd lj=;+= @)@^ ;fndf …Pp6f syf Pp6f lhGbuLÚ zLif{ssf] syf ..dGq.. df k|sflzt u/]/ g]kfnL ;flxTosf] syf ljwfdf k|j]z u/]sf x'g\ -zdf{, @)%( M (*_ . pgsf] klxnf]k6s lj=;+= @)#^ ;fndf k|sflzt syf;ª\u|x …sfnf] syfÚ xf] . o;df !^ j6f syf ;dfj]z 5g\ . o; ;ª\u|xsf] zLif{sn] g} hLjgsf] cFWof/f] kIfnfO{ ;ª\s]t ub{5 . o;df ;dfj]z syfn] Ps bzscl3 :yfkgf ePsf] c:jLs[t hdftnfO{ ;Demgf u/fpF5 -ljj]rs, @)%( M *^_ . n]vsn] o; ;ª\u|xdfkm{t ;Qfdf ljBdfg :yflkt d"No, 9f]FuL dfGotfx¿k|lt sfnf] Wjhf b]vfpg] sfo{ u/]sf 5g\ .

pgsf] bf];|f] syf;ª\u|x …k|nfkÚ xf] . lj=;+= @)#& ;fndf k|sflzt of] ;ª\u|x lj=;+= @)@! b]lv @)#& ;fn;Dd n]lvPsf / k|sfzg ul/Psf syfx¿sf] ;Fufnf] xf] . @@ j6f syf ;dflji6 o; ;ª\u|xdf …sfnf] syfÚdf h:tf] ;a} c:jLs[t syf dfq geO{ s]xL :jLs[t syfx¿ klg 5g\ . oL syfx¿df ;fdflhs, kf}/fl0fs / cfWoflTds If]qsf unt dfGotf / s'l07t of}gsf] ljs[t kIfx¿sf] pb\3f6g kfOG5 . syf ;[hgf ubf{ ljwfut cg'zf;gdf gafFlwg] :jefjsf sljtf/fdn] o; ;ª\u|xnfO{ rflxF cfˆg} k|nfk ePsfn] syf dfg]sf] s'/f o;} ;ª\u|xsf] e"ldsfdf v'nfPsf 5g\ .

sljtf/fdsf] t];|f] syf;ª\u|x …d'lQm k|;ª\usf c:jLs[t syfx¿Ú -@)$&_ xf] . o;df hDdf @$ j6f syf ;ª\u|lxt 5g\ tLdWo] …sfnf] syfÚdf $ j6f …k|nfkÚdf k|sflzt eO;s]sf 5g\ . ( j6f gofF syf ;dfj]z ul/Psf 5g\ . o; ;ª\u|xdf lj=;+= @)@^ b]lv @)$^ ;fn;Dd n]lvPsf syfx¿ ldlta4 u/L /flvPsf 5g\ . ljifoj:t'sf cfwf/df ;fdflhs, kf}/fl0fs, j}1flgs, /fhgLlts / of}g ljifos syfx¿ o; ;ª\u|xdf ;dflji6 5g\ .

sljtf/fdsf syfn] /fhgLlts ljs[lt, /fhgLlts 3[l0ft v]n, g]t[Tjsf] :yfgdf /xg] JolQmx¿sf] w'Tof{OF / u2f/Lsf] lrq ptf/]sf 5g\ . tTsfnLg d"No / dfGotfk|lt c:jLs[lt hfx]/ ub}{ gjLg / :jR5 d"No / dfGotf :yfkgfy{ pgsf] syf n]vg sfo{ ePsf] kfOG5 . pgn] k|nfksf] e"ldsfdf s;}nfO{ v';L kfg{ geO{ cfˆgf cleJolQmx¿ OdfGbfl/tfsf ;fy k|:t't ug{ syf n]V5' eg]sf 5g\ ->]i7, @)## M e"ldsf_ .

 

@=@=^ pkGof;sf/ sljtf/fd

sljtf/fd >]i7sf b'O{ c:jLs[t pkGof; k|sflzt 5g\ . lj=;+= @)$^ ;fndf k|sflzt pgsf] …askqÚ pkGof;sf kfqx¿ lj;ª\ultaf]wn] u|l;t 5g\ . oxfF …/f]lugLÚ, …/08LÚ, …afpGgLÚ h:tf ;dfhsf ckx]lnt / lgDg ju{sf kfqx¿sf] k|of]u ub}{ pgLx¿sf cj:yf, ;dfhn] x]g]{ b[li6sf]0f, afWotf / ljjztfsf] lrq0f u/]sf 5g\ . k|foM n]vssf] cfFvf gk'Ug] ;dfhsf] Tof] ckx]lnt ju{k|lt pgn] kf7ssf] Wofg cfslif{t ul/lbPsf 5g\ . oxfF n]vsn] ;fdflhs d"No, dfGotf, cfbz{sf sf/0fn] dflg;df pTkGg x'g hfg] of}g s'07fnfO{ klg :jfefljs ¿kdf k|:t't u/L cfkm"nfO{ c:jLs[t pkGof;sf/sf ¿kdf kl/lrt u/fPsf 5g\ .

…s's'/sf] syfÚ  lj=;++= @)%( ;fndf k|sflzt pgsf] csf]{ c:jLs[t pkGof; xf] . o; pkGof;sf] k|d'v kfq dfgj]t/ k|f0fL s's'/ xf] . s's'/h:tf] k|f0fLdf /x]sf] ;+j]bgzLn efjgfsf] lrq0f oxfF kfOG5 . cfˆgf] dflnssL ;fgL 5f]/Lsf] d[To' x'Fbf Tof] s]6fs]6Lsf] lk|o ;fyL s's'/df k/]sf] 56k6L oxfF :jfefljs ¿kdf b]vfOPsf] 5 . ToxL s's'/ j[4fj:yfdf vl6/} vl6/fn] 9flsPkl5 / lemFuf eGsfpFb} lxF8\g yfn]kl5 dflg;n] ljif v'jfO{ df/]sf] dfld{s b[Zo klg 5 . o;/L o; pkGof;df Psflt/ s's'/sf] dfgjk|lt cf:yf, ljZjf; / xflb{stf k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 eg] csf{lt/ dfgjsf] kz'k|ltsf] ljZjf;3ft b]vfOPsf] 5 . o; pkGof;df n]vsn] dfG5]sf] :jfyL{ Jojxf/k|lt c:jLs[lt JoQm u/]sf 5g\ .

sljtf/fdsf tLg pkGof; zL3| k|sfzf]Gd'v 5g\ . tLdWo] …pm a]nfsf c:jLs[t a'4Ú c:jLs[t pkGof; xf] eg] …;do h~hfnÚ c:jLs[t lj1fg-pkGof; xf] -k|sfzf]Gd'v s[lt-;"rLaf6_ .

 

@=@=& rnlrq lgdf{tf sljtf/fd

sljtf/fd >]i7n] …/x:odo u'kmfÚ / …d'lQm;ª\3if{Ú u/L b'O{j6f lel8of] rnlrq lgdf{0fsf] sfo{ u/]sf 5g\ . b'j} rnlrqdf pgL cfkm}n] syf, ;+jfb, uLt, k6syf tof/ ug{'sf ;fy} 5fofª\sg / b[Zo ;Dkfbgsf] sfo{ klg u/]sf 5g\ -vltj8f, @)%(s M !^_ . pgsf] …/x:odo u'kmfÚ klxnf] lj1fg-afnrnlrq xf] -nD;fn, @)%( M !&^_ . lxGbL lkmNdsf] gSsnnfO{ lg?T;flxt ug]{ p2]Zon] tof/ ul/Psf] o; rnlrqdf hghftLo efiff -g]jf/ / u'?ª_ sf] uLt k|of]u x'g', gfos-gflosfaLr k|]d gx'g', gfrufg ub}{ glxF8\g' h:tf ljz]iftf kfOG5g\ .

pgsf] bf];|f] lel8of] rnlrq d'lQm;ª\3if{ /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o If]qdf k'/:s[t ePsf] 5 . hgcfGbf]ng @)$^ sf] cufl8 / k5fl8sf] 36gfdf cfwfl/t o; rnlrqdf ;fdflhs, /fhgLlts / k|zf;lgs ljs[ltsf] sf/0f b]zeQm / ;Rrf hgtfn] kfPsf] oftgfsf] lrq0f ul/Psf] kfOG5 . ufpFsf 7"nf7fn' egfpFbf hfnL, km6fxf, zf]ifs / abdf; JolQmx¿n] ;f]emf;femf / lgd'vf JolQmx¿nfO{ slt;Dd b'Mv lbG5g\ eGg] s'/fsf] tl:a/ o; rnlrqdf kfOG5 . b]zdf /fhgLlts kl/j{tg cfP klg ;fdflhs kl/jt{gsf nflu nflukg{'kg]{ ;Gb]z klg o; rnlrqn] lbPsf] 5 . sljtf/fd s]jn To:tf] rnlrq dfq agfpg rfxG5g\ h;n] ufpFsf c;r]t, zf]lift / kLl8t hgtfnfO{ r]tgf b]cf];\, pgL aflx/L cfqmd0fsf af/]df hgtfnfO{ ;r]t kfg]{ vfnsf rnlrq agfpg rfxG5g\, pgL c¿eGbf leGg hgjfbL ;+:s[lt lbg rfxG5g\
->]i7, @)%( M @(^_ .

 

@=@=* ;flxTodf c:jLs[t lrGtgsf] k|of]ustf{ sljtf/fd

lj=;+= @)@^ ;fndf :yflkt c:jLs[t hdft Ps ;flxlTos cfGbf]ng xf] . o;sf k|0f]tfx¿dWo]sf Ps sljtf/fd klg x'g\ . lj=;+= @)@& ;fndf c:jLs[t hdftsf] 3f]if0ffkqdf sljtf/fdn] klg …3f]if0ffkqÚ zLif{ssf] sljtf 5kfP/ ;flxTodf c:jLs[t lrGtgsf] ;'?jft u/]sf x'g\ . pgsf ;flxlTos s[ltx¿df -afn;flxTo afx]s_ :jfefjjfb, t/ntfjfb / c:jLs[lt htftt} kfOG5g\ . pgsf c:jLs[t gf6s, lgaGw, pkGof; / syf;ª\u|x o;sf pbfx/0f x'g\ . dflg; ;du|df ;'Gb/ dfq x}g, s'¿k klg 5Ù u'0fL dfq 5}g, cju'0fL klg 5 . log} dflg;x¿sf] ;du| lrqdf logsf s[ltx¿n] hf]8 lbPsf 5g\ . c:jLs[t hdftn] dfG5]nfO{ ;Dk"0f{ ;fdflhs / ;f+:s[lts k/Dk/f / d"Nofaf6 k[ys u/L Pp6f k|fs[lts :jR5 dfG5]sf] ¿kdf dfq x]g{ rfx]sf] 5 ->]i7, @)$* M #$%_ . sljtf/fdsf c:jLs[t ;flxlTos s[ltn] ;fdflhs d"No, dfGotf / cfbz{n] dflg;nfO{ ljs[t, lg/Lx / c;Ifd agfOlbg] ePsfn] To:tf d"No / dfGotfnfO{ gª\UofP/ oyfy{sf] w/ftndf pqg] c:jLs[t ;Gb]z kf7snfO{ lbG5g\ .

 

@=@=( afnsyfsf/ sljtf/fd

sljtf/fd >]i7n] k|f}9 ;flxTosf ljljw ljwfnufot afn;flxTosf If]qdf klg snd rnfPsf 5g\ . pgsf] a'l4aª\uf/fsf] kmf]g efu !, @ / # u/L tLgj6f syf;ª\u|x k|sflzt 5g\ . lj=;+= @)%% ;fndf k|sflzt oL tLg}j6f syf;ª\u|x :jf:Yolj1fgdf cfwfl/t 5g\ . :jf:Yo;DaGwL ljljw ;d:of h:tf] - bfFt b'vfO, emf8fkvfnf, Hj/f], ?3fvf]sL, cfuf]sf] kf]nfO cflbsf sf/0f, ltgsf ;dfwfg / ltgLx¿af6 k"j{xf]l;of/L;DaGwL s'/fsf] hfgsf/L pgsf oL syfx¿af6 kfpg ;lsG5 . syfsf/n] a'l4aª\uf/fnfO{ af}l4stfsf] k|tLs agfPsf 5g\ . ha s]6fs]6LnfO{ :jf:Yo;DaGwL ;d:of kb{5 n]vs pgLx¿nfO{ ;kgfsf ;+;f/df k'¥ofO{ a'l4aª\uf/fåf/f 6]lnkmf]g u/fO{ 1fg lbnfpF5g\ . :j}/sNkgfTds z}nLdf /lrPsf pgsf syfsf ;+jfb eg] cln nfdf 5g\ .

sljtf/fdsf] …h'h'xL/fÚ zLif{s afnlrqsyf klg k|sflzt 5 . ufpFdf 89]nf] nfu]/ cGgsf] lap;d]t gePsf] cj:yfdf s]6fs]6Lx¿n] cfˆgf] a'l4, h'lQm / ;fx;sf] k|of]u u/L d';fn] ;ª\sng u/]/ /fv]sf] lap ufpFdf NofPsf] k|;ª\u o; syfdf 5 . cfhsf s]6fs]6LnfO{ j}1flgs÷Jofjxfl/s 1fg k|bfg u/L hLjgdf cfOkg]{ ;d:oflj?4 n8\g ;Ifd agfpg' g} pgsf afnsyfsf] p2]Zo b]lvG5 .

 

@=@=!) afnpkGof;sf/ sljtf/fd

sljtf/fdsf …jgb]jLÚ, …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ, …sldnfsf] syfÚ, …cgf}7f] ofqfÚ …dfjnLsf] ofqfÚ u/L kfFr lj1fg-afnpkGof; k|sflzt 5g\ . pgsf] klxnf] lj1fg-afnpkGof; …jgb]jLÚdf j[Iff/f]k0f gul/Fbf jf jghª\un dfl;Fbf b]vfkg]{ ljs/fn ;d:ofx¿sf] lrq0f ub}{ j[Iff/f]k0f ul/g' k5{ eGg] ;Gb]z kfOG5 . bf];|f] lj1fg-afnpkGof; kfgLsf] yf]kfdf pgn] dflg;sf] hLjgdf kfgLsf] dxŒjdfly k|sfz kf/]sf 5g\ . o;sf ;fy} hnrqmsf] 1fg klg o; pkGof;n] lbPsf] 5 . pgsf] t];|f] afnpkGof; …sldnfsf] syfÚ xf] . o; pkGof;n] sldnfsf] hLjgrqmsf] hLjzf:qLo 1fg k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . o; afnpkGof;n] sldnfsf] dfWodaf6 l;ª\uf] ;dfhsf] lrq0f ub}{ afnaflnsfnfO{ sd{If]qdf pqg cfu|x u/]sf] 5 . sljtf/fdsf] rf}yf] pkGof; …cgf}7f] ofqfÚ xf] . o;n] z/L/lj1fg;DaGwL 1fg lbg vf]h]sf] 5 . o;n] P8\; /f]u of}g;Dk{sn] dfq geO{ c¿ ljljw lsl;dsf c;fjwfgLn] ubf{ klg ;g{ ;S5 eGb} afnaflnsfnfO{ xf]l;of/ kfg{ rfx]sf] 5 . pgsf k|sflzt afnpkGof;dWo] clGtd …dfjnLsf] ofqfÚ xf] . oxfF n]vsn] gf} jifL{o efO / !# jifL{of lbbLnfO{ sf7df8f}Faf6 vf]6fª lkkn8fF8f;Ddsf] ofqf ;kmntfk"j{s u/fPsf 5g\ . o; pkGof;åf/f s]6fs]6Ln] ;fg}b]lv Jofjxfl/s / hLjgf]kof]uL lzIff k|fKt u/] eg] cfˆgf cufl8 cfpg] k|To]s ;d:ofx¿sf] ;dfwfg ;kmntfk"j{s ug{ ;S5g\ eGg] s'/f oxfF b]vfOPsf] 5 . sljtf/fdsf] d"n k|j[lQ afn;flxTodfkm{t j}1flgs / Jofjxfl/s r]tgf k|bfg ug{' xf] eGg] s'/f pgsf k|sflzt pkGof;sf cfwf/df k'li6 x'G5 .

 

@=# sljtf/fdsf] ;flxlTos ofqf, r/0f ljefhg / afncf}kGofl;s ofqf

@=#=! r/0f ljefhg

k|f}9 ;flxTo / afn;flxTosf ljljw ljwfdf ;zQm ¿kn] snd rnfpg] sljtf/fdn] cf7÷gf} jif{s} pd]/df uLtaf6 n]vgsf] yfngL u/]sf lyP . pgsf] sljtf /rgf sfo{n] ljBfnoLo lzIff kf/ ug{'cufj} rrf{ kfO;s]sf] lyof] . ;flxTo l;h{gf / k|j[lQut b[li6n] pgsf] ;flxlTos ofqfnfO{ tLg r/0fdf ljefhg u/L cWoog ug{ ;lsG5 .

klxnf] r/0f -;fwgfsfn_ -lj=;+= @)@@ - @)@% ;Dd_

bf];|f] r/0f -;ª\3if{sfn_ -lj=;+= @)@^ - @)#% ;Dd_

t];|f] r/0f -:yfkgfsfn_ -lj=;+= @)#^ - xfn;Dd_

-vltj8f, @)%(v M @)^-@)&_

 

@=#=!=! klxnf] r/0f -;fwgfsfn_ -lj=;+= @)@@ - @)@% ;Dd_

sljtf/fdsf] ;flxTo l;h{gfsf] ;fwgfsfn jf k|yd r/0f pgn] lj=;+= @)@@ ;fndf …l;Gb'/Ú zLif{ssf] sljtf w/fgaf6 5kfPkl5 ;'? x'G5 . ToxL jif{ pgn] sf7df8f}Faf6 …slj rSsf s'Dxfn]sf]Ú zLif{ssf] sljtf k|sflzt u/] . o;df dfgj hLjgdf cfOkg]{ ptf/r9fjsf] rrf{ 5, h'g s'Dxfn]sf] rSsf 3'd]e}Fm b'Mv / ;'v Pskl5 csf]{ ub}{ km]/f] dfl//xG5 . o; ;dodf pgL w/fgdf uf]kfn/fh hf]zL, clegf/fo0f ;'j]bL h:tf dfS;{jfbL g]tfaf6 k|efljt eO{ sDo'lg:6 ljrf/wf/f cFufNg k'U5g\ . o;} cjlwdf pgn] …sf]7f af]N5Ú / …d b'O{Ú zLif{s b'O{ syf klg k|sflzt /rgf u/]sf] kfOG5 . n]vg / k|sfzgsf b[li6n] of] r/0f Tolt rrf{of]Uo geP klg o;n] låtLo r/0fsf] k[i7e"ldsf] ¿kdf sfo{ u/]sf] kfOG5 .

 

@=#=!=@ bf];|f] r/0f -;ª\3if{sfn_ -lj=;+= @)@^ - @)#% ;Dd_

sljtf/fdsf] ;flxlTos ofqfsf] bf];|f] r/0f lj=;+= @)@^ ;fnaf6 ;'? eof] . of] jif{ pgL …c:jLs[t hdftÚ gfds cfGbf]ngdf cfa4 ePkl5 pgsf] ;flxlTos n]vgn] gofF df]8 lnof] . c:jLs[t hdftsf] d'vkq ..dGq.. df pgn] …:s]rÚ zLif{ssf] syf k|sflzt u/] . To;kl5 pgsf] …askqÚ zLif{ssf] n]v klg k|sflzt eof] . lj=;+= @)@* df ..dGq.. ^ df ^ n]vx¿ ;dfj]z ePsf] …lj:yflkt cg'xf/x¿Ú zLif{ssf] k':ts k|sflzt u/] . o;df ;a} c:jLs[t n]vx¿ 5g\ . pgsf] ;flxlTos ofqfsf] bf];|f] r/0fdf ljb|f]x / cfGbf]ngsf] cleJolQm kfOG5 . of] cjlw pgsf] c:jLs[t n]vgsf] cf/Desfn xf] .

 

@=#=!=# t];|f] r/0f -:yfkgfsfn_ -lj=;+= @)#^ - xfn;Dd_

sljtf/fdsf] ;flxlTos ofqfsf] t];|f] r/0f lj=;+= @)#^ ;fnaf6 ;'? x'G5 . ;flxTo l;h{gf / k|sfzgsf] b[li6n] of] r/0f pj{/ b]lvG5 . o;} cjlwaf6 pgsf] ;[hgfdf k|f}9 ;flxTo / afn;flxTo u/L b'O{ zfvf b]vf kb{5g\ .

 

s_ k|f}9 ;flxTo

sljtf/fdsf] k||f}9 ;flxTo pkzfvf bf];|f] r/0faf6 k|f/De ePsf] c:jLs[t ;flxTosf] lg/Gt/tf / pj{/tf xf] . o; cjlwdf pgsf …sfnf] syfÚ, …k|nfkÚ, …d'lQm;ª\3if{sf c:jLs[t syfx¿Ú h:tf syf;ª\u|x, …d]/f c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿Ú, …s] lsg elgof]Ú h:tf lgaGw;ª\u|x, …:jefjuLtfÚ gf6s, …askqÚ, …s's'/sf] syfÚ h:tf pkGof; k|sflzt ePsf 5g\ . yf]qf, dfgj clxtsf/L ;f+:s[lts, ;fdflhs, /fhgLlts, k|zf;lgs d"No / dfGotfk|lt c:jLs[lt hgfpg' g} pgsf o:tf c:jLs[t ;flxlTos s[ltsf ljz]iftf x'g\ . :jLs[t / t/ dfgj clxtsf/L d"No / dfGotfn] dfgj hLjgnfO{ s'¿k, bogLo / ljs[t kf/]sf 5g\ . o;}sf] lrq0f c:jLs[t ;flxTodf kfOG5 . oyfy{jfb, t/ntfjfb / :jefjjfbsf] k|of]u ug{' g} c:jLs[t ;flxTosf] Wo]o xf] . pgL ;fdflhs d"Nox¿n] cgfjZos ¿kdf hghLjgdfly yf]k/]sf] cK7]/f]kgnfO{ c:jfefljs dfGb5g\ -kf}8\ofn, @)%( M $_ . pgsf] t/ntf lh1f;faf6 k|efljt 5 . t/n x'g' eg]sf] :jefj;Ddt x'g' xf] egL pgL eGb5g\ -kf}8\ofn, @)%( M %_ . pgsf s[ltdf :jfefljstfsf] cleJolQm lbg pgL kfqx¿nfO{ z[ª\uf/ gu/L b]vfpF5g\ . of}gsf] k|;ª\udf pgn] ZnLn / cZnLnsf] k|Zg} gp7\g] u/L ;flxTo /rgf u/]/ pbfx/0f k|:t't u/]sf 5g\ . pgsf] of}g k|;ª\u gfª\u} lrtfdf ;'tfPsL iff]8ifLsf] nf;h:tf] 5 hxfF oyfy{ cg'e"t eP klg sfd'stf kfOFb}g -kf}8\ofn, @)%( M !%_ cZnLntf dfG5]sf] b[li6sf]0fdf x'G5, z/L/df xf]Og . Tof] gfª\uf]kg xfdL;Fu ePsf] oyfy{ xf] / ;To slxNo} cZnLn x'Fb}g egL pgL eGb5g\ -kf}8\ofn, @)%( M !^_ pgsf of}g k|;ª\usf s[ltx¿df z[ª\uf/ /; geO{ jLeT; /; g} xfjL ePsf] x'G5 .

lj=;+= @)$^ ;fn;Ddsf sljtf/fdsf s[ltx¿sf kfq s'07fu|l;t kfOG5g\ . tTsfnLg cj:yfsf] pgsf] s'l07t dfgl;stfsf] k|efj:j¿k o:tf] kfOPsf] xf] . pgsf kfqx¿ tTsfnLg :yflkt d"No / ;dosf] k|]taf6 ql;t 5g\ . To;}n] pgn] zf]ifs ju{nfO{ g]kYodf /fv]/ c:jLs[ltnfO{ dfq oyfy{;lxt k|bz{g ug]{ sfo{ u/]sf 5g\ -kf}8\ofn, @)%( M !@_ .

lj=;+= @)$^ ;fnsf] kl/jt{gk5fl8 pgsf] n]vgdf Jofks leGgtf b]vfk/]sf] 5 . ca pgn] cfˆgf s[ltdfkm{t cfkm"nfO{ ljs[ltaf6 d'Qm /fv]/ klg ;dfhdf s]xL ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] wf/0ff cl3 ;f/]sf 5g\ -kf}8\ofn, @)%( M !%_ .

 

v_ afn;flxTo

t];|f] r/0fsf] csf]{ zfvfdf afn;flxTo kb{5 . o; cjlwdf pgsf kfFr afnpkGof;, Ps lrqsyf nufot tLg syf;ª\u|x k|sflzt 5g\ . pgsf syf / pkGof; b'j} :jf:Yo-lj1fgdf cfwfl/t 5g\ eg] pkGof;x¿ klg lj1fgnfO{ cf}kGofl;s ¿k lbOPsf 5g\ .

 


@=#=@ sljtf/fdsf] afncf}kGofl;s ofqf

PSsfO;f}F ztfAbLsf] k"jf{4{;Dd g]kfnL afn;flxTo eg]/ k~rtGq, bGTosyf / ltn:dL syf n]Vg] rng lyof] -wdnf, @)%( M @&#_ . e"t, k|]t, /fIf; / b]jtf tyf k/L h:tf sfNklgs kfqx¿sf] k|of]u ul/Psf] syfn] afnaflnsfsf] dl:tis el/lbg] rng lyof] . xhf/f}F jif{ k'/fgf hLjg-cg'kof]uL gLltsyf afnaflnsfsf cufl8 t]:of{P/ To;sf d"No / dfGotfcg';f/ afnaflnsfsf] cfr/0f / ;f]rfO lgdf{0f ug{ vf]lhGYof] . cfw'lgs j}1flgs hLjgz}nLnfO{ pQfpnf] k|dfl0ft ub}{ afnaflnsfnfO{ o'u;fk]Iftfaf6 k5fl8 ws]Ng] ul/GYof] . cfhsf afnaflnsf ef]lnsf /fi6«lgdf{tf ePsfn] pgLx¿nfO{ s:tf] 1fg lbO{ ef]lnsf of]Uo / ;Ifd gful/s agfpg] eGg] pQ/bfloTjsf] af]w oL afn;flxTosf/x¿n] u/]sf lyPgg\ . ptf afnaflnsf eg] tL ;flxTonfO{ a"9fa"9Lsf yf]qf k|nfk dfgL cª\u|]hL / lxGbLsf] o'u;fk]If ;flxTo vf]hL vf]hL k9\g yfn]sf lyP -wdnf, @)%( M @&$_ .

o; kl/l:yltdf s]xL o:tf afn;flxTo ;h{sx¿ klg lyP hf] afn;flxTo afn;'ne / afncfjZostf cg'¿ksf] x'g' kb{5 eGg] s'/fdf ;r]t lyP -wdnf, @)^) *$_ . cWoog, dggkZrft\ k|fdfl0fs 1fg afnaflnsfnfO{ lbg] lhDd]jf/ n]vsx¿ sd lyP . ltgLx¿sf] kª\lQmdf sljtf/fdn] cfkm"nfO{ klg pEofPsf] s'/f :jo+ sljtf/fd atfpF5g\ -wdnf, @)%( M @&$_ .

sljtf/fdsf] klxnf] lj1fg-afnpkGof; …jgb]jLÚsf] k|sfzg lj=;+= @)#^ ;fndf eof] . o;} ;doaf6 pgsf] afncf}kGofl;s ofqfsf] k|f/De ePsf] xf] . o;kl5 lj=;+= @)%( ;fn;Dddf pgsf …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ -@)#^_, …sldnfsf] syfÚ -@)$^_, …cgf]7f] ofqf -@)%*_ / …dfjnLsf] ofqf -@)%(_ h:tf afnpkGof; k|sflzt ePsf 5g\ .

:j}/sNkgfTds z}nL ckgfpg', afnaflnsfnfO{ j}1flgs r]tgf k|bfg ug{', Jofjxfl/s / hLjgf]kof]uL 1fg lbg', cfhsf afnaflnsfnfO{ ef]ln cfOkg]{ ;f/f ;d:ofsf] ;fdgf ug{ tof/ kfg{', k'/fgf hL0f{ / clxtsf/L ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts d"No / dfGotfk|lt ljt[i0ff hufpg', ;To tYodf cfwfl/t dfgj lxtsf/L d"No / dfGotfsf] :yfkgfdf hf]8 lbg'h:tf k|j[lQ pgsf lj1fg-afnpkGof;df kfOG5g\ .


 

kl/R5]b tLg

pkGof;sf] pb\ej tyf afnpkGof;sf] ljsf;qmd

 

#=! pkGof;sf] pb\ej

#=!=! pkGof;sf] kl/ro

pkGof; ;+:s[tsf] tT;d zAb xf] . …c;\Ú wft'df …pkÚ / …lgÚ pk;u{ / …3`\Ú k|Too nflu pkGof; zAb Jo'TkGg x'G5 . ;+:s[t efiffdf o;sf] cy{ s'g} j:t' s;}sf ;fd' /fVg' x'G5 . ;+:s[t ;flxTodf rflxF cfgGb k|bfg u/fpg] ljwfsf] cy{df pkGof;nfO{ x]l/Psf] kfOG5 . n]vgsf b[li6sf]0fn] pkGof; ljZj;flxTos} gjLg ljwf xf] . g]kfnL ;flxTodf pkGof;nfO{ cfVofg tŒj k|jn /x]sf] hLjg / hut\sf] oyfy{ kIfnfO{ ;d]6]/ ;dfhsf] snfTds ¿kdf k|:t'lt x'g] ljwfsf] ¿kdf k|of]u / u|x0f ul/G5 . JolQmsf] hLjgdf 36\g] 36gfqmd, JolQmsf dfgl;s l:yltsf] lrq0fb]lv lnP/ ;dfhsf ljs[lt, lj;ª\ult, ;d:of, cGt/lj/f]w;Dd ;d]6\g ;kmn pkGof; ljwf hLjg / hut\sf] dfgl;stfsf] cWoog x'g k'u]sf] 5 -k|wfg, @)%& M %%_ .

 

#=!=@ pkGof;sf] pb\ej

g]kfnL ;flxTodf Ps 5'§} ljwfsf] ¿kdf ljsl;t pkGof;sf] :j¿kut ;DaGw cª\u|]hLsf] …gf]a]nÚ (Nobel) ;Fu 5 . cª\u|]hLsf] gf]a]n zAb O6fnLsf] …gf]j]n]Ú (Novelle) zAbaf6 lnOPsf] xf] . O6fn]nL efiffdf gf]j]n] zAbn] 5f]6f cfVofg tyf ;fxl;s, cnf}lss k|]dsyfnfO{ a'emfpFYof] . O6fn]nL efiffsf] …gf]j]n]Ú zAbsf] cfudg rflxF Nofl6g efiffsf] …gf]j;Ú (Novews) tyf …gf]jn;Ú (Novallows) zAbaf6 ePsf] xf] . …gf]jn;Úsf] cflb ;|f]t u|Ls ;flxTo xf] . u|Ls ;flxTodf /f]df~rs syfnfO{ …gf]j;Ú elgGYof] . Toltv]/ 5Gba4 / df}lvs ;flxTosf] lglDt …/f]dfG;Ú zAb k|of]u ul/GYof] . rf}wf}F ztfAbLsf] dWosfnb]lv uBsf] k|of]u ePsf ;fxl;s cnf}lss k|]dsyfsf nflu /f]dfG; zAb k|of]u x'g yfNof] . cfh o'/f]ksf clwsf+z efiffdf pkGof;nfO{ …/f]dgÚ elgG5 . o;/L cfh g]kfnL ;flxTodf k|o'Qm …pkGof;Ú ljwfsf] pb\ud vf]Hb} hfFbf O6fn]nL, Nofl6g, /f]dg / u|Ls ;flxTo;Dd k'Ug' kg]{ x'G5 . cem u|LseGbf k/sf] o'gfgL ;flxTo k|fLrg cfVofgnfO{ pkGof;sf] k"jf{ef; dfGg ;lsG5 . k|frLg ;'s/ftL ;DaGw, u|Lssf uDeL/ xf:odo cfVofgnfO{ pkGof;sf] e|"0ffj:yf dfGg ;lsG5 -a:g]t, @)%( M #_ .

k|frLg pkGof;sf] pb\ud u|Ls Nofl6g ;flxTo eP klg cfw'lgs pkGof;sf] ;'?jft hfkfgaf6 ePsf] xf] . hfkfgL cfVofgsf/ d'/f;fsL l;lsj' -;g\ (&*-!)!^_ åf/f l;lh{t …u]GhL df]gf]uf]tf/LÚ cyf{t\ u]GhLsf] syf (The Tale of Genji) g} k"0f{ :j¿ksf] cfw'lgs pkGof; xf] egL 6f6f;' d]l/df]tf]n] eg]sf 5g\ -a:g]t, @)%( M #_ .

g]kfnL pkGof;sf] ljsf;qmd vf]Hb} hfFbf lj=;+= !(@& sf] zlQmjNne cof{nsf] …dxfef/t lj/f6 kj{Ú;Dd k'lug] eP tfklg g]kfnL cfVofgx¿ k"0f{tM pkGof; eg] ag]sf lyPgg\ . cfw'lgs g]kfnL pkGof;sf] ;"qkft lj=;+= !((! sf] ?b|/fh kf08]sf] …¿kdtLÚ / To;} ;fn k|sflzt lji0f'r/0f >]i7sf] …;'dtLÚaf6 ePsf] xf] . log} b'O{ pkGof;af6 g]kfnL pkGof; ljwfn] k"0f{tf kfof] . To;kl5sf ;ft bzsdf g]kfnL pkGof; ljwfn] y'k|} df]8, pkdf]8, wf/f, pkwf/f kf/ ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . cfbz{jfbL wf/faf6 cf/De ePsf] cfw'lgs g]kfnL pkGof; ljwf oyfy{jfbL :jR5GbtfjfbL, ;fdflhs oyfy{jfbL, dgf]ljZn]if0fjfbL, lj;ª\ultjfbL, cl:tTjjfbL, k|of]ujfbL h:tf ljleGg wf/fdf ljljw ljifoj:t', z}nL / lzNkdf k|:t't x'Fb} cfPsf] 5 . ljleGg ljåfg\x¿n] pkGof;nfO{ o;/L kl/eflift u/]sf 5g\ M

æpkGof; ;flxTosf] c7f/f}F ztskl5sf] uBfTds cfVofgnfO{ a'emfpg] clewfTds zAb xf] . o;df dfgj hLjg hut\sf] ;jf{ª\uL0f kIf ;d]l6Psf] x'G5Æ
ljZj o'lgel;{6L -OG;fOSnf]k]l8of M ef]n'd @, !(*! .

æpkGof; snf g} Tof] klxnf] ;flxlTos snf xf] h;n] dfgj hLjgsf ;Dk"0f{ cª\usf] cleJolQm ug]{ k|of; ub{5Æ -kmS;, ;g\ !(($_ .

æd pkGof;nfO{ dfgj rl/qsf] lrq dfq ;DemG5' . dfgj rl/qdfly k|sfz kfg{' clg To;sf] /x:onfO{ vf]Ng' g} pkGof;sf] d"n p2]Zo xf]Æ -rGb|, ;g\ !(*&_ .

æpkGof; w]/} cWofo / v08x¿df n]lvg] nfdf] ;flxlTos syf rl/qk|wfg uB dxfsfJo xf]Æ -kf]v/]n, afns[i0f / c¿, @)$) M !%@_ .

æpkGof; hLjg / hut\k|lt g} Ps ljxª\ud b[li6 xf]Æ -k|wfg, @)%@ M $_ .

æk"jf{k/ tf/tDodf ;';Da4 u/]/ n]lvPsf] cfVofgfTds /rgfnfO{ pkGof; elgG5 . dfgjhLg;Fu ;Da4 eP/ cfpg] kIfnfO{ hlt;Dd ;d]6\g ;lsG5 Tolt;Ddsf] cg'jLIf0f ug]{ /rgfnfO{ pkGof; elgG5Æ -;'j]bL, @)%# M *_ .

æpkGof; oyfy{df hLjgsf] efiff hLjgsf] pb\uf/ xf] ;fFrf] pkGof; hLjgsf] 5fof g} x'G5 cf} ;fFrf] pkGof; g} hLjgsf] dfu{bz{s aGb5Æ -/fO{, @)%@ M $)_ .

o;/L ljleGg ljåfg\x¿n] ljleGg kl/efiff lbPsf 5g\ . Ps ljåfg\s} kl/efiffn] o;sf] ;Dk"0f{ kIf ;d]6\g ;Sb}g . ;a} ljåfg\sf kl/efiffnfO{ Wofgdf /fvL pkGof;nfO{ o;/L lrgfpg ;lsG5 M

pkGof; n]vgsf] sfo{ c7f/f}F ztfAbLb]lv ePsf] xf] . of] hLjg / hut\sf] ;jf{ª\uL0f kIf ;d]6\g] w]/} v08x¿df n]lvPsf] dfld{s uB /rgf xf] . k"jf{k/ tf/tDodf syf / kfq rog u/L pkGof; n]lvg] eP klg of] oyfy{ hLjgsf] lrq xf] .

 

#=!=# afnpkGof;sf] kl/ro

afnpkGof; k|f}9 pkGof;eGbf k[ys\ /xG5 . afnpkGof; k|f}9 pkGof;eGbf ;ª\lIfKt, ;/n / /f]rs x'g' k5{ . yf]/} kfqkfqf, afnefiffsf] k|of]u / sf}t'xnk"0f{ syf afnpkGof;sf cfjZostf x'g\ . afnaflnsfsf nflu n]lvg] afnpkGof;df afn?lrcg's"n ljleGg ljifosf syfgs x'g ;Sb5g\ t/ k|]d, /fhgLlt / bz{gh:tf ljifox¿ pko'Qm x'g ;Sb}gg\ -k|wfg, @)%& M %%_ . afnpkGof; jo:sx¿sf nflu n]lvPsf ;flxTonfO{ s]xL ;/n agfP/ tof/ x'g ;Sb}g . of] ;Dk"0f{ ¿kdf afnaflnsfs} lglDt pgLx¿sf] dgf]j}1flgs cfjZostf, af}l4s :t/nfO{ Wofgdf /fvL n]lvPsf] x'g' k5{ . afnpkGof; lrqfTds x'g' h?/L x'G5 . ;lrq afnpkGof;n] afnaflnsfnfO{ ljz]if k|efj kfg]{ u5{ . afnpkGof; ;dfh, hLjg / kl/j]znfO{ ;'xfpg] x'g' k5{ . o;df nf]s;flxTo, kf}/fl0fs, j}1flgs Pjd\ ;fdflhs ljifo;|f]tsf] j:t'sf] k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 t/ of] pkef]Qmfsf nflu oyfy{, pkof]uL, /f]rs, cfsif{s / sf}t'xnk"0f{ lzNkdf lzIffk|b agfP/ k|:t't ul/Psf] x'g' k5{ . jf:tjdf o:tf] afnpkGof; g} ;xL afnpkGof; xf] / of] pTs[i6 klg x'G5 .

afnaflnsfnfO{ dgf]/~hg lbg], pgLx¿sf lh1f;fx¿ ;dfwfg ug]{, l;h{gzLn Ifdtfsf] lj:tf/ ug]{, pgLx¿df ljBdfg 1fgsf] k|j4{g ug]{, eflifs Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ug]{, afnaflnsfsf] rfl/lqs ;'wf/ ug{ afnpkGof;sf] cfjZostf / dxŒj /x]sf] 5 . afnpkGof;sf dfWodn] afnaflnsfx¿nfO{ 1fg, ;"rgf / oyfy{ ;+;f/sf] a[xt\ hfgsf/L /f]rs tl/sfn] lbg ;lsG5 -k|wfg, @)%& M %%_ .

 

#=@ afnpkGof;sf tŒj

pkGof; ljwfsf cg]s :j¿k / ljifout leGgtfn] ubf{ o;sf tŒjx¿sf af/]df klg ljåfg\x¿sf] Psdt 5}g . ljleGg ljåfg\x¿sf ljrf/nfO{ cWoog / dgg\ ub}{ oxfF syfj:t', rl/qlrq0f, kl/j]z, efiffz}nL p2]Zo jf hLjgbz{gnfO{ pkGof;sf] k|d'v tŒj / sf}t'xn, åGå, syf]ksyg / b[li6laGb'nfO{ ;xfos tŒjsf ¿kdf rrf{ ul/Psf] 5 .

 

#=@=! syfj:t'

JolQm jf ;dfhdf 36]sf 36gfx¿sf] ;ª\ul7t ¿kfGt/0fnfO{ syfj:t' elgG5 . o;df rl/qn] 36fPsf] 36gf, pkGof;sf/sf lrGtg-dgg / sNkgf ;dflji6 x'G5g\ . syfj:t' pkGof;sf] sRrf / ;a}eGbf dxŒjk"0f{ ;fdu|L xf] . pkGof;df j]b, k'/f0f, Oltxf;, nf]sk/Dk/f oyfy{ ;dfh, lj1fg, :j}/sNkgf cflbaf6 syfsf] 5gf}6 ug{ ;lsG5 . ;fdfGo ¿kdf syfj:t'sf] ljsf; cflb, dWo / cGTosf] 9fFrfdf x'G5 . of] ;/n 9fFrf xf] . cfw'lgs pkGof;df syfgssf] ljsf; j[Qfsf/Lo 9fFrfdf klg x'g] u/]sf] 5 . syfgssf] ljsf;sf cf/De, ljsf;, ;ª\3if{, r/df]Tsif{, cksif{ / pk;+xf/ h:tf cj:yf x'G5g\ . aL;f}F ztfAbLsf] cfw'lgs pkGof; ljwfn] syfgsnfO{ sd / rl/qnfO{ a9L hf]8 lbg yfn] tfklg syfj:t'sf] cfjZostf eg] ckl/xfo{ g} /x]sf] 5 .

afnpkGof;sf] ljifo 5gf]6sf] cfwf/ k|To]s b]zsf] d"No / dfGotfcg';f/ km/s km/s x'g ;S5 t/ hLjgnfO{ pRr gu/fpg] cGwljZjf;k"0f{ d"No / dfGotfnfO{ afnpkGof;sf] ljifosf] ¿kdf rog ug{' kmfObfhgs x'Fb}g . o;sf ;fy} /fhgLlt, wd{, wfld{s ;Dk|bfosf] /x:o klg afnpkGof;sf] ljifosf nflu cg'ko'Qm dflgG5g\ . pgLx¿nfO{ ?lr hufpg], dgf]/~hg k|bfg ug]{, ;xL k|]/0ff lbg], lh1f;f k"lt{ ug]{, vf;u/L :jf:Yo, lj1fg, cGtl/If cGj]if0f, Oltxf;, Jofjxfl/s 1fg, gofFgofF ;"rgfd"ns ljifo afnpkGof;sf nflu pkof]uL ljifo x'G5g\ . Jojxf/f]kof]uL kf}/fl0fs Pjd\ ;fdflhs ljifonfO{ klg afnpkGof;df ;dfj]z ug{' nfebfos x'G5 t/ tL ;Dk"0f{ ljifox¿ afnaflnsfn] cfˆgf] pd]/cg';f/sf] Ifdtfn] oyfy{ 9ª\un] ;f]Rg / a'‰g ;Sg] x'g' k5{ . afnpkGof;sf] ljifo To:tf] x'g' k5{ h;n] pgLx¿sf] slnnf] x[bo Pjd\ k|ltefdf rxlsnf] k|sfzsf] lj:tf/ ug{ ;sf];\ . afnpkGof;sf] ljifo afnaflnsfsf] zf/Ll/s / dfgl;s ulx/fO;Fu ldNbf] x'g' k5{ .

 

#=@=!=! syfj:t' of]hgfsf pks/0fx¿

afnpkGof;sf/n] lj1fg, k'/f0f, Oltxf;, ;d;fdlos ;dfhdWo] s'g} g s'g} ;|f]taf6 ljifoj:t' l6k]/ syfj:t' tof/ ub{5 . kfq rog ub{5 ljljw kl/l:yltn] ubf{ kfqsf dgdf pTkGg x'g] ;+j]usf cfwf/df syfj:t'nfO{ df]8 lbPsf] x'G5 . tL ;+j]ux¿ syfj:t' of]hgfsf pks/0f dflgG5g\ h'g lgDgfg';f/ k|:t't ul/Psf 5g\ .

 

c_ afnaflnsfdf v]nlk|otf

afnsx¿ :jfefj}n] v]nlk|o x'G5g\ . v]n v]Ng yfn]kl5 afnsx¿ ef]s, Kof; / lgb|f;d]t la;{G5g\ . cfˆgf ;f/f b'Mv, lk/ Joyf e'N5g\ . cfkm";dfgsf ;fyLx¿;Fu v]n]/ afnsx¿ cGt/x[bob]lv /dfpg] / xfF:g] u5{g\ . cfkm"eGbf ;fgf afnaflnsf / kz'kIfL;Fu klg cfTdLotf /fvL pgLx¿ v]Ng] / /dfpg] ub{5g\ . v]nn] afnaflnsfnfO{ Pscsf{df l5§} glhSofpg] u5{ . :jf:Yodf ;'wf/ NofpF5 . olb s'g} aRrf v]nk|]dL 5}g eg] zf/Ll/s jf dfgl;s ¿kdf c:j:y ePsf] 7xl/G5 .

 

cf_ afnaflnsfdf eosf] ;+j]u

afnaflnsfdf pTkGg x'g] 8/n] pgLx¿nfO{ eosf] ;+j]udf k'¥ofpF5 . cfkm"eGbf 7"nfn] tf/Gtf/ lk6\bf, nDsLemDsL ubf{, ufnL ubf{, em}emu8f / lk6flk6 b]Vbf, s;}sf] d[To' b]Vbf, PSn} x'Fbf pgLx¿df eo pTkGg x'G5 . o;}u/L s]6fs]6Ldf ;w}F c¿af6 dfof gkfOPnf ls eGg] 8/ eO/xG5 eGg] s'/fsf ;ª\s]t k|mfo8n] u/]sf 5g\ -kf}8\ofn, @)^) M $^^_ . eou|:t afnaflnsf ;kgfdf ;d]t s/fpg] / lrRofpg] ub{5g\ . 8/, qf; / cToGt sxfnLnfUbf] jftfj/0fdf x's]{sf aRrfx¿ Ifdtfjfg\ x'Fbfx'Fb} klg kl5 uP/ kª\u' / cof]Uo h:t} eP/ a:g afWo x'G5g\ . pgLx¿sf] zf/Ll/s / dfgl;s ljsf; klg ;d'lrt ¿kn] x'Fb}g eGg] ts{ dgf]ljb\x¿sf] 5 -kf}8\ofn, @)^) M $^^_ . To;}n] afnaflnsfnfO{ eohGo kl/l:yltaf6 hf]ufpg' k5{ .

 

O_ afnaflnsfdf sf?l0fs ;+j]u

afnaflnsfdf cfkm"nfO{ dgkg]{ cfkm"eGbf ;fgf k|f0fL, afnaflnsf jf ;xr/x¿n] b'Mv kfPsf] cyjf d/]sf] b]v]/ PSsfl; pAhg] ;+j]u sf?l0fs ;+j]u xf] . sf?l0fs ;+j]u pgLx¿sf] k|]dfTds efjgfsf] pkh xf] . cfdfafa', lk|ohg, ;fyL;FuL;Fusf] la5f]8 / ljof]udf afnaflnsfdf s?0ffsf] ;+j]u k}bf x'G5 . afnaflnsfdf cfkm"n] u/]sf uNtLsf] nflu cfTdUnflg ePdf klg s?0ffsf] ;+j]u pTkGg x'G5 . s?0ffTds ;+j]un] afnaflnsfnfO{ b'MvL agfpF5 . cTolws s?0ffTds ;+j]un] afnaflnsfnfO{ d[To'sf] d'vdf k'¥ofpg ;S5 .

 

O{_ afnaflnsfdf O{iof{Tds ;+j]u

afnaflnsfdf cfˆgf] Kof/f] lrh s;}n] hah{:tL lnFbf jf lng vf]Hbf O{iof{ hfUb5 / ;DalGwt JolQmk|lt 3[0ff pTkGg x'G5 . To;nfO{ O{iof{Tds ;+j]u elgG5 . afnaflnsfdf cfkm" c¿eGbf /fd|f] / 7Ls b]lvg] rfxgf tLj| x'G5 . s;}n] pmeGbf /fd|f] x'g vf]hL km'tL{ nufPdf afnaflnsfdf O{iof{ k}bf x'G5 . cfkm"n] u/]sf /fd|f] sfdk|lt c¿n] Wofg glbPdf klg pgLx¿nfO{ l/; p7\5 -kf}8\ofn, @)^) M $&@_ cfkm"nfO{ dg k/]sf s'/fx¿ cfˆgf] agfpg gkfpFbf, cfˆgf] ;d"xaf6 cfkm" aflxl/g kbf{ klg afnaflnsfdf O{iof{Tds ;+j]u k}bf x'G5 .

 

p_ afnaflnsfdf k|bz{g j[lQ

afnaflnsfx¿ cfˆgf s'/f c¿nfO{ b]vfpg / c¿sf gofF / gf}nf s'/fx¿ x]g{ cft'/ x'G5g\ . cfˆgf ;f]r / s'/fx¿ b]vfpg / c¿sf gofF s'/f /fd|/L x]g{ gkfP;Dd pgLx¿ czfGt /xG5g\ / Psk6s b]vfpg] jf x]g{] sfo{ ug{ kfPkl5 eg] pgLx¿ k'gM zfGt cj:yfdf kms{G5g\ . cfkm"df ePsf] lh1f;f zfGt ug{ csf{sf gf}nf s'/fx¿ afnaflnsfn] rf]/L ug]{ u/]sf] kfOG5 .

 

pm_ afnaflnsf / sNkgf

afnaflnsf sNkgfdf cTolws /dfpg] ub{5g\ . P]lGb|s lrGtgeGbf dfly p7]/ sNkgfn] dflg;sf] ;d:of ;dfwfgdf ;xof]u ub{5 . sNkgfn] dflg;nfO{ ljZjsf] ckl/lrt If]qsf] ;Defljt vf]hLlt/ cu|;/ u/fP/ ;j{>]i7 k|f0fL agfPsf] 5 . afNosfndf sNkgfk|wfg dgf]lj1fg k|an x'G5 . lrGtg P]lGb|los 1fgaf6 k}bf eP/ To;s} ;Ldfdf /xG5 eg] P]lGb|los 1fg ckof{Kt x'g] cj:yfdf dflg;sf] sNkgf cufl8 a9\5 .

 

#=@=@ kfqof]hgf tyf rl/qlrq0f

       pkGof;df syfj:t'nfO{ cufl8 a9fpg cfpg] dfjgLo jf dfgj]t/ k|f0fLnfO{ rl/q jf kfq elgG5 . pkGof;df rl/qsf] e"ldsf b]vfpg] sfo{ jf tl/sfnfO{ rl/qlrq0f elgG5 . cfw'lgs pkGof;df syfj:t'sf] eGbf rl/qsf] e"ldsf a9\bf] 5 . pkGof;sf/n] cfkm"n] eGg rfx]sf] jf lbg rfx]sf] s'/f] jf ;Gb]z rl/qdfkm{t JoQm u/fpF5 . pkGof;df cfpg] kfqx¿nffO{ k|d'v, ;xfos / uf}0f u/L tLg ju{df ljefhg ug{ ;lsG5 . o;}u/L rl/qnfO{ gf/L, k'?if, ;t\, c;t\, b[Zo, cb[Zo, cGtd{'vL, alxd'{vL, uf]nf, r]K6fsf ¿kdf ljefhg ug{ ;lsG5 . rl/qlrq0f JolQm jf ;dfhsf] cfGtl/s jf afXo k|j[lQx¿sf] k|:t'lt xf] . rl/qn] syfj:t'nfO{ ult lbg] / dfu{bz{g ug]{ sfo{;d]t ub{5 .

afnpkGof;df k|f}9 pkGof;df eGbf sd kfqsf] k|of]u u/L /f]rs 9ª\udf rl/qlrq0f ug{'kg]{ x'G5 . afnssf] pd]/, u|x0fzLntf, dgf]j}1flgs ljsf; cflbnfO{ Wofg lbO{ kfqljwfg / rl/qlrq0f ug{'kg]{ x'G5 . afnpkGof;df dfgjLo, dfgj]t/, ;t\, c;t\, k|d'v, ;xfos, uf}0f, cb[Zo, b[Zo jf d~rLo kfqsf] k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . afnpkGof;df rl/qlrq0fdf ;/ntf ckgfpg' k5{ . ;t\ / c;t\ kfqn] cfˆgf] sd{ cg';f/sf] kmn kfPsf] / c;t\ kfqsf] rl/qdf ;'wf/ cfPsf] klg b]vfpg' kg]{ x'G5 .

#=@=# kl/j]zlrq0f

pkGof;df kfq jf rl/qn] sfo{Jofkf/ ug]{ :yfg, ;do / jftfj/0f cyjf 36gfx¿ 3l6t x'g] j:t'hut\nfO{ kl/j]z elgG5 . kl/j]zleq b]zsfn / jftfj/0f kb{5g\ . kl/j]zcGtu{t JolQmut Jojxf/, ;fdflhs k/Dk/f, /Lltl:ylt, k|yf, ;+:sf/, /xg;xg, g}lts tyf k|fs[lts k[i7e"ld, jftfj/0f cflb s'/fx¿ kb{5g\ . kl/j]znfO{ cfGtl/s / afXo u/L b'O{ efudf juL{s/0f ug]{ ul/G5 . afXo kl/j]zdf ;fdflhs, /fhgLlts tyf k|fs[lts kl/j]z kb{5g\ eg] cfGtl/s kl/j]zdf j}olQms dgf]hut\ kb{5 . kl/j]zsf] ;hLj lrq0fn] pkGof;nfO{ ;flxlTos, sfJofTds / cfnª\sfl/s ;d]t agfpF5 . of] pkGof;sf] cleGg cª\u xf] .

afnpkGof;df kl/j]zlrq0fdf ;/ntf ckgfpg' k5{ . afnpkGof;df k|o'Qm kfqsf] pd]/, p;sf] cg'e"ltcg';f/sf] oyfy{ afnkl/j]zsf] ;hLj lrq0fn] afnpkGof;nfO{ oyfy{ / /f]rs agfpF5 .

 

#=@=$ efiffz}nL

cf}kGofl;s tŒjx¿ h:tf]- j:t', 36gf, rl/q cflbnfO{ ;ª\ul7t u/L k|:t't ug]{ sfo{ efiffdf ul/G5 . efiffsf] dfWodaf6 ul/g] cleJolQmsf] lghL tl/sf z}nL xf] . z}nL pkGof;sf/sf] lghTjsf] ljlzi6 ¿k xf] . efiff pkGof;sf] :y"n tŒj xf] eg] z}nL ;"Id tŒj xf] . pkGof;sf/n] cfˆgf] s[ltdf efiffnfO{ gofF / df}lns 9ª\un] k|of]u ub{5 . efiffsf] ToxL df}lnskg g} pkGof;sf/sf] z}nL xf] . pkGof;df k|of]u ul/g] uB efiffnfO{ cfnª\sfl/s jf sfJofTds agfO{ k|:t't ug{' p;sf] lghL z}nL xf] . cfw'lgs pkGof;sf/n] j0f{gfTds, ljj/0ffTds, cfTdsygfTds, gf6sLo, kqfTds, b}lgsL, r]tgk|jfx h:tf z}nLsf] k|of]u ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ . Jofs/l0fs efiffnfO{ tf]8df]8 u/L gofF z}nL k|:t't ug{', kl/j]z / kfqsf] r]tgf:t/ cg';f/sf] z}nL k|:t't ug{' cfw'lgs pkGof;sf/sf k|j[lQ ePsf 5g\ .

afnpkGof;df afnf]kof]uL efiffz}nLsf] k|of]u x'g' k5{ . afnefiff / z}nL afnpkGof;sf] cToGt dxŒjk"0f{ tŒj xf] . afNosfnsf klg lzz' cj:yf, afnfj:yf / lszf]/fj:yf u/L tLg cj:yf x'G5g\ . pkGof;sf/n] afnssf] cj:yfnfO{ Wofgdf /fvL afnk|o'Qm efiffsf] /fd|/L zf]wvf]h u/L k|of]u u/]/ afnpkGof; l;h{gf ug{' kg]{ x'G5 sf/0f afn;flxTo n]vss]lGb|t geO{ kf7ss]lGb|t x'G5 -aGw', @)$% M @_ . afnpkGof;sf] efiff nf]sf]Gd'vL / clewfk|bfg x'g' cfjZos 5 . tT;d, tb\ej / cfuGt's zAbsf] k|of]u sd / rngrNtLsf] zAb a9L k|of]u u/]df afnpkGof; afnaflnsfsf nflu ;'af]w aGg k'U5 . ;/n pvfg-6'Ssf, cg's/0ffTds zAbsf k|of]u, 5f]6f / t'sfGt jfSo afnaflnsfn] dg k/fpF5g\ . o;n] pgLx¿nfO{ cfgGb lbg'sf] ;fy} pT;'stf / dgf]/~hg yKb} hfG5 .

afnpkGof;sf] z}nL ;/n / /f]rs x'g' k5{ . JofVofTds z}nLdf sfo{sf/0f ;DaGwsf] k|:t'lt g} pgLx¿sf nflu ?lrk"0f{ / ;'af]w aGg k'U5 . afnpkGof; lrqfTds x'g' h?/L 5 . ;lrq pkGof;n] afnaflnsfnfO{ ljz]if k|efj kfb{5 . jf:tjdf efiff / z}nLn] g} efj / ljrf/sf] k|:t'ltdf af]wuDotf / /f]rstf Nofpg] x'gfn] afnpkGof;sf/n] o;df Wofg k'¥ofpg' cTofjZos x'G5 .

 

#=@=% p2]Zo jf hLjgbz{g

lagf p2]Zo s'g} klg ;flxTosf] /rgf x'Fb}g . pkGof; n]vgsf] klg p2]Zo x'G5 . pkGof;df lrlqt hLjghut\sf] bz{g g} pkGof;sf] p2]Zo xf] . pkGof;sf] ljifocg';f/ kf7snfO{ dgf]/~hg lbg' o;sf] klxnf] p2]Zo xf] . o;sf ;fy} ;dfhnfO{ r]tgzLn agfP/ kl/jt{gsf] af6f]df 8f]¥ofpg', ;dfhnfO{ ;'wf/sf] ;Gb]z lbg', ;fdflhs ;d:ofsf] oyfy{ lrq0f ub}{ To;sf] lgsf; vf]Hg', JolQm tyf ;dfhdf ljBdfg ljs[lt / lj;ª\ultsf] lr/kmf/ ug{', /fhgLlts, cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts, j}1flgs r]tgfnfO{ k|rf/k|;f/ ug{' / P]ltxfl;s 36gfsf af/]df k|sfz kfg{' pkGof; n]vgsf] cfw'lgs p2]Zo xf] .

afnpkGof; n]vgsf] p2]Zo afnaflnsfnfO{ dgf]/~hg k|bfg ug{' xf] . afnpkGof;n] afnaflnsfnfO{ ;Gtf]if / cfgGbfg'ej u/fpg' k5{ . afnaflnsfdf ;To, lzj / ;f}Gbo{sf] r]tgf ljsf; u/fP/ pgLx¿sf] cGtd{gnfO{ ljsl;t u/fpg' / dfu{lgb]{zg ug{' g} afnpkGof;sf] p2]Zo x'g' k5{ . afnpkGof; v'nf ¿kn] hLjgsf ljleGg ;sf/fTds p2]Zox¿ xfl;n ug{ n]lvPsf x'G5g\ . afn;d"xk|lt jfT;No efj b]vfpg', afn;f]rfO / lrGtgdf dnhn yKg', afnssf lh1f;f k"/f ug{', ;xL k|]/0ff lbg' afnpkGof; n]vgsf n]vsLo p2]Zo x'g\ . o;sf ;y} pgLx¿df l;h{gzLntfsf] ljsf; u/fpg', rfl/lqs ;'wf/ ug{', eflifs Ifdtfsf] ljsf; u/fpg' klg afnpkGof; n]vgsf p2]Zoleq kb{5g\ . o;/L afnaflnsfx¿df ;xL 1fg / r]tgfsf] ljsf; u/fO{ ef]lnsf] ljZjsf s'zn / ;Ifd gful/s pTkfbg ug{' g} afnpkGof; n]vgsf] p2]Zo x'g' k5{ .

 

#=@=^ pkGof;sf ;xfos tŒj

s_ sf}t"xn

pkGof;df ca s] xf]nf egL kf7sx¿df pTkGg x'g] v'Nb'nLnfO{ sf}t'xn elgG5 . syfj:t'df hlt ;an sf}t'xnsf] ;+of]hg u¥of] pkGof; Tolt g} ;kmn x'g k'U5 . sf}t'xnn] pkGof;nfO{ k|efjzfnL dfq agfpFb}g o;n] kf7snfO{ s[lt k9\g afWo klg kf5{ . kf7ssf lh1f;f k"/f ePkl5 pkGof; ;lsG5 egL c/:t'n] eg]sf 5g\ . o;}n] sf}t'xnnfO{ pkGof;sf] k|f0f dfGg] ul/Psf] xf] .

afnpkGof;df klg sf}t'xnsf] dxŒjk"0f{ :yfg /xG5 . afnpkGof;df ljBdfg sf}t'xnn] afnkf7ssf dgdf 36gfn] ca s:tf] df]8 lng] xf] eGg] v'Nb'nL eO/xG5 / pkGof;k|lt ?lr a9\5 . sf}t'xnn] afnkf7snfO{ pkGof; k"/f k9\g afWo klg kf5{ .

 

v_ syf]ksyg

pkGof;df kfqkfqfaLrsf] ;+jfbnfO{ syf]ksyg elgG5 . kfqx¿sf] ;+jfbaf6} syfj:t'n] ult lnG5 . To;}n] cfw'lgs pkGof;df syf]ksygsf] dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf 5 . of] kfqsf] rl/qlrq0fsf] dxŒjk"0f{ ;fwg klg xf] . syf]ksygn] pkGof;nfO{ ;'?b]lv cGTo;Dd ;lqmo agfpF5 . o;n] pkGof;nfO{ /f]rs tyf d~rLo agfpg dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]Nb5 .

afnpkGof;df cfpg] syf]ksyg ;/n / ;xh tyf afnssf] :t/ cg's"nsf] x'g' k5{ .

 

u_ åGå

åGå pkGof;sf] syfgs / rl/qsf] ;femf pktŒj xf] . åGån] sf}t'xn hGdfpF5 / hufpF5 . of] pkGof;nfO{ ult lbg] tŒj xf] . rl/qk|wfg pkGof;df kfqkfqfaLrsf] afXo åGånufot kfqsf cGtd{gsf] cfGtl/s åGå klg ;an x'G5 .

afnpkGof;df cfGtl/s / afXo b'j} lsl;dsf åGåsf] k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . ;t\ / c;t\ kfqaLr, k'/fgf cGwljZjf;L / gofF j}1flgs d"No / dfGotfaLrsf åGånfO{ afXo åGåsf ¿kdf k|:t't ug{ ;lsG5 eg] afnkfqsf cGtd{gsf] åGånfO{ cfGtl/s åGåsf ¿kdf k|:t't ul/G5 . åGån] afnpkGof;nfO{ pTs[i6 / /f]rs agfpF5 .

 

3_ b[li6laGb'

pkGof;df syfjfrssf] :yfgnfO{ g} b[li6laGb' elgG5 . pkGof;sf/n] s'g} kfqsf dfWodn] jf :jo+ cfVofg k|:t't ub{5 . ToxL sfo{nfO{ b[li6laGb' elgG5 . pkGof;df b[li6laGb' b'O{ k|sf/sf x'G5g\, tL x'g\ M != cfGtl/s jf k|yd k'?if b[li6laGb' / @= afXo jf t[tLo k'?if b[li6laGb' .

pkGof;sf/ …dÚsf dfWodn] syfj:t' k|:t't ub{5 eg] Tof] k|yd k'?if b[li6laGb' xf] . olb pkGof;sf/ 36gfeGbf k[ys /x]/ kfqsf dfWodn] cfVofg k|:t't ub{5 eg] Tof] t[tLo k'?if b[li6laGb' xf] .

t[tLo k'?if b[li6laGb'cGtu{t cfˆgf kfq jf 36gfnfO{ n]vs ;j{1em}F ag]/ n]Vb5 eg] To;nfO{ ;j{1 afXo b[li6laGb' elgG5 . ;j{1 b[li6laGb' klg b'O{ lsl;dsf x'G5g\ tL x'g\ M != x:tIf]kL b[li6laGb' / @= lgj{}olQms b[li6laGb' . x:tIf]kL b[li6laGb'df n]vsn] kfqnfO{ gd'gf dfgL cfkm} dfq j0f{g ub{5 . lgj}{olQms ;j{bzL{ b[li6laGb'df rflxF n]vs cfkm" k/ a:5 / kfqkfqfaLr ;+jfb u/fP/ syf cufl8 a9fpF5 .

cfw'lgs pkGof;df cfGtl/s / afXo b'j} lsl;dsf b[li6laGb'sf] k|of]u ul/Psf] kfOG5 . afnpkGof;df klg cfGtl/s / afXo b'j} lsl;dsf b[li6laGb'sf] k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 .

 

#=# g]kfnL afnpkGof;sf] pb\ej / ljsf;qmd

s_ g]kfnL afnpkGof;sf] pb\ej

g]kfnL afn;flxTosf] afncfVofgcGtu{tsf] pkGof; ljwf afn;flxTosf] cfw'lgs sfnsf] pQ/f4{af6 k|f/De ePsf] xf] . g]kfnL afncfVofgsf] nfdf] k/Dk/f /x]sf] ;Gbe{df afnpkGof;sf] ljsf; gjLg wf/0ff xf] . afnpkGof; n]vgsf] wf/0ff klZrdaf6 ljsl;t ePsf] xf] . g]kfnL afnpkGof; n]vgsf] ;'?jft cg'jfbaf6 ePsf] xf] . lj=;+= @)!% ;fndf xl/gfy /]UdLn] o'/f]k]nL pkGof;sf] syf;f/ cg'jfb u/L k|sflzt u/] -cof{n, @)%* M #)@_ . g]kfnL efiffdf n]lvPsf] afnpkGof;sf] k|sfzg eg] lj=;+= @)@( ;fnb]lv x'g yfn]sf] xf] .

 

v_ g]kfnL afnpkGof;sf] ljsf;

lj=;+= @)@( df k|sflzt z]if dfgGw/sf] …l;?sL afv|LÚ / c~hgfb]jL e§/fO{sf] …/fd' / Zofd'sf] axfb'/LÚ g} g]kfnL afnpkGof;sf cf/Des pkGof; x'g\ . To;kl5 sljtf/fd >]i7sf …jgb]jLÚ -@)#^_, …kfgLsf] yfkfÚ -@)#&_ k|sflzt eP . To;kl5 uf]ljGb k/fh'nLsf] …hfndfly rfnÚ -@)#^_ P;\=P;\= a:g]tsf] …slnnf ;kgfx¿Ú -@)#&_, /d]z ljsnsf] …ljqmd / gf}nf] u|xÚ -@)#(_, k|]df zfxsf …/fd]sf] syf -@)$@_, …dg' / eFu]/fÚ -@)$#_ / …cfgGbsf] cfljisf/Ú -@)$#_, k|sflzt eP . sljtf/fd >]i7sf] …sldnfsf] syfÚ -@)$*_, t];|f] afnpkGof;sf] ¿kdf k|sflzt eof] . sNkgf k|wfgsf] …NjfFb} / UjfFb]Úsf] k|sfzg lj=;+= -@)%$_ df eof] . To;kl5 sljtf/fd >]i7sf] …cgf}7f] ofqfÚ -@)%*_ / …dfjnLsf] ofqfÚ -@)%(_ u/L yk b'O{ afnpkGof; k|sflzt eP .

 

#=$ g]kfnL afnpkGof;sf] ljifout k|j[lQ / pknlAw

g]kfnL afnpkGof; n]vgsf] cf/De PSsfO;f}F ztfAbLsf] t];|f] bzsaf6 eof] . tLg bzs lalt;Sbf klg g]kfnL afnpkGof;sf] ;ª\Vof 8]9 bh{geGbf a9L eg] k'Ug ;s]sf] 5}g . o; cfwf/df g]kfnL afnpkGof; n]vgsf] ult s5'jf lxF8fOdf /x]sf] b]lvG5 . xfn;Dd k|sflzt afnpkGof;nfO{ ljifoj:t' / k|j[lQsf cfwf/df lgDgfg';f/ cWoog ug{ ;lsG5 .

 

#=$=! nf]s;flxTo ;|f]tdf cfwfl/t afnpkGof;

g]kfnL afnpkGof; k|sfzgsf] cf/De nf]s;flxTodf cfwfl/t afnpkGof;af6 ePsf] xf] . nf]s;flxTo s'g} agfj6L ;flxTo xf]Og . of] n]vsn] s'g} sNkgfdf 8'aL tof/ kf/]sf] ;flxTo klg xf]Og . nf]s;flxTo o'uf}Fb]lv nf]sdfg;sf] dgdl:tisdf nxl/Fb} nxl/Fb} k':tf}F;Dd afFlr/xg] ;flxTo xf] . nf]sk|ltefåf/f /lrt nf]s;flxTosf] n]vs s'g} JolQm ljz]if x'Fb}g . of] ;dfhdf hGdG5, x's{G5 / ;dfh;Fu afFlr/xG5
-k|wfg, @)%& M !$_ . g]kfnL ;dfh nf]s;flxTodf cToGt wgL 5 . cf}krfl/s lzIffsf] ;'?jft gx'Fbf;Dd afnaflnsfnfO{ nf]s;flxTosf dfWodåf/f cg]s lzIff lbOGYof] . g]kfnL afnpkGof; n]vgsf] cf/De nf]ssyfdf cfwfl/t ljifoj:t'nfO{ l6k]/ ul/of] . nf]s;flxTodf cfwfl/t z]if dfgGw/sf] …l;?sL afv|LÚ -@)@(_ klxnf] g]kfnL afnpkGof; xf] . csf{nfO{ cgfjZos b'Mv si6 lbg] / csf{sf] l/; 8fx ug]{ JolQmsf] cGTodf cfˆg} b'b{zf x'g k'U5 eg] s'/f o; pkGof;df b]vfOPsf] 5 . csf]{ nf]s;flxTod} cfwfl/t afnpkGof; …hfndfly rfnÚ -@)#^_ rflxF xf:oJoª\UofTds z}nLdf n]lvPsf] 5 . o;df ufpFsf Ps w"t{ / zf]ifsnfO{ Ps rnfv afnsn] tx nufP/ 5f8]sf] 5 . …NjfFb] / UjfFb]Ú -@)%$_ afnpkGof; klg nf]s;flxTod} cfwfl/t 5 . o;n] OdfGbf/, ldlxg]tL / kl/>dL JolQmsf] eljio ;k|g] / 7u, sfdrf]/, cN5L / cfxfl/;] JolQmn] cfˆgf] eljio cfkm}n] vf8ndf xfNg] s'/f b]vfPsf] 5 .

OdfGbf/, ldlxg]tL, hfFul/nf] dflg;sf] sb/ ug{' / cN5L cfxfl/;], abdf; / w"t{sf] wHhL p8fpg', rl/qjfg\ gful/ssf] lgdf{0f ug{ vf]Hg' nf]s;flxTodf cfwfl/t afnpkGof;sf k|d'v k|j[lQ x'g\ .

 

#=$=@ ;fdflhs oyfy{jfbL afnpkGof;

       g]kfnL afnpkGof; n]vgsf] bf];|f] wf/f ;fdflhs oyfy{jfbL wf/f xf] . ;dfhsf oyfy{ ljifoj:t'df cfwfl/t eO{ n]lvPsf] klxnf] g]kfnL oyfy{jfbL afnpkGof; …/fd' / Zofd'sf] axfb'/LÚ -@)@(_ xf] . o; afnpGof;n] u|fdL0f ;dfhdf 36\g] 36gfnfO{ ljifoj:t'sf ¿kdf lnP/ afnaflnsfnfO{ ;fxl;nf] aGg k|]/0ff lbPsf] 5 . csf]{ g]kfnL afnpkGof; …/fd]sf] syfÚ -@)$@_ n] u|fdL0f If]qsf afnaflnsfn] em]Ng' kg]{ jf:tljstfsf] lrq0f u/]sf] 5 .

;dfhdf 36\g] / 36]sf 36gf / kl/l:yltsf] oyfy{ lrq0f ug{', o:tf 36gfx¿n] afnaflnsfnfO{ kg]{ b'Mv afwf, c8\rg b]vfpg' / an / a'l4sf] k|of]u ubf{ afnaflnsfn] s;/L o:tf ;d:ofaf6 d'lQm kfpg ;S5g\ eGg] s'/fsf] oyfy{ lrq0f ug{' ;fdflhs oyfy{jfbL afnpkGof;sf k|j[lQ x'g\ .

 

#=$=# dgf]j}1flgs afnpkGof;

afnkfqsf] dgf]hut\sf] lrq0f u/]/ n]lvPsf] klxnf] g]kfnL afnpkGof; …slnnf ;kgfx¿Ú -@)#&_ xf] . o;df tf;h'jf v]Ng], xf]xNnf x'g] 7"nfa8fsf] 3/sf s]6fs]6Ln] s]-s:tf dfgl;s / cGo tgfj ef]Ug' k5{ eGg] s'/f b]vfOPsf] 5 . cfˆgf cleefjsx¿sf o:tf lqmofsnfkn] ubf{ afnaflnsfdf s]-s:tf] dgf]j}1flgs c;/ kb{5 To;sf] lr/kmf/ o; pkGof;df kfOG5 . csf]{ afnpkGof; …dg' / eFu]/fÚ -@)$#_ df ckfª\u afnaflnsfdf kg]{ dgf]j}1flgs c;/sf] lrq0f ul/Psf] 5 . o;sf ;fy} pgLx¿n] klg cfTdljZjf;, w}o{ / ;fx;sf ;fy cufl8 a9]df ;anfª\ueGbf sd x'Fb}gg\ eGg] s'/f klg o; anfpkGof;df b]vfOPsf] 5 .

afnkfqsf dgleq k|j]z u/L To;sf] tl:a/ lvRg], pgLx¿sf OR5f, cfsfª\Iff / /x/ s]nfpg', pgLx¿leq /x]sf hl6n ;d:of k|:t't ug]{h:tf k|j[lQ dgf]j}1flgs afnpkGof;sf /x]sf 5g\ .

 

#=$=$ lj1fg-afnpkGof; / sljtf/fdsf] n]vgofqf

afnpkGof;sf] If]qdf j}1flgs r]tgfsf] cfjZostfnfO{ dx;'; u/L k|ydk6s k|j]z u/fpg] afnpkGof;sf/ sljtf/fd >]i7 x'g\ . pgsf] …jgb]jLÚ -@)#^_ klxnf] lj1fg-pkGof; xf] . jgkmF8fgL x'Fbf x'g] xflg, jghª\unsf] pkof]lutf / dxŒj b;f{pFb} o;sf] ;+/If0f ug{'kg]{ r]tgf lbg] sfo{ o; afnpkGof;n] u/]sf] 5 . …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ -@)#^_ n] kfgLsf] :j¿k / dxŒjdfly k|sfz kf/]sf] 5 . …sldnfsf] syfÚ
-@)$^_ n] sldnf;DaGwL hLjzf:qLo 1fg k|bfg u/L afnaflnsfnfO{ ;dfhdf cfˆgf] st{Jo k"/f u/L afFRg' kg]{ ;Nnfx lbPsf] 5 . of}g;Dk{safx]s cGo sf/0fn] klg P8\; /f]u ;g{ ;S5 eGg] r]tgf …cgf}7f] ofqfÚ -@)%*_ n] lbPsf] 5 . k'/fgf, yf]qf, cg'kof]uL d"No / dfGotfnfO{ j}1flgs ts{ lbO{ sf6\g] sfo{ …dfjnLsf] ofqfÚ -@)%(_ df ePsf] 5 . o;df e"tk|]t;DaGwL hgljZjf;nfO{ ts{k"0f{ ¿kn] lg/y{s t'NofOPsf] 5 . sljtf/fdsf oL kfFr} afnpkGof; ;lj1fg afnpkGof; x'g\ / /d]z ljsnsf] …ljqmd / gf}nf] u|xÚ -@)#(_ lszf]/lszf]/Lsf nflu ?lrs/ lj1fg-afnpGof; xf] .

afnaflnsfsf dgdl:tisn] Eofpg] ts{zLn s'/fx¿ k]; ug{', x/]s k|:t'ltsf sfo{-sf/0f ;DaGw b]vfpg', s'g} klg s'/fnfO{ j:t'ut k|df0fsf cfwf/df ljZn]if0f ug{' / lgSof}{ndf k'Ug' lj1fg afnpkGof;sf ljz]iftf x'g\ .

 

#=% lgisif{

pkGof;sf] aLh vf]hb} hfFbf Nofl6g u|Ls cem o'gfgL ;flxTo;Dd k'Ug] ePtf klg cfw'lgs pkGof;sf] cf/De hfkfgaf6 ePsf] xf] . ljZj ;flxTodf k"0f{ pkGof; ljwfsf] l;h{gsfo{ eg] c7f/f}F ztfAbLkl5 ePsf] xf] . o;kl5 g} kmf§km'§ ub}{ afnpkGof; n]vg sfo{sf] klg ;'?jft ePsf] xf] . g]kfnL ;flxTodf pkGof;l;h{g sfo{ aL;f}F ztfAbLaf6 x'g yfNof] . afnpkGof;n]vg sfo{ eg] @! cfF} ztfAbLsf] t];|f] bzsaf6 x'g yfn]sf] xf] . j}1flgs If]qsf] tLj| pGgltsf sf/0f kfZrfTo hut\df lj1fg ;flxTosf] ljsf; klg !( cfF} ztfAbLsf] ;'?jftaf6} x'g yfNof] . g]kfnL ;flxTodf eg] lj1fg ;flxTosf] ljsf; guGo ¿kdf 5 . g]kfnL afn;flxTodf 8]9bh{g hlt afnlj1fg pkGof; n]lvPsf 5g\ . afnpkGof;sf If]qdf lj1fgnfO{ k|j]z u/fpg] sfo{ sljtf/dn] u/]sf 5g\ . pgsf afn pkGof;n] afnaflnsfdf yf]qf, cg'kof]uL, cGwljZjf;k"0f{ ck|dfl0fs ;fdflhs d"No / dfGotfnfO{ kG5fO{ ;To / tYodf cfwfl/t 1fg k|bfg u/fpg of]ubfg lbPsf 5g\ . afnaflnsfnfO{ k|z:t dgf]/~hg lbg'sf] ;fy} pgLx¿sf lh1f;fn] j}1flgs k|df0fsf ;fy lrQa'‰bf] kf/fdf ;dfwfg ug]{ sfo{ klg pgsf afnpkGof;n] u/]sf 5g\ . pgsf afnpkGof;n] afnaflnsfx¿nfO{ eljiodf pgLx¿sf cufl8 cfpg] k|To]s xfFs / r'gf}tLx¿sf ;fdgf ug{ ;xof]u u/]sf 5g\ .


 

kl/R5]b rf/

sljtf/fdsf afnpkGof;sf] cWoog

 

$=! pkGof; ljZn]if0fsf cfwf/x¿

sljtf/fd >]i7sf] pkGof;sfl/tf cWoogsf ;Gbe{df pgsf] cf}kgofl;s snf / lrGtgnfO{ cWoogsf] ljifo agfpg ;lsG5 . pgsf k|To]s afnpkGof;nfO{ lgDg a'Fbfsf cfwf/df ljZn]if0f u/L cWoog ug{' pko'Qm b]lvPsfn] ljZn]if0f ljlwsf cfwf/x¿ qmdzM !_ syfj:t', @_ kfq / rl/qlrq0f, #_ kl/j]z lrq0f, $_ efiffz}nL, %_ åGå, ^_ n]vsLo p2]Zo &_ sf}t"xnx, *_ syf]ksyg, (_ b[li6laGb' cFuflnPsf 5g\ . log} a'Fbfsf cfwf/df k|To]s pkGof;nfO{ ljZn]if0f ug]{ k|oTg ul/Psf] 5 .

 

$=@ ‘jgb]jL afnpkGof;sf] cWoog

…jgb]jLÚ afnpkGof; sljtf/fdsf] afn;flxTos n]vgsf] klxnf] k|of; xf] . lj=;+= @)#^ ;fndf ;f/;ª\u|x k|sfzgaf6 k|sflzt of] pkGof; k|s[ltlj1fgdf cfwfl/t 5 . o; pkGof;af6 n]vsn] afnkf7snfO{ e"agf]6 / jghª\un;DaGwL j}1flgs r]tgf lbPsf 5g\ . o; pkGof;sf] cWoog lgDgfg';f/ k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 .

 

$=@=! syfj:t'

       …jgb]jLÚ afnpkGof;sf] ;'?jft o; pkGof;sL k|d'v afnkfq kDkmfnfO{ la;Grf] ePaf6 x'G5 . kDkmf ageft vfg eg]/ ;fyLx¿;Fu ldu]{ kfvfdf hflG5g\ . jghª\un kmF8fgL eO;s]sf] To; gfª\uf] kfvfdf ageft ksfpg / vfg k/]sfn] pgnfO{ 3/ cfOk'Ubf;Dd 6fpsf] b'v]/ vlkg;Sg' x'G5 . pgsL cfdfn] pgnfO{ cf}ifwL v'jfpFb} jghª\un dfl;gfn] zLtntfsf] cefj eO{ To:tf] ePsf] hfgsf/L lblG5g\ . kDkmfnfO{ lgb|f k5{ / ;kgf b]Vg yflN5g\ . ;kgfdf klg pgL ;fyLx¿;Fu ageft vfg uPsL x'lG5g\ . pgsf] 6fpsf] b'lv/x]sfn] ;a} ;fyLx¿ v]n] klg pgL rflxF 3gf hª\unsf] Pp6f ¿vd'lg tf}lnof la5\ofO{ kN6lG5g\ . ;fyLx¿;Fu v]Ng gkfPsf]df pgnfO{ ;w}F g/dfOnf] nfU5 . olQs}df pgL ;'t]sf] ¿vaf6 Ps l;ofnk/L em/L kDkmfnfO{ d';fl5{g\ / kDkmfnfO{ lgSs} ;Grf] x'G5 . pgsf cfFvfaf6 xif{sf cfF;' em5{g\ . pgL ;fyLx¿em}F v]Ng yflN5g\ .

       Pp6f bfp/]n] s6';sf] ¿v sf6\b} ubf{ Ps a"9fsf] e]ifdf s6';sf] ¿vn] cfˆgf kmn s]6fs]6LnfO{ afF8\5 . s]6fs]6Lx¿ cfˆgf] hLjgsf] clGtd cj:yfdf klg To; s6';n] k/lxt u/]sf]df 5Ss k5{g\ .

jgsf] glhs}sf] kfgLsf] bxaf6 uLt ufpFb} hnk/L b]vf kl5{g\ . sDd/eGbf dfly dflg; / d'lg df5fsf] :j¿kdf pTkGg hnk/Lsf] s]6fs]6LnfO{ kfgL lknfpFl5g\ . o;kl5 l;ofnk/Ln] s]6fs]6LnfO{ cfFvf lrDng nufpFl5g\ . pgLx¿sf cufl8 cGwsf/ 5fpF5 . t/ k/ Pp6f pHofnf] b]lvG5 . pgLx¿ hlt hlt cfFvf vf]Nb} hfG5g\ plt plt pgLx¿sf hLpdf ;'Gb/ kv]6f pld|Psf] kfpF5g\ . pgLx¿nfO{ /dfOnf] nfU5 . ;a} p8\b} pHofn]lt/ nfU5g\ . pgLx¿ Ps ;'Gb/ 7fpFdf k'U5g\ hxfF /ª\uLrª\uL km"n km'n]sf x'G5g\ . 3gf hª\un, :jR5 kfgLsf] vf]nf, vf]nfdf kfgLxfF; 8'a'NsL dfb}{ x'G5g\ . To; hª\undf 8fFkm], d'gfn, sf]OnLh:tf kIfL ufpFb} / nf]vs]{, d[u, h/fof], v/fof] h:tf kz' g[ToqmL8f ub}{ x'G5g\ . pQm :yfgdf s]6f]s]6Lx¿n] cf-cfˆgf cfdfsf] cg'xf/df Ps b]jLnfO{ b]V5g\ . tL …jgb]jLÚ x'lG5g\ . ;fydf hnk/L / l;ofnk/L …jgb]jLÚnfO{ l;Fufg{df Jo:t x'G5g\ . ;a}n] …jgb]jLÚnfO{ cfdf egL k'sf5{g\ . pgL xlif{t x'lG5g\ . s]6fs]6Lx¿nfO{ km"nsf af]6n] k|z:t kmn / hnk/Ln] kfgL v'jfpF5g\ eg] l;ofnk/Ln] zLtntf lblG5g\ .

…jgb]jLÚ s]6fs]6LnfO{ k5fl8 nufO{ p8\g nflU5g\ . pgn] ;a}nfO{ dgf]/d 3gf hª\un 3'dfpFl5g\ . jgljgfz ePsf] / klx/f] uPsf] p/f7nfUbf] 7fpFdf klg k'¥ofpFl5g\ . …jgb]jLÚn] s]6fs]6LnfO{ k[YjLdf cf]/fn]/ Pp6f kftn] xlDslblG5g\ . ca s]6fs]6L kft;l/ cfkm}n] cfkm}nfO{ b]Vg g;Sg] cj:yfdf k'u]/ 7f]; kbfy{leq klg k:g ;Sg] x'G5g\ . pgLx¿nfO{ /dfOnf] nfU5 . …jgb]jLÚ 3gf hª\unn] 9flsPsf] hldgleq kl:5g\ . s]6fs]6L kl5 nfU5g\ . pgLx¿n] k[YjLsf] dflyNnf] efu dlnnf] kfpF5g\ . ¿vsf h/fx¿n] Tof] dn ;f]l;/x]sf x'G5g\ . s]xL tn ¿vsf h/fx¿ h]lnP/ df6f]nfO{ ;dflt/x]sf] s]6fs]6Lx¿n] b]V5g\ . cem tn c;ª\Vo kfgLsf wf/f b]V5g\\ . cln tn hne08f/ e]6\5g\ . pgLx¿n] ToxfF hnk/Lsf] klg bz{g kfpF5g\ . hnk/Ln] s]6fs]6LnfO{ hª\unsf] d'lg cfˆgf] b/af/ x'g] / vf]nf eP/ k[YjLaflx/ lg:sg] s'/f] s]6f]s6LnfO{ atfpFl5g\ . …jgb]jLÚn] afnaflnsfnfO{ hnk/Lsf] k|jfx;Fu} aflx/ NofpFl5g\ . s]6fs]6Lx¿ …jgb]jLÚnfO{ k5\ofpFb} jgljgfz ePsf] phf8 7fpFdf k'U5g\ . …jgb]jLÚ hldgleq kl:5g\ . s]6fs]6L kl5 nfU5g\ . ToxfF ¿vsf h/f cToGt sd kfpF5g\ . pgLx¿nfO{ udL{ x'G5 . ToxfF hldgd'lg kfgLsf] gfdlgzfg} lyPg . s]6fs]6LnfO{ udL{n] pv'd kf5{ . …jgb]jLÚ lzlyn / s'¿k x'Fb} hflG5g\ . jg gePsf] 7fpFdf l;ofnk/Lsf] klg cl:tTj /xg] ePg . cfˆgL cfdfsf] :j¿ksL …jgb]jLÚsf] xfnt v/fa ePsfn] s]6fs]6L cflQG5g\ . jgb]jL cQflnFb} lanf}gf ug{ yflN5g\ - ædnfO{ arfpg' 5 eg] ¿v /f]k === .Æ s]6fs]6Lx¿ cQflnFb} s/fO/xG5g\ - æ¿v /f]kf}F . clxn] g} /f]lkxfnf}F ->]i7, @)#^ M !^_ . olQs}df kDkmfsf] lgb|f v'N5 . pgn] ¿v /f]Kg] / /f]Kg nufpg] k|0f ul5{g\ .

 

$=@=@ kfq / rl/qlrq0f

       o; afnpkGof;df dfgjLo / dfgj]t/ kfqsf] k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . afnkfq kDkmf, pgsf ;fyLx¿, pgsL cfdf / bfp/] dfgjLo kfq x'g\ eg] jgb]jL, l;ofnk/L, hnk/L, kz'kIfLx¿ dfgj]t/ kfqsf ¿kdf cfPsf 5g\ . dfgjLo kfqdf afnkfq kDkmf k|d'v kfqsf ¿kdf cfPsL 5 eg] pgsL cfdf / ;fyLx¿ ;xfos kfqsf ¿kdf b]lvPsf 5g\ . o; pkGof;df cfPsf dfgjLo / dfgj]t/ ;Dk"0f{ kfqx¿ d~rLo kfq x'g\ . jg kmF8fgL ug]{ bfp/] / ufpFn]x¿ r]tgfsf] sdLn] ubf{ c;t\ rl/qsf ¿kdf k|:t't 5g\ eg] cGo ;Dk"0f{ kfqx¿ ;t\ rl/qsf ¿kdf pkl:yt 5g\ . hnk/L hnsL k|tLs, l;ofnk/L 5fof jf zLtntfsL k|tLs x'g\ eg] jgb]jLn] jgsf] k|tLssf ¿kdf :j}/sNkgfTds 9ª\un] dfgjn] em}F afnpkGof;df ;Rrl/qsf] e"ldsf k"/f u/]sL l5g\ .

 

$=@=# kl/j]zlrq0f

…jgb]jLÚ afnpkGof;df jghª\uno'Qm x/fe/f kl/j]z / jgljgfzsf] sf/0fn] phfl8Psf] p/f7nfUbf] kl/j]z u/L b'O{ lsl;dsf] afXo kl/j]zsf] lrq0f kfOG5 . pkGof;df jghª\unsf] k|fs[lts jftfj/0fsf] k|r'/tf kfOG5 eGg] s'/f o;sf] zLif{sn] g} atfpF5 . /ftf kx]Fnf cg]s y/Lsf kmn / km"nx¿n] l;Fufl/Psf 7"nf, ;fgf, ‰ofDd k/]sf ¿vx¿ / nx/fx¿n] l;Fufl/Psf] Pp6f dgdf]xs 7fpF lyof] Tof] . Ps 5]pdf snsn ub}{ aUg] Pp6f :jR5 vf]nf lyof] . kfgLxfF;x¿ 8'a'NsL dfb}{ lyP . y/Ly/Lsf df5fx¿ kf}8Fb} a]nfa]nfdf kfgLdf pk|m]sf b]lvGy] . lsgf/df nf]vs]{, d[usf kf7f, v/fof] a'?sa'?s pk|m]/ gfRb} lyP / 8fFkm], d'gfn, sf]OnL cflb r/fx¿ :j/df :j/ ldnfpFb} ufpFb} lyP ->]i7, @)#^ M !)_ . o;}u/L o; pkGof;df jgljgfzsf sf/0f phfl8Psf] kl/j]zsf] lrq0f klg dfld{s ¿kdf ePsf] kfOG5 . ToxfF jgsf] gfdlgzfgf g} lyPg . === v8]/Ln] vfPsf] hh{/ kfvf / k}/fn] vfPsf 8fF8fx¿ dfq lyP ->]i7, @)#^ M !%_ .

 

$=@=$ efiffz}nL

afNosfnsf tLg cj:yf x'G5g\ . efiffz}nLsf] b[li6n] …jgb]jLÚ afnpkGof; afn cj:yfnfO{ nlIft u/L n]lvPsf] 5 . jgb]jL, hnk/L / l;ofnk/L h:tf /l;nf gfdåf/f kfqsf] gfds/0f ul/g', d]/L afaf, …gfgLÚ h:tf zAbsf] k|of]u ul/g' anfaflnsfsf nflu ?lrs/ s'/f x'g\ . oxfF v8]/L, x8\8L, 8'a'NsL, a"9L, s'k|L, cft{gfb 38f, kl;gf h:tf rngrNtLsf zAbx¿ k|of]u ul/Psf 5g\ . …d hnk/L x'F, d hnk/L x'FÚ h:tf] /l;nf] uLtn] afnssf] dg xg{ ;kmn 5 . snsn, km6km6, hh{/, a'?sa'?s, x[i6k'i6 h:tf cg's/0ffTds zAbn] efiffnfO{ rxlsnf] agfPsf] 5 . ;/n jf /}lvs 9ª\udf syfj:t'sf] ljsf; u/fpg] / ;/n jfSosf] k|of]u ug]{ sfo{ o; afnpkGof;df ePsf] 5 . o;df clewfk|wfg efiff / sfo{sf/0f ;DaGw kfOG5 .

 

$=@=% åGå

o; afnpkGof;df k|s[lt dfgjaLrsf] åGå /x]sf] 5 . k|s[ltn] hldgdf ¿vla?jf, emf/kft pdf/]/ x/fe/f kf5{ eg] dfgjn] cfˆgf cfjZostf k"lt{ ug]{ qmddf To;sf] ljgfz u/L k[YjLnfO{ d?e"dLs/0f ub}{ hfG5 .

 


$=@=^ n]vsLo p2]Zo

afnpkGof;sf] k|d'v p2]Zo afnaflnsfnfO{ k|z:t dgf]/~hg lbg' xf] eg] bf];|f] p2]Zo ;To, lzj, ;f}Gbo{sf] efj ljsf; u/fpg] xf] . o; afnpkGof;n] afnaflnsfnfO{ jghª\un, vf]nfgfnf, kf]v/L, ljljw kz'kIfL, kmnkm"no'Qm dgdf]xs k|fs[lts jftf/0faLr k'¥ofP/ dgf]/~hg k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . 7fpF7fpFdf :j}/sNkgf ld;fPsfn] s]6fs]6Lsf nflu ?lrk"0f{ dfq ePsf] 5}g, To;n] ;To tYosf] 1fg klg k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . jghª\un ePsf] / gePsf] 7fpFsf] leGgtf b]vfpFb}, jghª\unsf] dxŒj / cfjZostfk|lt ;r]t u/fpFb}, afnaflnsfdf ¿vla?jf /f]Kg' k5{ eGg] 1fg cGt/x[bob]lv hufpg' g} o; afnpkGof;sf] p2]Zo xf] .

 

$=@=& sf}t"xn

…jgb]jLÚ afnpkGof; o;kl5 ca s] xf]nf eGg] sf}t'xn l;h{gf ug{ ;kmn 5 . s]6fs]6Lx¿ hnk/Lsf uLt ;'lg/x]sf a]nfdf ha l;ofnk/Ln] pgLx¿nfO{ cfFvf lrDng nufOg\ ToxfF ca s] x'g] xf]nf eGg] lh1f;f l;h{gf ePsf] 5 . s]6fs]6L kv]6f xfn]/ p8]kl5 sxfF k'Ug] x'g\ eGg] sf}t"xnsf] hGd x'G5 . pgLx¿ hldgleq k;]kl5 s:tf] b[Zo b]Vnfg\, s;/L lg:snfg\ cflb cflb sf}t'xn o; afnpkGof;df ljBdfg ePsfn] of] /f]rs aGg k'u]sf] 5 .

 

$=@=* syf]ksyg

syf]ksyg b'O{ lsl;dsf x'G5g\ M j0f{gfTds syf]ksyg k4lt / gf6sLo syg k4lt . o; afnpkGof;df b'j} k4ltsf] k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . n]vs cfkm}n] j0f{g u/L syfj:t' cufl8 a9fpg] sfo{sf ;fy} kfqkfqfaLr /f]rs ;+jfb u/fO{ syfj:t' cufl8 a9fpg] sfo{ oxfF n]vsn] u/]sf 5g\ .

cfdfn] kDkmfsf] 6fpsf] lyRb} ;f]lwg\ - æclxn] s:tf] 5 <Æ kDkmfn] dl;gf] :j/df elgg\, æclxn] t cln sd ePsf] 5Æ ->]i7, @)#^ M !_ .

jgb]jL cQflnFb} lanf}gf ub} lyOg\ - ædnfO{ arfpg' 5 eg] ¿v /f]k ==== .Æ s]6fs]6L cQflnP . cQflnFb} s/fO/x]y] - æ¿v /f]kf}F, clxn] g} /f]lkxfnf}F .Æ ->]i7, @)#^ M !^_ . kfqsf] pd]/ cg's'nsf o:t} o:t} ;+jfbn] ubf{ o; afnpkGof;nfO{ syf]ksygsf] b[li6n] /f]rs agfPsf] 5 .

 

$=@=( b[li6laGb'

jgb]jL afnpkGof;df pkGof;sf/n] cfkm" 36gfeGbf k[ys /x]/ syfj:t' cufl8 a9fpg] sfo{ u/]sf 5g\ . cfkm" ;j{1em}F eP/ st} cfkm}Fn] st} kfqx¿aLr ;+jfb u/fP/ syfj:t' cufl8 a9fPsfn] oxfF lgj}{olQms ;j{1 afXo b[li6laGb'sf] k|of]u ul/Psf] kfOG5 .

 

$=# ‘kfgLsf] yf]kf afnpkGof;sf] cWoog

…kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ sljtf/fd >]i7sf] bf];|f] afncf}kGofl;s s[lt xf] . lj=;+= @)#* ;fndf ;femf k|sfzgaf6 k|sflzt of] afnpkGof; j}1flgs ;TotYodf cfwfl/t 5 . o; pkGof;nfO{ lgDgfg';f/ cWoog ul/Psf] 5 .

 

$=#=! syfj:t'

…kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ afnpkGof;sf] k|d'v kfq …xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ xf] . dfgj]t/ kfq kfgLsf] yf]kfnfO{ :j}/sNkgfTds 9ª\un] dfgjLs/0f u/L afnkfqsf] ¿kdf o; pkGof;df k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 . xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kfsf] hGd ;d'b|df ePsf] xf] . p;nfO{ ;+;f/ x]g]{ tLj| OR5f lyof] . k6sk6ssf] hdsf]{kZrft\ ;"o{sf] ls/0fsf] ;xfotfn] c¿ c;ª\Vo ;fyLx¿sf ;fy dflydfly p7\g yfNof] . pm lgs} dfly k'u]kl5 afbndf kl/0ft eof] . sof}F lbg cfsfzdf /x]/ ;+;f/sf] cjnf]sg u/L /dfOnf] dfGbfdfGb} Pslbgsf] zlQmzfnL x'/Ln] p;nfO{ p8fP/ cem} dfly k'¥ofof] . xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kf hd]/ cl;gfsf] ¿k wf/0f u/L hldgdf v:of] . Pp6f afnsn] /dfOnf] dfGb} vfg egL xftdf lnFbf klUnof] . To; yf]kfdf c¿ kfgL ld;fO{ afnssL cfdfn] a/km agfOlbOg\ . ca xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kf afnssf] k]6df k'Uof] . /utdf ldl;P/ xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kf dfgj z/L/sf] ljleGg efudf k'Uof] / cGTodf lk;fasf] ¿kdf rkL{df v:of] . 9ndf ldl;P/ b'MvL x'g k'u]sf] xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kf au]/ aNnaNn vf]nfdf k'Uof] / v';L eO{ aUg yfNof] . cfkm"h:t} c;ª\Vo ;fyLx¿;Fu aUb} ubf{ Pp6f wf]Gb|f]df l5g{ k'Uof] . k[YjLsf] ue{df l5b}{ xL/f vfgL, ;'g vfgL, rfFbL vfgL / g'g vfgLsf] e|d0f ub}{ ToxfFeGbf tn tftf]kfgLsf] vf]nfdf ldl;P/ aflx/ cfOk'Uof] . vf]nfdf aUb} ubf{ p;n] :jR5 /d0fLo / x/fe/f 7fpFsf] ;fy} ;x/L If]qsf] 9n ld;fOPsf] vf]nfdf ;d]t aUg' k¥of] . Pp6f ls;fgn] vf]nfdf cfO{ Pp6f efF8f] kfgLdf 8'afpFbf xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kf Tof] efF8f]df k'Uof] . ls;fgn] kfgL la?jfdf xfNof] . xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kf la?jfsf] h/faf6 ;f]l;P/ 8fF7, xfFuf x'Fb} kftdf cfOk'Uof] . ToxfFaf6 aflkmP/ cfsfzdf k'Uof] . pQ/lt/ axg] xfjfn] p;nfO{ p8fof] . pm lxpFdf kl/0ft eO{ lxdfndf v:of] . pm lxdgbL;Fu} aUg yfNof] . dlxgfF}kZrft\ lxd/]vfdf cfOk'Uof] / kUn]/ gbL;Fu} aUg yfNof] . af6fdf p;n] gbLsf] kfgLnfO{ kf]v/Ldf hdfP/ ;'?ªaf6 v;fnL hnljB't\ lgsflnPsf], 8'F8af6 v;fnL 3§ 3'dfpg k|of]u ul/Psf] kfof] . p;n] klg tL sfo{df cfkm"n] ;s]sf] an k|of]u u¥of] . :jR5 gbLsf] kfgL vfg]kfgLsf nflu kf]v/Ldf hdfP/ 3/3/df ljt/0f ul/Psf] klg p;n] kfof] . pm klg vfg]kfgLsf] kfOkdf l5g{ k'Uof] / s;}sf] wf/faf6 lg:s]/ s]6nLdf k'Uof] . lrofbfgLsf] kfgL ttfpFbf afkm agL cfsfzdf k'Uof] . pQ/af6 blIf0ftkm{ aUg] xfjfn] p8fP/ p;nfO{ ;d'b|dfly k'¥ofof] . pm cToGt xlif{t eof] lsgeg] p;sf] 3/ kms{g] OR5f k"/f x'g nfu]sf] lyof] . pm t'Fjfnfsf] ¿kdf lyof] . p;sf c;ª\Vo ;fyLx¿n] p;nfO{ :jfut u/L xft km}nfO/x]sf lyP . /ft k/]kl5 t'Fjfnf] x':;'df kl/jt{g eof] . pm c¿;Fu tntn emg{ yfNof] . x':;' ;d'b|df ldl;g yfNof] . xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kf klg ;d'b|d} cfOk'Uof] . 3/ k'u]kl5 pm cfˆgf ;fyLx¿nfO{ ;+;f/sf ljljw 7fpFsf /f]rs syfx¿ ;'gfpg / kfgLsf ljljw ¿kaf/] hfgsf/L lbg yfNof] . ;+;f/sf] cjnf]sg u/]/ cfPkl5 xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kfsf] lh1f;f zfGt ePsf] 5 . pm ca pQfpnf] 5}g . 5fn;Fu otfplt pk|mG5, gfR5 t/ aflkmP/ hfg] an ub}{g ->]i7, @)#*, k[= #^_ .

 

$=#=@ kfq / rl/qlrq0f

…kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ afnpkGof;df k|d'v kfqsf ¿kdf dfgj]t/ kfq kfgLsf] yf]kfnfO{ dfgjLs/0f u/L k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 . …xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ g} o; afnpkGof;sf] k|d'v kfq xf] . xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kfnfO{ oxfF afn kfqsf ¿kdf k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 . o;sf ;fy} c;ª\Vo kfgLsf yf]kf, xfjf, x'/L t'Fjfnf], x':;', afkmh:tf dfgj]t/ kfqx¿nfO{ klg oxfF ;xfos kfqsf ¿kdf k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . o;}u/L afns, p;sL cfdf, ls;fg, s]6fs]6Lh:tf dfgjLo kfq / df5f, Eofu'tfh:tf k|f0fLx¿, xL/f, ;'g, rfFbL, g'gh:tf vlhg kfby{x¿ klg oxfF ;xfos kfqs} ¿kdf pkl:yt 5g\ . oL ;Dk"0f{ k|d'v tyf ;xfos kfq d~rLo kfq x'g\ . dfgjsf] enfO ug{ rfxg] lh1f;' / pT;'s …xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ ;t\ rl/qsf] kfq xf] . vf]nfgfnfdf kmf]x/ ˆofFSg], 9n ld;fpg] ;x/af;L, vfg]kfgLsf] kf]v/Ldf kf}8L v]Ng] s]6fs]6L r]tgfsf] sdLn] ubf{ c;t\ kfqsf ¿kdf cfPsf 5g\ . vf]nfdf ˆofFlsPsf kmf]x/ /;fogsf s/0f dg{ afWo df5f, Eofu'tfnufot cGo hnr/ k|f0fL kLl8t kfqsf ¿kdf k|:t't 5g\ . xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kfnfO{ :j}/sNkgfTds 9ª\un] dfgjLs/0f u/L p;sf xif{, lj:dft, OR5f, cfsfª\Iff k|:t't u/L oyfy{ hfgsf/L lbOPsf] 5 . xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kf k|ultzLn rl/q xf] . pm dfgj dfqdf kl/jt{gsf] rfxgf ub{5 / nfluk/]sf] klg 5 . dfG5]x¿n] o:tf] kmf]x/d}nf ePsf] kfgL gvfpmg\ egL xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kfn] === ann] dfG5]sf] lb;fnfO{ aufpFb} lsgf/fsf] 5]p;Dd Nofof] ->]i7, @)#* M @@_ .

 

$=#=# kl/j]zlrq0f

kl/j]zcGtu{t b]zsfn jftfj/0fsf ;fy} JolQmut tyf ;fdflhs jftfj/0f kb{5 . …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ afnpkGof;df ljljw k|fs[lts kl/j]zsf] lrq0f kfOG5 . jfo'd08n, k[YjLsf] w/ftnLo If]qsf ;fy} e"ueL{o ljljw k|fs[lts If]qsf] lrq0f oxfF kfOG5 . hne08f/, ;fd'lb|s If]qsf] kl/j]zsf] lrq0f o;k|sf/ ul/Psf] 5 M

æxfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kfnfO{ ;+;f/ x]g{] 7"nf] OR5f lyof] . ;fyLx¿sf] ;xfotfn] ;d'b|sf] ;txdf dfly dfly 5rlNsO/x]sf] lyof] / Pp6f Gofgf] ls/0fsf] ;xfotfn] pm dfly dfly p7\g yfNof]Æ ->]i7, @)#* M @_ .

o;}u/L jfo'd08nLo If]qsf] kl/j]zlrq0f o;/L ul/Psf] 5 M æx'/Ln] p8fpFb} w]/} dfly k'¥ofPkl5 ToxfFsf] 7G8Ln] pm t hDg kf] nfUof]Æ ->]i7, @)#* M $_ .

oxfF dfgj z/L/nfO{ klg kl/j]zsf] ¿kdf lrq0f ul/Psf] 5 M

æ/utsf] vf]nfdf aUb} xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kf w]/} 7fpFdf k'Uof] . slxn] pm xf8 eP 7fpF k'Uof] t slxn] df;'df, slxn] 5fnfdf k'Uof] t slxn] g;fdfÆ ->]i7, @)#* M *_ .

k[YjLsf] e"ue{nfO{ kl/j]zsf] ¿kdf o;/L lrq0f ul/Psf] 5 M

æt/ s]xL If0fdf g} sf]Onfx¿sf /fhf xL/f eP 7fpFdf pm k'Uof] . ToxfF emndNn pHofnf] lyof] . === cg]s wft', uGws, g'gsf] vfgLdf cfkm"nfO{ 3/ hfg g} xtf/ ePsf] s'/f] p;n] atfof]Æ ->]i7, @)#* M !%_ .

o;}u/L af]6la?jfsf] cfGtl/s If]q, x/fe/f k|s[ltn] el/k"0f{ jftfj/0fdf aUg] vf]nfnfO{ klg kl/j]zsf] ¿kdf lrq0f ul/Psf] 5 M

æhlthlt vf]nfx¿ ldl;Gy] plt g} vf]nf 7"nf] x'Fb} hfFb} lyof] / vf]nfdf df5fx¿ klg plt g} ylkFb} hfGy] . cg]s lsl;dsf df5fx¿ ToxfF b]lvP . df5fx¿;Fu} gfRb} / uLt ufpFb} lxF8\g xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kfnfO{ cf}wL g} dHhf eO/Xof]Æ ->]i7, @)#* M !@_ .

;x/L If]qsf] b'u{lGwt vf]nfnfO{ klg oxfF k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 M

ædfG5]n] kmfn]sf kmf]x/d}nfn] To:tf] gLnf] gbL ca d}nf] sfnf] b]lvGYof]Æ ->]i7, @)#* M @#_ .

o;}u/L lxdgbL, /]lk|mh]/]6/, vfg]kfgLsf] kf]v/L, hnljB't\ lgsfNg] ;'?ª, kfgL3§sf] 8'F8, lrofbfgLsf] 6'6L, tftf]kfgLsf] kmf]x/f klg k|d'v kfq xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kfn] sfo{Jofkf/ ug]{ :ynsf ¿kdf lrlqt 5g\ . ;dli6df ;Dk"0f{ k|s[lt g} …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ afnpkGof;sf] kl/j]zsf ¿kdf k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 .

 

$=#=$ efiffz}nL

       …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ afnpkGof; efiffz}nLsf] cfwf/df afNosfnsf tLg cj:yfdWo] lszf]/fj:yfnfO{ nlIft u/L n]lvPsf] b]lvG5 . kfgLsf] yf]kfnfO{ dfgjLs/0f u/L afnkfqsf] ¿kdf oxfF k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 . lszf]/fj:yfdf s]6f]s]6Ldf x'g] pT;'stf, lh1f;f / r~rntf xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kfdf b]vfOPsf] 5 . oxfF tT;d, tb\ej / cfuGt's zAbsf] k|of]u guGo ¿kdf 5 eg] rngrNtLsf / ;/n zAbsf] cflwSo kfOG5 . efª\une'ª\un, 5\ofNnAofNn, pk|mLpk|mL, w///, x/fªx'?ª, e't'e't', s'n'n' h:tf cg's/0ffTds zAbn] efiffdf ;/;tf yk]sf 5g\ . ;f]x|j6f lrq k|of]u ul/Psf] o; afnpkGof;df j0f{gfTds z}nL ;/n jfSosf] k|of]usf ;fy} sfo{sf/0f ;DaGw kfOG5 . htfht} k|of]u ul/Psf t'sfGt jfSon] pkGof;nfO{ /f]rs agfPsf] 5 M

æ;d'b|df km]l/ slnnf] 3fd nfUof] p:t} /dfOnf] p:t} Gofgf] . === pm ca pQfpnf] 5}g . pm 5fn;Fu otfplt pmk|mG5, gfR5 t/ aflkmP/ hfg] an ub}{gÆ ->]i7, @)#* M #^_ .

 

$=#=% åGå

       …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ afnpkGof; k|s[lt-k|s[ltaLrsf] åGåsf] ;+of]hgsf] b[li6n] pTs[i6 aGg k'u]sf] 5 . kfgLsf] yf]kf k|fs[lts tŒj xf] . oxfF kfgLsf] yf]kfnfO{ :j}/sNkgfTds 9ª\un] dfgjLs/0f u/L pm / k|s[ltaLrsf] åGånfO{ k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 . ;+;f/ x]g]{ tLj| OR5fn] ;d'b|af6 jfikLs/0f eO{ p8]/ cfsfzdf k'u]sf] afn kfq xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kf k|To]s v/fa xfntaf6 hf]lug vf]H5 t/ k6sk6s k|fs[lts rk]6fdf kl//xG5 . cfsfzdf cfgGb;Fu pl8/x]sf] xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kfnfO{ x'/Ln] emfª\un-em'ª\un kf/L p8fpFbf p;n] cfkm"nfO{ arfpg k|of; u/]sf] 5 . cfkm" ;'U3/L eO{ afFRg rfxg] xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kf dfgj z/L/af6 lk;fasf] ¿kdf em/L rkL{ clg 9ndf s}of}F lbg /f]uL eO{ u'hfg{ afWo x'G5 . xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kfn] /dfO{ /dfO{ ;ª\nf] vf]nfdf auL 3/ hfg an ub}{ ubf{ PSsfl; wf]Gb|f]df v;L hldgleq l5g{ k'U5 . afkmsf] ¿kdf cfsfz dfu{ eO{ 3/ hfg] an pm u5{ t/ pQ/lt/ aUg] xfjfn] p;nfO{ p8fO{ lxdfndfly k'¥ofpF5 . pm lxpF eO{ v;L lxpFdf k'l/P/ a]xf]; cj:yfdf dlxgf}F u'hfg{ afWo x'G5 . o;}u/L oxfF k|s[lt / dfgjaLrsf] åGå klg kfOG5 . k|s[lt cfˆgf] k|fs[lts :j¿kdf /xg rfxG5 t/ dfgj cfˆgf ljljw lqmofsnfkn] To;df ljs[lt NofOlbG5 .

 

$=#=^ n]vsLo p2]Zo

       afnaflnsfnfO{ k|z:t dgf]/~hg k|bfg ug{' / pgLx¿df ;To, lzj / ;f}Gbo{ r]tgf hufpg' g} afnpkGof; n]vgsf] n]vsLo p2]Zo x'g' k5{ . kfgLsf] yf]kf afnpkGof;n] afnaflnsfdf kfgL;DaGwL gofFgofF tYoaf/] /f]rs z}nLdf hfgsf/L lbg] sfo{ u/]sf] 5 . ;fd'lb|s If]q, jfo'd08n, k[YjLsf] e"ue{ / w/ftn;DaGwL afnaflnsfdf pTkGg x'g] lh1f;fx¿sf] ;dfwfg ug]{ sfo{ u/]sf] 5 . afkm, afbn, cl;gf, lxpF, s'O/f], x':;' kfgLs} ljlwj :j¿k x'g\ eGg] s'/fsf] hfgsf/L afnaflnsfnfO{ lbg' o; pkGof; n]vgsf] n]vsLo p2]Zo /x]sf] 5 . o;}u/L dfgj hLjgdf kfgLsf] k|ToIf / ck|ToIf dxŒj, kfgLsf] k|of]u, pkof]lutf, o;sf] :jR5tfsf] cfjZostf;DaGwL hfgsf/L lbg' klg o; pkGof; n]vgsf] n]vsLo p2]Zo xf] .

 

$=#=& sf}t"xn

…kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ afnpkGof;df ca s] xf]nf eGg] sf}t'xn cTolws kfOG5 . dfgj⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪jsf;qmd

s_ g]kfnL afnpkGof;sf] pb\ej

g]kfnL afn;flxTosf] afncfVofgcGtu{tsf] pkGof; ljwf afn;flxTosf] cfw'lgs sfnsf] pQ/f4{af6 k|] x'g] xf]nf eGg] sf}t'xn kf7sdf plAhG5 . 3/ kms{g egL xtfl/Fb} vf]nfdf alu/x]sf] xfd|f] kfgLsf] yf]kf ha kfgL lng cfPsf] Pp6f ls;fgsf] efF8fdf k5{ / la?jfdf kfgL xfn]kl5 ;f]l;Fb} la?jfsf] h/fdf k'U5 ta kf7sdf ca pm s;/L 3/ hfg ;Snf eGg] v'Nb'nL rN5 . o;}u/L pm blIf0flt/ hfg egL p7\bf xfjfn] pQ/ k'¥ofpF5 / lxpF agL v:5 / dlxgf}F lxpFdf k'l/G5 . of] a]nf kf7ssf dgdf s;/L p;n] of] ;d:ofaf6 d'lQm kfpnf eGg] Ps lsl;dsf] sf}t'xn hfU5 . pkGof;sf] ;'?b]lv cGTo geP;Dd o; pkGof;df Pskl5 csf]{ ub}{ sf}t'xnsf] lg/Gt/tf kfOG5 .

 

$=#=* syf]ksyg

…kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ afnpkGof;df syg / syf]ksyg b'j} k4lt kfOG5 . oL b'O{dWo] syg k4lt s]xL clws dfqfdf k|of]u ePsf] 5 . n]vs cfkm}n] j0f{g u/L syfj:t' cufl8 a9fpg] sfo{ a9L dfqfdf eP tfklg 7fpF7fpFsf] syf]ksygn] syfj:t'nfO{ ;lqmo / /f]rs kf/]sf] 5 M

Pp6fn] eGb} lyof] æn x]/ ;d'b|aflx/ klg kxf8 x'Fbf]/x]5 .Æ csf{n] eGb} lyof], æn x]/ tn xfdLh:t} yf]kfx¿ hDdf eP/ aUbf /x]5g\Æ ->]i7, @)#* M #_ .

x        x        x

t/ afnsn] eGof] - æxf]Og, d d]/f] cl;gf vfG5'Æ ->]i7, @)#* M ^_

x        x        x

p;n] km]l/ tf]t]af]nLdf dL7f] u/L eGg nfUof] - æ;Q] dnfO{ t s]xL yfxf 5}g . d t lxhf]dfq hGd]sf] x'F .Æ

 

$=#=( b[li6laGb'

…kfgL yf]kfÚ afnpkGof;df t[tLo k'?iffTds afXo b[li6laGb'sf] k|of]u ePsf] 5 . oxfF pkGof;sf/n] cfkm" 36gfeGbf k[ys /xL syfj:t' cufl8 a9fpg] sfo{ u/]sf 5g\ . To;}n] oxfF ;j{bzL{ afXo b[li6laGb'sf] k|of]u ePsf] 5 .

 

$=$ ‘sldnfsf] syf afnpkGof;sf] cWoog

…sldnfsf] syfÚ sljtf/fd >]i7sf] t];|f] afnpkGof; xf] . lj=;+= @)$* ;fndf k|ydk6s afnsf];]nL k|sfzgaf6 k|sflzt of] afnpkGof; sldnf;DaGwL hLjzf:qLo j}1flgs tYodf cfwfl/t 5 . :jo+ n]vsn] o;nfO{ lj1fg;Ddt ;fdflhs afnpkGof; eg]sf 5g\ ->]i7, @)%( M @&!_ . o; pkGof;nfO{ lgDgfg';f/ cWoog ul/Psf] 5 .

 

$=$=! syfj:t'

       …sldnfsf] syfÚ afnpkGof;sf] syf kfFr v08df ljeflht 5 . klxnf] v08df o;sf] k|d'v afn kfq czf]s b;}Fsf] :jflbi6 ef]hg vfP/ sf]7fdf al;/x]sf] x'G5 . aflx/af6 s]6fs]6Lx¿sf] …eT5]t, eT5]t ÛÚ cfjfhn] p;sf] Wofg tfG5 . ‰ofnaf6 x]bf{ Pp6f rª\uf 9nkn 9nkn ub}{ eml//x]sf] b]vL pm klg lg:s]/ rª\uf 5f]Kg cfsfzlt/ x]b}{ bu'5{ . Pp6f 9'ª\ufdf 7]; nfuL n8]/ p;sf] gª plKsG5 / /ut klg cfpF5 . 7]; nfu]sf] 9'Ëf kn{Ss klN6P/ To;d'lg ePsf] sldnfsf] u'F8 klg eTsG5 / sldnf ltt/lat/ x'g yfN5g\ . czf]ssf] Wofg sldnftkm{ cfslif{t x'G5 . Psl5gkl5 sldnfx¿ tfFtL nfuL s]xL 8Nnf lrh af]sL csf]{ b'nfleq k:g yfN5g\ . czf]ssL lbbL /ZdL / alxgL /hgL ToxLF cfOk'U5g\ . czf]s lbbL;Fu sldnfaf/] lh1f;f JoQm u5{ . pgLx¿n] czf]snfO{ 3/df nuL k§L afFwlbG5g\ . lbbL /ZdLn] czf]ssf] lh1f;f k"/f ug{ sldnf;DaGwL lj1fg lstfa lblG5g\ . czf]s lgs}a]/;Ddsf] cWoogkZrft\ lgbfpF5 / ;kgfsf] ;+;f/df k'U5 .

       pkGof;sf] bf];|f] v08df ;kgfdf czf]s cfkm" n8\bf elTsPsf] sldnfx¿sf] ;dfhdf Ps afn :sfp6sf] ¿kdf x'G5 . eTs]sf] u'F8sf] leq k;]/ x]bf{ p;n] ToxfF /fgL, efn]nufot sfdbf/ sldnfx¿ b]Vof] . tLdWo] czf]s sfdbf/ afn :sfp6 lyof] . p;sf s]xL ;fyLx¿ klg ToxfF :sfp6sf] ¿kdf lyP . sldnfx¿sf] ;efsf]7f k"/} elTsP/ e08f/sf]7f aGb ePsf] /x]5 . OlGhlgo/ sldnfx¿ To; e08f/df hfg] af6f] agfpg Jo:t lyP . c¿ sfdbf/x¿ gofF 7fpFdf ;dfg cf];fl//x]sf lyP . csf]{ sf]7fdf 3fOt], /f]uL, la/fdL / aRrf lyP . czf]s pgLx¿sf] ;]jfdf h'6\g yfNof] . clGtddf p;n] klg ;a};Fu 3fOt] aRrf] af]sL gofF af;:yfgdf k'¥ofof] . t/ gofF af; Pp6f cf]8f/ dfq lyof] . ToxfF km'n, nfef{, Ko'kf, 3fOt] sldnfx¿ 7fpF7fpFdf vrfvr y'kfl/Psf lyP . ToxfF st} 6]Sg] 7fpF klg lyPg . leQfdf rls{Psf] w;f{sf] 7fpF7fpFaf6 czf]s l5g{ vf]Hof] t/ ToxfF Kjfn lyPg . pm Ps 7fpFdf vf];|g yfNof] . lgs} ;'?ª vlg;s]kl5 p;n] v'nf 7fpF km]nf kf¥of] . p;n] cfˆgf :sfp6 ;fyLx¿nfO{ e]6\of] . Tof] 7fpF;Dd pgLx¿n] ptfaf6 vGb} NofPsf /x]5g\ . Pp6} 9'ª\ufsf] tn / dfly hf]8\g] ;'?ª agfPsf]df ;fyLx¿n] czf]snfO{ wGojfb lbP . gofF cf]8f/df sf]7fx¿ agfpg] of]hgf / ef]lnkN6sf] sfdsf] afF8kmfF8 u/L ;Dk"0f{ sldnfn] Tof] /ft latfP .

       pkGof;sf] t];|f] v08df ef]lnkN6sf] j0f{g 5 . czf]s / p;sf ;fyLx¿ vfgf vf]Hb} hfFbf Pp6f s'nfkfl/ Pp6f d/]sf] u8\of}nf] b]v] . s'nf] kf/ ug{ c;lhnf] lyof] . pgLx¿n] Ps 7fpFdf Pp6f n¶L t]l;{P/ cfwf s'nfdf 8'a]sf] / kf/Lkl§sf] Pp6f emf/sf] nfdf] xfFuf] cfO{ To;} n¶LnfO{ 5f]Psf] e]6] . xfjfn] pQm xfFufnfO{ xNnfPsfn] pgLx¿nfO{ kf/L hfg cK7]/f] lyof] . l;kfn' :sfp6n] s'nf] kf/ u¥of] . sldnfx¿ ;dfhdf kmsL{ yk sfdbf/ lnO{ cfP . s]xLn] alnof];Fu pQm xfFuf] ;dft] / ;a} kfl/ t/] . xfjf nfUg sd ePkl5 uF8\of}nf kfl/ tfg{ ;lsg] ePsfn] pgLx¿ k|tLIff/t lyP t/ Pp6f sfu cfO{ uF8\of}nf] l6kL uof] . sldnfx¿n] x/]; vfPgg\ . czf]sn] lr;f] 7fpFdf c¿ klg uF8\of}nf x'g] ljZjf;n] vf]Hg uof] . p;n] u8\of}nf e]6\of] / 6f]Sof] t/ Tof] plk|mP/ b; xft k/ k'Uof] . p;n] c¿ ;fyLnfO{ klg af]nfof] . pgLx¿ ;fd"lxs ¿kn] n8] t/ dfl/xfNg ;s]gg\ . czf]s gfOs]sf] lgb]{zgdf yk ;xof]usf] nflu ;dfhdf k'gM k'Uof] . ToxfF yk sf]7fx¿ tof/ eO;s]sf lyP . czf]ssf] va/ kfPkl5 k|z:t sldnf k]6df vfgf af]sL d}bfgdf k'u] . ToxfF n8\bfn8\bf lzlyn eO;s]sf sldnfnfO{ cf]sn]/ vfgf v'jfP / ;a} eO{ uF8\of}nf df/] . ;Dk"0f{ sldnf ldnL To; a8]dfgsf] uF8\of}nfnfO{ To; 3fF;sf] xfFuf] clg n¶Laf6 a8f] xf]l;of/Lsf ;fy tf/] . ;a}sf] ;Nnfx ldNYof] . ;a}sf] sfd ug]{ tl/sf ldNYof] . ;a}sf] ;f]rfO ldNYof] . To;}n] s;}af6 e"n ePg sfd ;'rf? ¿kn] cufl8 a9\of] ->]i7 sljtf/fd, @)$* M !(_ . af;df k'u]kl5 ;a}hgfn] ;+o'Qm ¿kdf tof/ ePsf] ef]hg vfP / a9L ePsf] e08f/df yGSofP/ cfgGb;Fu ;'t] .

rf}yf] v08df jiff{df;sf] kfgL kg{ nfu]sfn] ;Dk"0f{ sldnf af;:yfgdf cfO{ b'nfsf] cufl8 s'nf] sf6\g yfn] . czf]s sfd ub}{ lyof] . efn] sldnf cN5L ePsf]df p;nfO{ l/; pl7/fv]sf] lyof] . To; lbg klg e08f/df uO{ vfgf vfO{ ;a}sf] sfddf afwf kfg]{ sfd u/]sfn] cfkm"g]/ cfOk'Ugf;fy czf]sn] p;nfO{ dfl/lbG5' egL emlD6of] . Ps of]4f cfO{ 5'6\ofof] / p;n] czf]snfO{ /fgL, efn], sfdbf/ / of]4f sldnfsf] sfd-st{Joaf/] 1fg lbof] . czf]sn] efn];Fu dfkmL dfUof] .

kl/R5]b kfFrsf] syf nuftf/ ;ft lbg;Ddsf] em/Ln] sldnfx¿ af;:yfgaf6 lg:sg g;s]sf] s'/faf6 ;'? x'G5 . ;a}hgf klxn] hDdf u/]sf] vfgf vfO{ cf]ltFb} lyP . czf]ssf] v'§fdf lr;f] eof] . 9f]sf / ‰ofnaf6 kfgL k:g yfn]sf] pgLx¿n] b]v] . ;a} OlGhlgo/ sldnf Kjfn 6fNg yfn] . e08f/ sf]7f ;'/lIft gePsfn] sfdbf/ sldnfn] ;dfg ;fg{ yfn] . clS;hgsf] sdLn] sldnf lg;fl:;g yfn] . pgLx¿n] ;'?ª vgL jiff{eGbf klxn] g} /f]kL x'sf{Psf] Rofpsf] 5ftfd'lg cfO{ cf]ltg yfn] . pgLx¿ ;a} cfwf k]6 dfq Rofpsf] h/f vfO{ a:g yfn] . lg/Gt/ jiff{ eO/x]sf] lyof] . czf]s klg aflx/ lg:sL Rofpsf] 5ftfd'lg cf]ltg yfNof] . pgLx¿sf] Rofpsf] af]6d'lg afx]s cGoqsf] hldg hndUg lyof] . PSsfl; xfjfn] NofPsf] kfgLsf] 5fndf k/L czf]snufot s]xL ;fyL au] . czf]s Pp6f l;Gsfdfly r9\of] . Pp6f sfuhsf] 8'ª\uf klg au]/ cfof] . pm To;}df r9\of] t/ p;sf] 8'ª\uf cf]/fnf]df alu/x]sf] lyof] . pm cflQP/ Ao'Flemof] . pm cfˆgf kl/jf/aLr lyof] . p;df v';Lsf] ;~rf/ eof] . aflx/ kfgL kl//x]sf] lyof] . p;n] eTs]sf] sldnfsf] 3/ ;D‰of] . Pp6f 5ftf af]sL ToxLF k'Uof] / b'O{j6f ss{nfsf kft l6kL sldnfsf] k'/fgf] / gofF b'j} af;dfly /flvlbof] . 3/ cfO{ ‰ofnaf6 x]¥of] . cfsfzdf sfnf] afbn kmf6\b} lyof] pm v';L eof] . s]6fs]6Lx¿n] uLt ufPsf] ;'lgof] M æbz}F cfof], vfpFnf lkpFnf sxfF kfpFnf < rf]/L NofpFnf, wQ]/L kfkL d 5'§} a;'Fnf ÛÆ ->]i7, sljtf/fd, @)$* M #)_ . o;/L bz}F uLtaf6 ;'? eP/ bz}F uLtaf6} pkGof;sf] cGTo ePsf] 5 .

 

$=$=@ kfq / rl/qlrq0f

…sldnfsf] syfÚ afnpkGof;sf] k|d'v kfq czf]s xf] clg pm afn kfq xf] . p;sL lbbL /ZdL / alxgL /hgL ;xfos afn kfqsf ¿kdf pkl:yt 5g\ . ;fgf;fgf s]6fs]6Lx¿ uf}0f kfqsf ¿kdf 5g\ . oL dfgjLo kfqafx]s o; pkGof;df c¿ dfgj]t/ kfq sldnfsf ¿kdf pkl:yt 5g\ . pkGof;sf] k|yd v08df dfjgLo afn kfqsf] ¿kdf pkl:yt czf]s bf];|f] v08df lgbfPsf] 5 . ;kgfdf pm / p;sf sIffsf ;fyLx¿ sldnfsf ¿kdf k|:t't 5g\ . sldnfsf] ;dfhdf rf/ lsl;dsf sldnfx¿ 5g\ . tL x'g\ - efn] sldnf, /fgL sldnf, of]4f sldnf / sfdbf/ sldnf . efn] sldnfsf] sfd /fgL sldnfnfO{ ;Gtfgf]Tkfbgdf ;3fpg] xf] eg] /fgL sldnf ;Gtfgf]Tkfbgsf] sfo{ u5{g\ . of]4f sldnfsf] sfd ;fdfgsf] ;'/Iff ug{', zq'x¿;Fu n8\g', vfgfsf] nflu 7"nf7"nf hLjsf] l;sf/ ug{' xf] . sfdbf/ sldnfx¿ sf]xL 8fS6/, sf]xL OlGhlgo/, sf]xL s[ifs, sf]xL sdL{sf ¿kdf ljeflht 5g\ . s]xL sfdbf/ sldnfsf] sfo{ ;kmf;'U3/ ug]{, k'mn, aRrf / /fgLsf] x]/rfx ug]{, vfgf vf]Hg] sfdsf nflu ljeflht b]lvG5g\ . czf]s / p;sf ;fyLx¿ tL sfdbf/dWo]sf afn :sfp6 x'g\ . 6f9f 6f9f;Dd uP/ vfgfsf nflu l;sf/x¿sf] kQf nufpg', zq'x¿sf] ;"rgf lbg', cfktsfn cfOkbf{ af; kQf nufpg' pgLx¿sf sfd x'g\ . afn :sfp6 czf]sn] :sfp6sf] e"ldsf ljz]if / ;lqmo ¿kn] lgjf{x u/]sf] 5 . tgdg nufP/ cfˆgf] ;dfhsf] enfOsf nflu nflukg]{ / cfkm"n] ;s]sf] / lhDdfsf] sfd k"/f ug]{ czf]s Ps ;t\ kfqsf] ¿kdf lrlqt 5 . sldnfsf] ;dfhsf ;a} ju{sf sldnfx¿n] cfˆgf] st{Jo k"0f{¿kdf kfngf u/]sf 5g\ . cN5L / ljnf;L efn] sldnfafx]s cGo sldnfx¿ klg ;xfos kfqsf ¿kdf c;n rl/qsf ¿kdf lrlqt 5g\ . sldnfsf] ;dfhsf] efn] sldnfafx]s cGo ;a} ju{sf sldnfx¿ kf]yL ju{sf 5g\ . /fgL sldnfafx]s cGo kf]yL sldnfx¿ afFemf kf]yLsf ¿kdf lrlqt 5g\ .

 

$=$=# kl/j]zlrq0f

…sldnfsf] syfÚ afnpkGof;df k|fs[lts kl/j]zsf] lrq0f kfOG5 . ;'Vvf clg 3fF;kfto'Qm /l;nf] hldg, ;fgf] kfgLsf] axfjo'Qm s'nf] h:tf k|fs[lts kl/j]zsf] lrq0f oxfF kfOG5 . dfgj ;dfh;Fu tfbfTDo /fVg] sldnfsf] ;dfhdf dfgj ;dfhdf em}F ljljw ju{sf] lrq0f ul/Psf] 5 . o; ;dfhsf] d"No / dfGotfsf] lrq0f klg oxfF ePsf] 5 . ;a} ldn]/ cf-cfˆgf] st{Jo k"/f ug{', ldn]/ a:g', afF8]/ vfg', /f]uL, c;xfonfO{ ;3fpg', Ifdtfn] EofP;Dd cfkm"nfO{ ;dfhsf] lxtsf lglDt ;lqmo /fvL of]ubfg lbg', ;'v / b'MvnfO{ ;fd"lxs dfGg' pgLx¿sf d"No / dfGotf x'g\ M

æx]/ t, ;dfh s;/L ;'rf? 5 . t]/f] d]/f] 5}g, ldrf] 5}g . ldn]/ a:5f}F, ldn]/ sfd u5f}{+, ldn]/} vfG5f}FÆ ->]i7, @)$* M @@_ .

;dosf lx;fan] oxfF z/b Ct'b]lv jiff{ Ct';Ddsf] j0f{g kfOG5 .

 

$=$=$ efiffz}nL

…sldnfsf] syfÚ afnpkGof; afnssf tLg cj:yfdWo] afNofj:yfnfO{ nlIft u/L n]lvPsf] a'lemG5 . afnaflnsfn] ?rfpg] bz}F uLtsf] k|of]u clg czf]sn] rª\uf 5f]Kg bf}8\g', hLjg / hut\k|ltsf] afn;'ne lh1f;f JoQm ul/g'af6 klg of] tYo k|dfl0ft x'G5 M czf]s - æxfdLnfO{ t /fgLn] hGdfPsL xf], of] a]sfd] efn]n] xf] / <Æ
->]i7, @)$* M @#_ . ;/n, j0f{gfTds / lrqfTds z}nLdf /lrPsf] o; pkGof;df clewfd"ns efiff / sfo{sf/0f ;DaGw kfOG5 . oxfF k|of]u ul/Psf !# j6f lrqx¿n] ubf{ pkGof; afnaflnsfsf lglDt /f]rs aGg k'u]sf] 5 . pkGof;sf] ;'? / cGTodf k|of]u ul/Psf bz}F afnuLtn] pkGof;nfO{ ;/; agfPsf] 5 . d'd{'l/g', uNof{du'n{'d, 9nkn9nkn, 6kSs, enen, 9\ofDd h:tf cg's/0ffTds zAbsf] k|of]un] efiffnfO{ hLjGt kf/]sf] 5 .

 

$=$=% åGå

…sldnfsf] syfÚ afnpkGof;df sldnf / k|s[ltaLrsf] afXo åGåsf ;fy} cfGtl/s åGåsf] ;+of]hg klg dfld{s 9ª\udf ul/Psf] kfOG5 . ;fgf;fgf hLj sldnfn] kfl/kl§ /x]sf] vfgf k|fKt ug{ Pp6f ;fgf] s'nf] afwssf] ¿kdf b]vf kbf{ ToxfF åGåsf] ;[hgf ePsf] 5 . ljljw dfjgLo / k|fs[lts sf/0fx¿n] sldnfdfly cfklQ cfOnfu]sf 5g\ . czf]s n8\bf sldnfx¿sf] af; elTsof] . sldnf ;dfhdf åGåsf] ;[hgf eof] . pgLx¿ ltt/lat/ eO{ otfptf bu'g{ yfn] . sldnfx¿sf] cj:yf b]vL afn kfq czf]ssf] dgdf klg s] u¿F s;f] u¿F eGg] cfGtl/s åGå rn]sf] 5 . ;Dk"0f{ sldnfx¿sf] ldlxg]t / nugzLntfn] agfPsf] af;df ‰ofn / 9f]sfaf6} kfgL l5bf{ pgLx¿df cfGtl/s / afXo b'j} åGåsf] ;[hgf ePsf] 5 M æPSsfl; dflyNnf] sf]7faf6} e]n k;]/ cfof] . === ;a}vfn] sldnfx¿ e]n;Fu ;fdgf ub}{ Tof] 9f]sf g} 6fNg yfn]Æ ->]i7, @)$* M @^_ . czf]s afnsldnfnfO{ le/fnf]lt/ au]sf] e]nn] aufpFb} nfFbf p;df tLj| åGån] :yfg lnPsf] 5 .

 

$=$=^ n]vsLo p2]Zo

afnaflnsfdf ;fgf;fgf hLj, hgfj/, sL6ktª\uaf/] hfGg] tLj| OR5f x'G5 . logLx¿sf af/]df cfkm"df ePsf lh1f;fx¿sf] ;dfwfg u/]/ afnaflnsfx¿ dgf]/~hg k|fKt ug]{ u5{g\ . sldnfsf] syf afnpkGof;n] sldnfsf af/]df afnlh1f;fsf] ;dfwfg u/L dgf]/~hg lbg] sfo{ u/]sf] 5 . afnpkGof;sf] csf]{ p2]Zo afnaflnsfdf ;Tod\, lzjd\ / ;'Gb/d\sf] efjgf ljsf; u/fpg' xf] . sldnf;DaGwL j}1flgs ;To / tYodf cfwfl/t hLjzf:qLo 1fg afnaflnsfnfO{ lbg' g} o; afnpkGof;sf] n]vsLo p2]Zo xf] . sldnf ;dfhsf] oyfy{ lrq0f u/]/ eljiosf s0f{wf/ afnaflnsfnfO{ k/f]ksf/L, kl/>dL, st{Jolgi7, OdfGbf/, lg:jfyL{ x'g] k|]/0ff lbg' klg o; pkGof; n]vgsf] n]vsLo p2]Zo /x]sf] 5 . JolQmut :jfy{nfO{ TofuL ;fdflhs b'Mvdf b'MvL / ;'vdf v';L eO{ nflukg]{ u/]df ;dfhsf] ljsf; tLj| ultdf x'g] s'/f b]vfpg', ;dfhsf] pTkfbgk|lt ;a}sf] ;dfg x's x'g' k5{ eGg] b]vfpg' klg o; afnpkGof;sf] p2]Zo /x]sf] 5 M æuhasf] rng lyof] ToxfF s;}n] s;}nfO{ lgoGq0f ug{ kb}{gYof] . pgLx¿ cfkm} cfkm"nfO{ lgoGq0f ub{y] . cf-cfkm} cg'zfl;t lyP . cf-cfkm} cfˆgf st{JonfO{ a'‰by] / cf-cfkm} kfngf ub{y]Æ ->]i7 sljtf/fd, @)$* M @&_ .

 


$=$=& sf}t"xn

…sldnfsf] syfÚ afnpkGof; sf}t'xnsf b[li6n] ;kmn b]lvG5 . ha czf]s n8\bf Pp6f 9'ª\uf klN6P/ ToxfFd'lg ePsf] sldnfsf] u'F8 eTs]/ pgLx¿ ltt/lat/ eP ca pgLx¿sf] xfnt s] xf]nf, sxfF a:nfg\ eGg] lh1f;f kf7s afnaflnsfdf pTkGg x'g k'Ub5 . o;}u/L sldnfx¿n] a8]dfgsf] uF8\of}nf Pp6f ;fgf] emf/sf] nls{Psf] xfFufsf] k'naf6 s;/L s'nf] tfnf{g\ eGg] sf}t'xnn] ;tfpF5 . sldnfsf] af;df kfgL l5/]kl5 pgLx¿n] af;sf] ‰ofn / 9f]sf b'j} 6fn] . ca clS;hg gkfP/ pgLx¿sf] xfnt s:tf] xf]nf, afFRnfg\ ls dnf{g\ eGg] lh1f;f kf7sju{df pTkGg x'g k'U5 . o:t} le/fnf] au]sf] kfgLdf au]sf] czf]s afnsldnfsf] hLjgsf] /Iff xf]nf ls gxf]nf eGg] sf}t"xn klg kf7s ju{df hfUb5 M æp;sf] gfp a]un] cf]/fnf] alu/x]Yof] . ;fyL, ;dfh / 3/af6 pm 6f9f x'Fb} lyof] . pm lrRofpFb} ?g nfUof] t/ jiff{ / e]nsf] cfjfhdf p;sf] lrRofx6 To;} dlng x'Fb} hfGYof]Æ ->]i7 sljtf/fd, @)$* M @*_ .

 

$=$=* syf]ksyg

sldnfsf] syf afnpkGof;df n]vs cfkm}n] j0f{g u/L syfj:t' cufl8 a9fpg] syg / kfqx¿sf s'/fsfgLåf/f syfj:t' cufl8 a9fOg] syf]ksyg b'j} k4ltsf] k|of]u ePsf] 5 . syf]ksygdf afnaflnsfx¿aLr ePsf] ;+jfb clg sldnf czf]sn] cGo sldnfx¿;Fu u/]sf] ;+jfbn] pkGof;nfO{ /f]rs / ;lqmo agfPsf] 5 M æs] x]l//x]sf] czf]s <Æ lbbLn] ;f]lwg\ . æsldnfx¿n] Tof] s] af]s]sf <Æ czf]sn] cfˆgf] lh1f;f ;'gfof]Æ ->]i7, @)$* M #_ .

x        x        x

czf]s - æxfdLnfO{ t /fgLn] hGdfPsL xf], of] a]sfd] efn]n] xf] / <Æ

of]4f - æxf]Og, efn] geP /fgLn] dfq xfdLnfO{ hGdfpg ;lQmg .Æ

 

$=$=( b[li6laGb'

sldnfsf] syf afnpkGof;df t[tLo k'?if afXo b[li6laGb'sf] k|of]u ePsf] 5 . n]vs k/ a;L kfqkfqfaLr ;+jfb u/fpg] clg cfkm}n] j0f{g u/L syfj:t'nfO{ cufl8 a9fpg] b'j} sfo{ ePsfn] oxfF lgj}{olQms / x:tIf]kL b'j} lsl;dsf ;j{1 afXo b[li6laGb'sf] k|of]u ePsf] 5 .

 

$=% ‘cgf}7f] ofqf afnpkGof;sf] cWoog

…cgf}7f] ofqfÚ sljtf/fd >]i7sf] rf}yf] afncf}kGofl;s s[lt xf] . lj=;+= @)%* ;fndf k|ydk6s ;femf k|sfzgaf6 k|sflzt of] afnpkGof; :jf:Yolj1fgdf cfwfl/t 5 . o; afnpkGof;sf] lgDgfg';f/ cWoog ul/Psf] 5 .

 

$=%=! syfj:t'

…cgf}7f] ofqfÚ afnpkGof;sf] syfj:t' tLg v08df ljeflht 5 . k|yd v08df pkGof;sf] k|d'v afn kfq ;'hL, efO ;GbLk / alxgL lkª\sL b]vfk/]sf 5g\ . sIff gf}df k9\g] ;'hL / $ df k9\g] ;GbLk cfˆgf kf7\ok':tsnufot aflx/L k':tssf] cWoogdf cToGt lh1f;' 5g\ . lkª\sL klg pgLx¿s} l;sf] ug]{ ul5{g\ . ;GbLkn] k9\bf 3f]K6f] k/L Psfgf;n] v'§f] xNnfpFbf tf;Ldf /x]sf] Pp6f a§f Pp6f v'§fn] 7Ss/ nfuL em¥of] / csf]{ v'§fdf 3fp nfUof] . p;sf] k9\bf v'§f] xNnfpg] afgL g} lyof] . efOsf] 3fpdf lbbLn] dNxd k§L nufpg yflng\ . cf}ifwLn] z/L/df ug]{ enfOsf af/] pgLx¿sf] 5nkmn x'g yfNof] . efOn] ckm"nfO{ cf}ifwL eO{ xflgsf/s sL6f0f' dfg{ dg nfu]sf] s'/f atfof] ælbbL dnfO{ t cf}ifwL kf] x'g dg nfUof] cf}ifwL eP/ ;a} sL/fnfO{ dfl/lbg dg nfUof] ->]i7, @)%* M (_ .

pkGof;sf] bf];|f] v08df a]n'sfsf] vfgf vfO;s]/ ;'hL k9\g a;]sL lyOg\ . pgnfO{ ;fFemdf efOn] u/]sf s'/f ofb cfof] . pgn] 8fS6/n] c0f' eO{ ;'O{af6 la/fdLsf] z/L/df k|j]z u/L pkrf/ u/]sf] cª\u|]hL lkmNd klg x]/]sL lyOg\ . pgL sNkgfdf 8'Ag yflng\ . PlG6afof]l6s cf}ifwL eO{ efOsf] z/L/df k|j]z ul/g\ . z/L/ leqsf] lg:k§ cFWof/f]df s]jn unnn ==== u888 cfjfh ;'Gb} pgL tn ;b}{ uOg\ / k]6df k'lug\ . pgn] Psvfn] cldnf] /; e]l6g\ hxfF vfgf cf]lN6Fb} klN6Fb} / leHb} lyof] . o; /;n] cg]s xflgsf/s aflx/L sL6f0f' db}{ lyP . sIffdf pgn] o;nfO{ Uofl:6«s /; egL k9]sL lyOg\ . pgL ;b}{ l8of]l8gd eGg] v08df k'lug\ . k]6eGbf tnsf] o; v08df vfgf emf]ndf kl/0ft eof] . k]6n] krfpg g;s]sf] lrNnf] kbfy{ oxfF /;fogdf kl/0ft eof] . To;eGbf tn ;fgf] cfGb|fdf k'Ubf vfgf nfbL;dfg n]bf]df kl/0ft eof] . ToxfF ljleGg /; cfO{ vfgfnfO{ dNg], bNg], lk:g] u/]/ k|f]l6g, sfaf]{xfO8«]6, le6fldg, nj0f cflb kf}li6s tŒjdf ablnlbP . x]bf{x]b}{ tL ToxfFaf6 ufoa eP . cf}ifwL¿kL ;'hL klg cb[Zo zlQmåf/f tflgOg\ . pgL /utsf] vf]nfdf k'uL aUg yflng\ . ;fgf] cfGb|faf6 ufoa ePsf kf}li6s kbfy{ klg pgn] ToxfF e]l6g\ . tL klxn] kfgLdf clg KnfHdfdf kl/jt{g x'g yfn] . To;df /ftf /Qmsf]lzsf ldl;g yfn]kl5 KnfHdf /ftf] eof] . /ftf] /Qmsf]lzsfn] xfd|f] z/L/sf] b"lift xfjf kmf]S;f]df k'¥ofO{ 5f8\g] / ToxfFaf6 clS;hg lnO{ z/L/sf ljleGg cª\udf k'¥ofpg] ubf]{ /x]5 . To;}u/L ToxfF pgsf] 6L x]Nk/, 6L /Qmsf]lzsf, aL /Qmsf]lzsf, Dofqmf]km]h cflb;Fu klg kl/ro eof] . ;a}n] la/fdL x'gf;fy t'?Gt cf}ifwLsf] pkl:yltn] pgLx¿h:tf z/L/sf /Ifsx¿sf] sfo{Ifdtfdf x|f; cfpg] s'/f] ;'hLnfO{ atfP . ;'hLn] lrGtfn] ubf{ rfF8} cfPsf] s'/f atfpFb} dfkmL dflug\ . jf:tjdf tL /Ifsx¿dWo] 6L x]Nk/sf] sfo{ aflx/L tŒjsf] k|j]z x'gf;fy 6L /Qmsf]lzsf / aL /Qmsf]lzsfnfO{ va/ ul/xfNg] /x]5 . pgLx¿ 6L x]Nk/sf] l;6\7L ;'g]kl5 aflx/L sL6f0f'dfly xhf/f}Fsf] ;ª\Vofdf hDdf eO{ xdnf u/L ;vfk kfbf{/x]5g\ . aL /Qmsf]lzsfsf] t k|lt ;]s]G8 b'O{xhf/ PG6La8L eO{ 5/f{ / uf]nL;dfg zq'dfly cfqmd0f ug]{ Ifdtf /x]5 . Dofqmf]km]h rflxF :yfgLo /Ifs /x]5 . ;'hL cufl8 a9\b} uOg\ . pgsf] kl/ro le6fldg …;LÚ / …PÚ;Fu klg eof] . …;LÚn] cfkm"n] sf]lzsfx¿nfO{ Psd'i6 afFWg], bfFt, xf8 hf]gL{sf] ljsf; ug]{ / 3fpdf ljz]if d2t k'¥ofpg] s'/f] atfof] eg] …PÚn] afnaflnsfnfO{ /tGwf] x'gaf6 arfpg] hfgsf/L lbof] . o;sf ;fy} pgn] ToxfF /IffzlQmnfO{ pgLx¿sf] sfo{ ug{ zlQm k|bfg ug]{ Un'sf]hnfO{ klg e]l6g\ . PSsfl; Pp6f l6 x]Nk/ l;6\7L ahfpFb} s'b\of] . xhf/f}F 6L /Qmsf]lzsf / aL /Qmsf]lzsf bf]8fbf}8 ug{ yfn] . 3fpaf6 zlQmzfnL efO/; k|j]z u/]sf] s'/f pgn] csf]{ 6L x]Nk/af6 ;'lgg\ .

pkGof;sf] t];|f] v08df cf}ifwL¿kL ;'hL / Un'sf]h 3fp ePsf] 7fpFdf k'u] . le6fldg …s]Ún] uf9f /ftf] /ª\usf] kvf{n agfPsf] /x]5 . olQs}df :yfgLo /Ifs Dofqmf]km]hdf xnrn eof] . aflx/L tŒj 7fgL pgLx¿n] ;'hLnfO{ vfOlbP / t'?Gt} cf]sn] t}klg nl¶P . Un'sf]hn] zlQm lbof] clg dfq km'lt{nf eP . Pp6f 6L x]Nk/ l;6\7L k'mSb} cfof] . Pp6f efO/; 6L x]Nk/sf] z/L/df ;'Q kl;xfNof] . ;'hL jfNn kl/g\ . ltgsf] d'vaf6 cgfof; lgl:sof] - æPr\= cfO= eL=Æ ->]i7, @)%* M #(_ . 6L / aL /Qmsf]lzsfn] efO/; dfg{ yfn] . efO/;n] /0fgLlt kl/jg{t u/] . ltgLx? df}sf kf/L kf/L tL 6L x]Nk/sf] z/L/df k|j]z u/L ;'/lIft ¿kdf cfˆgf] ;ª\Vof j[l4 ug{ yfn] . efO/;sf] k|j]zn] tL 6L x]Nk/ cfˆgf] sfo{ ug{ c;dy{ x'g yfn] . k"0f{ ljsl;t ePkl5 tL efO/; 6L x]Nk/nfO{ km'6fP/ lg:sg yfn] . 6L x]Nk/sf] ;ª\Vof 36\b} uof] .

6L x]Nk/sf] ;"rgf gkfPkl5 6L /Qmsf]lzsf / aL /Qmsf]lzsf klg lgl:qmo /xg yfn] . efO/;n] cfˆgf] ljhosf] 3f]if0ff u/] . pgLx¿ Dofqmf]km]hdf r9L z/L/el/ 3'Db} 6L x]Nk/ vf]Hg yfn] . pgLx¿sf] ;ef a:of] . o;}u/L ;a} d"v{ dflg;sf] z/L/df ;fd|fHo v8f ul/g' kg]{ s'/f] pgLx¿n] u/] . /uts} dfWodn] ;;]/ dfq cfkm" afFlrg] ¥ofn, l;Fufg, vsf/af6 ;g]{ k|of; u/]df xfjfdf kgf{;fy dl/g] klg atfP . o'jfo'jtLn] zf/Ll/s ;Def]u ubf{ ;lhn} ;g{ ;lsg] s'/f klg u/] . cfˆgf] cf7 jif{sf] efOsf] z/L/df s;/L k|j]z u/] xf]nfg\ egL ;'hLn] Un'sf]h;Fu s'/f ul/g\ . Pp6f efO/;n] eGof], æxf == xf == xf == t]/f] efO oltv]/ Pp6f ;'O{n] 3fp sf]6\ofpFb} 5 . ===== Pp6f P8\; ePsf] JolQmn] cfkm"nfO{ g;fsf] ;'O{ xfNbf xfdL To;}df a;]/ aflx/ cfPsf lyof}F . clg t]/f] efOn] 3fp sf]6\ofpFbf xfdL of] z/L/leq k:of}F . xf=== xf=== xf ===Æ ->]i7, @)%* M %!_ . PSsfl; 3fpsf] afFw k'm6\of] . ;'hL aflx/ cfOk'lug\ . efO 3fp sf]6\ofO/x]sf] lyof] . ;'hL ?Fb} lrRofOg\ …P d"v{ Û lsg To:tf] ;'O{n] 3fp sf]6\ofpF5;\ < ltgL ?Fbf?Fb} PSsf;L lapFlemg\ . efOsf] 3fpdf pgn] afFlwlbPsf] k§L h:tfsf] t:t} lyof] . pgL cfdfsf] sf]7fdf uOg\ / ;a} s'/f elgg\ . cfdf5f]/L /ftL;Dd s'/f ul//x] .

 

$=%=@ kfqof]hgf tyf rl/qlrq0f

       cgf}7f] ofqf afnpkGof;sL k|d'v kfq afn kfq ;'hL xf] . pm sIff gf}df k9\g] Ps lh1f;' / cWoogzLn lszf]/L xf] . p;nfO{ :jf:Yolj1fg;DaGwL lgs} 1fg 5 . p;sf] sIff rf/df k9\g] cf7 jifL{o efO ;GbLk lzz' sIffdf k9\g] alxgL lkª\sL / p;sL cfdf ;xfos kfqsf ¿kdf pkl:yt 5g\ . p;sf] afa', l5d]sL lszf]/ Zofd] uf}0f kfqsf ¿kdf jl0f{t 5g\ . ;'hL, lkª\sL, cfdf gf/L kfqsf ¿kdf lrlqt 5g\ eg] ;GbLk, p;sf] afa', Zofd] k'?if kfq x'g\ . o; afnpkGof;df dfgjLo kfqsf ;fy} dfgj]t/ kfqsf] klg rog ul/Psf] 5 . pkGof;sf] bf];|f] v08df ;'hL klxn] sNkgf clg ;kgfdf Ps PlG6afof]l6s cf}ifwL eO{ v'§fdf 3fp nfu]sf] cfˆgf] efOsf] z/L/df k|j]z u/]sL 5 . z/L/df 6L x]Nk/, 6L /Qmsf]lzsf, aL /Qmsf]lzsf, Dofqmf]km]h, Un'sf]h, ;fdfGo xflgsf/s sL6f0f', zlQmzfnL efO/; h:tf dfgj]t/ kfqx¿sf] pkl:ylt /x]sf] 5 . xflgsf/s sL6f0f', zlQmzfnL efO/; dfgjsf nflu k|lts"n rl/qsf ¿kdf lrlqt 5g\ eg] cGo dfgj]t/ kfq z/L/sf] /IffzlQmsf ¿kdf cg's"n rl/q x'g\ . Zofd] ljb]zL ;+:s[[ltsf] gSsnn] ubf{ s'ntdf km;]sf] kfq xf] . k|d'v kfq ;'hL ;t\ kfqsf ¿kdf lrlqt 5 . p;n] efOsf] z/L/sf xflgsf/s sL6f0f' dfg{'sf] ;fy} zlQmzfnL efO/;nfO{ klg dfg{ 7"nf] k|of; u/]sL 5 . pm Ps ;r]t kfqsf ¿kdf lrlqt 5 . ;'hL - æxf] z/L/sf] /IffzlQmnfO{ g} gi6 ug]{ ePsfn] To; efO/;nfO{ /IffzlQmgfzs cyf{t\ Xo'dg ODo'gf] l8lkml;oG;L efO/; elgG5 cyf{t\ 5f]6s/Ldf Pr\=cfO{=eL= elgG5Æ ->]i7, @)$* M #$_ .

 

$=%=# kl/j]zlrq0f

…cgf}7f] ofqfÚ afnpkGof;df 3/leqsf] k9\g] / ;'Tg] sf]7fsf] ;fdfGo lrq0f kfOG5 . o;df ljz]ifu/L dfgj z/L/leqsf] Jofks lrq0f ul/Psf] 5 . pkGof;sL k|d'v tyf afn kfq ;'hL PlG6afof]l6s cf}ifwL eO{ efOsf] z/L/leq k|j]z u/]kl5 pgL z/L/sf k|foM ;Dk"0f{ cª\udf k'u]sL 5g\ . oxfF k]6, l8of]l8gd, ;fgf] cfGbf, /utsf] gbL cflbnfO{ kl/j]zsf ¿kdf lrq0f ul/Psf] 5 . emf]ndf kl/jt{g ePsf] nfbL;Fu} ;'hL klg ;fgf] cfGb|fdf k'lug\ . ToxfF cg]sg\ lsl;dsf /;x¿ cfP/ Tof] nfbLnfO{ bNg], lk:g], dNg] u/]/ ltgaf6 k|f]l6g, sfaf]{xfO8«]6, vfnvfnsf le6fldg / nj0f cflb kf}li6s tŒjx¿ agfpg nfu] ->]i7, @)$* M !#_ .

 

$=%=$ efiffz}nL

efiffz}nLsf] b[li6n] …cgf}7f] ofqfÚ afnpkGof; afNosfnsf tLg cj:yfdWo] lszf]/fj:yfnfO{ nlIft u/L n]lvPsf] 5 . lszf]/fj:yfsf s]6fs]6Lx¿ 1fg, lj1fg clg :jf:Yok|lt ljz]if rf;f] /fVb5g\ . ;'hL kf7\ok':ts t k9\l5g\ g} ;fy} k':tsfnodf uO{ cGo 1fglj1fgsf k':ts k9\g klg cf}wL dg k/fpFl5g\ ->]i7, @)$* M !_ . o; afnpkGof;df ;+:s[tsf tT;d zAbsf] k|of]u guGo, rngrNtLsf g]kfnL zAbsf] cflwSo / s]xL cª\u|]hL zAbsf] k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . zAb PlG6jfof]l6s P8\;, le6fldg, 6L x]Nk/, Dofqmf]km]h h:tf tL zAbsf g]kfnLdf df}lns zAb gePsfn] afWofTds kl/l:lytn] klg tL k|of]u cfPsf x'g\ . tL lszf]/lszf]/Lsf vf;} b'af]{Wo klg 5}gg\ . ;n{Ss, lvnlvnfpg', lg:k§, wdfwd, VjfKk}, unun, u888, ;'Q, v'?v'? h:tf cg's/0ffTds zAbn] efiffnfO{ hLjGt agfPsf 5g\ . o; afnpkGof;df k|of]u ul/Psf !& j6f lrqn] afnaflnsfsf ?lrdf j[l4 u/]sf 5g\ . ;/n / ;'af]Wo efiff, 5f]6f5f]6f jfSo, sfo{sf/0f ;DaGw, j0f{gfTds / lrqfTds ;/n, z}nL, clewfd"ns k|:t'lt g} o; afnpkGof;sf efifz}nLut ljz]iftf x'g\ .

 

$=%=% åGå ;+of]hg

…cgf}7f] ofqfÚ afnpkGof;df Psflt/ z/L/sf] /IffzlQm ;d"x / cf}ifwL¿kL ;'hL 5g\ eg] csf{lt/ xflgsf/s sL6f0f' clg zlQmzfnL efO/; 5g\ . oL ljk/Lt tŒjaLr o; pkGof;df tLj| åGå rn]sf] 5 . o;sf ;fy} o; afnpkGof;df cfGtl/s åGåsf] klg ;an ;+of]hg ul/Psf] 5 . PlG6afof]l6s cf}ifwL eO{ efOsf] z/L/df k;]sL ;'hL / xflgsf/s sL6f0f'aLrsf] åGå clg n8fOFdf ;'hLsf] ljho ePsf] 5 . efOsf] z/L/df /utsf] gnLdf k'Ugf;fy ToxfFsf /IffzlQm ;d"xaf6 ;'hLn] cf}ifwLsf] k|j]zn] pgLx¿sf] sfo{Ifdtfdf lzlyntf NofpF5 eg] yfxf kfPkl5 p;sf] dgdf cfGtl/s åGå rNg yfN5 . t/ pm kms{g c;dy{ lyO{ . o:t} z/L/df zlQmzfnL efO/;sf] k|j]zsf] va/n] p;sf dgdf tLj| åGå rNg yfN5 . ;'hLn] ;f]lwg\, æ === s] tkfO{+ klg cf}ifwL x'g'x'G5 < === nf}g l56f] ug{' k¥of], z/L/df efO/; k;] c/] ->]i7, @)%* M #@_ . o;/L o;df zlQmzfnL efO/;sf] / ;'hLsf ;fy} /IffzlQmaLr tLj| åGå rn]sf] 5 . pgLx¿aLr w'dwfd n8fOF klg ePsf] 5 .

 

$=%=^ n]vsLo p2]Zo

afnaflnsfx¿ cfˆgf z/L/sf cª\uk|Toª\u, z/L/nfO{ /f]uL agfpg] sL6f0f'x¿, / ltgsf] /f]syfdsf af/]df hfgsf/L k|fKt ug{ OR5's x'G5g\ . o:tf s'/fx¿ k9]/ pgLx¿n] dgf]/~hg lng'sf ;fy} 1fg klg xfl;n ub{5g\ . :jf:Yolj1fgaf/] afnaflnsfnfO{ ;To / tYodf cfwfl/t /f]rs / j}1flgs 1fg lbP/ dgf]/~hg ;d]t k|bfg ug{' g} …cgf}7f] ofqfÚ afnpkGof; n]vgsf] n]vsLo p2]Zo xf] . kfrg k|lqmof;Fu ;DalGwt z/L/sf ljljw cª\usf] kl/ro / sfo{ljlwsf] rrf{ oxfF 5 . z/L/sf /Ifs ;d"x, ljljw sf]lzsfx¿sf] sfo{ / dxŒjsf] rrf{ klg oxfF ul/Psf] 5 . la/fdL x'gf;fy t'?Gt} PlG6afof]l6s cf}ifwLsf] k|of]un] z/L/sf] /IffzlQmsf] sfo{df s]-s:tf] lzlyntf cfpF5 eGg] s'/f] klg oxfF k|:6 kfl/Psf] 5 . s]-s:tf sf/0f / kl/l:yltn] P8\;h:tf] k|f0f3fts /f]u ;b{5, o;af6 aRg s]-s:tf] xf]l;of/L / ;fjwfgL ckgfpg' k5{ eGg] s'/fsf] hfgsf/L afnaflnsfnfO{ lbg' klg o; pkGof; n]vgsf] n]vsLo p2]Zo xf] . s'gs'g vfgfaf6 s]-s:tf kf}li6s tŒj, le6fldg / vlgh k|fKt x'G5g\ . ltgn] z/L/sf] /Iff / ljsf;df s]-s:tf] e"ldsf v]Nb5g\ eGg] s'/fsf] hfgsf/L afnaflnsfnfO{ lbg' klg o; pkGof; n]vgsf] n]vsLo p2]Zo /x]sf] 5 .

 

$=%=& sf}t"xn

…cgf}7f] ofqfÚ afnpkGof;sL k|d'v afn kfq ;'hL cf}ifwL eO{ efOsf] z/L/leq k|j]z u/]b]lv g} ca s] xf]nf eGg] sf}t"xn afnkf7sdf hfUb5 . pgL /utsf gbLdf k'Ugf;fy ToxfFsf z/L//Ifs ;d"xn] tkfO{h:tf cf}ifwLsf] k|j]zn] xfd|f] sfo{ Ifdtfdf x|f; cfpF5 eg]kl5 ca ;'hL s] ul5{g\ xf]nf eGg] lh1f;f pTkGg x'G5 . z/L/df efO/; k|j]z u/]sf] Jofks xNnf lyof] . Dofqmf]km]h h:tf] :yfgLo /Ifsn] cf}ifwL¿kL ;'hLnfO{ PSsfl; lglnxfN5 / nl¶G5 . To; 36gfn] ca s;/L efO/;nfO{ tx nufpnfg\ eGg] sf}t"xn klg pTkGg ePsf] 5 . o;}u/L zlQmzfnL efO/;;Fusf] n8fOFdf ;'hL / /IffzlQmsf] ljho xf]nf ls gxf]nf eGg] sf}t"xnn] klg kf7snfO{ ;tfPsf] 5 .

 

$=%=* syf]ksyg

…cgf}7f] ofqfÚ afnpkGof;df syg / syf]ksyg b'j} k4ltsf] k|of]u u/L syfj:t' cufl8 a9fpg] sfo{ ePsf] kfOG5 . oxfF n]vs cfkm} af]nL syfj:t' cufl8 a9fpg] sygeGbf kfq-kfqaLrsf] ;+jfbåf/f of] sfo{ ul/g] syf]ksyg k4lt a9L ;lqmo ¿kn] k|of]u ePsf] 5 . dfgjLo kfq lbbL / efOaLr ePsf] ;+jfbn] pkGof;nfO{ /f]rs agfPsf] 5 M

;GbLk, æd klg w]/} k9\5' / tkfO{+h:t} hfGg] x'G5' x} lbbLÆ, æ=== lkª\sL d klg k9\5' x} lbbL -cgf}7f] ofqf, k[= ^_ <Æ

o;}u/L dfgj]t/ kfqx¿aLrsf ;+jfbn] klg pkGof;nfO{ /l;nf] / 1fgj4{s agfPsf 5g\ M

6L x]Nk/ - ætkfO{+sf] c;/n] xflgsf/s ls6f0f' gfz ug{' kg]{ pN6} cfˆg} /Qmsf]lzsfnfO{ c;/ k'¥ofO/x]5 .Æ

x        x        x

Dofqmf]km]h æxf] dnfO{ klg c;/ kl//x]5 . d klg lzlyn 5' .Æ

;'hL æ;/L ===Æ ->]i7, @)%* M !*_ .

 

$=%=( b[li6laGb'

…cgf}7f] ofqfÚ afnpkGof;df t[tLo k'?if afXo b[li6laGb'sf] k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . n]vsn] syfj:t'af6 k[ys /xL slxn] b|i6fsf ¿kdf /x]/ kfqkfqfaLr ;+jfb u/fP/ / slxn] cfkm} sy]/ syfj:t' cufl8 a9fpg] sfo{ u/]sf 5g\ . o;cg';f/ oxfF lgj}{olQms / x:tIf]kL afXo ;j{bzL{ b[li6laGb'sf] k|of]u ePsf] 5 .

 

$=^ ‘dfjnLsf] ofqf afnpkGof;sf] cWoog

…dfjnLsf] ofqfÚ sljtf/fd >]i7sf] kfFrf}F tyf xfn;Dd k|sflztdWo]sf] kl5Nnf] afncf}kGofl;s s[lt xf] . lj=;+= @)%( ;fndf ;femf k|sfzgaf6 k|ydkN6 k|sflzt o; afnpkGof;df (@ k[i7 / #@ 5f]6f 5f]6f v08 5g\ . ;fdflhs oyfy{ 36gfdf cfwfl/t o; afnpkGof;df k/Dk/fut cGwljZjf;dfly j}1flgs v08g / l6Kk0fL k|z:t dfqfdf ePsf 5g\ . o; afnpkGof;sf] cWoog lgDgfg';f/ ul/Psf] 5 .

 

$=^=! syfj:t'

…dfjnLsf] ofqfÚ afnpkGof;sL k|d'v afn kfq d'gf x'g\ . oxfF sIff gf}df k9\g] !# jifL{of d'gf / sIff $ df k9\g] pgsf] !) jifL{o efO O{zfgn] 3/ sf7df8f}Faf6 dfjnL vf]6fªsf] lkkn8fF8f;Ddsf] ofqf a8f] xf]l;of/L / ;kmntfk"j{s u/]sf 5g\ . d'gfsf] 3/df cfˆgf] gft]bf/dWo] Pssf] d[To'n] ubf{ b;F} dgfpg gx'g] ePsfn] pgLx¿ dfdf3/ uO{ b;}F dgfpg OR5's ePsf x'g\ t/ dfdf3/af6 dfOHo" la/fdL x'g'ePsfn] dfdf lng cfpg g;Sg] va/ ePsf] kq cfof] . d'gfsf] a'afsf] o;kflnsf] b;F} labfdf Ps afnpkGof; n]Vg] sfo{qmd ePsfn] k'¥ofOlbg] dflg; lyPg . O{zfgn] lbbL / efO dfq eP klg hfcf}F eGg] k|:tfj d'gf;Fu /fVof] . kNnf] sf]7faf6 lbbL-efOsf] s'/f ;'lg/xg'ePsf d'gfsf a'jfn] hfg] eP Joj:yf ldnfOlbG5' eGg] cfZjf;g lbg'eof] . pgLx¿ v';L eO{ cfjZos ;dfgsf] ;"rL tof/ kf/] . d'gfsf] a'afn] xjfOhxfhsf] l6s6 ci6dLsf] lbgsf] dfq kfpg'eof] . b'O{ lbgcufl8 g} pxfFn] dfjnL ufpFsf] cWoIfnfO{ 6]lnkmf]g u/L nfld8fF8fsf] ljdfg:yn;Dd efGhfefGhL lng dfG5] k7fpg dfdfnfO{ va/ 5f]8\g cg'/f]w ug{'eof] . cWoIfn] cfˆgf] lkognfO{ va/ 5f]8\g cx|fpg'eof] . lkogsL :jf:gL la/fdL eO{ ;'t]sL lyO{ . p;n] Psk6s 3/df k:g] clg va/ 5f8\g hfg] lgwf] u¥of] . 3/df :jf:gL ;'lt/x]sL, eF};L s/fO/x]sfn] Psrf]6L cfxfn /fVg p;n] k'msfof] . tLg dlxgfsf] kf8f] bfDnf] r'F8fn]/ kl5 nfu]5 . uf}F8fdf tnaf6 lav]{n] uf]? psfNb} /x]5 . e}F;L / uf]? RoflkP/ aNn aNn kf/ u/] . kf8f] tl;{P/ sfGnfaf6 kmfn xfn]/ 7gSs} v'§f] efFRof] . lkog kf8f] lnO{ e]6]g/Llt/ nfUof] / a]n'sf emdSs ePkl5 3/ cfof] . ef]lnkN6 lav]{ lkogsf 3/ cfOk'Uof] . lkogn] emNofF:; va/ k'¥ofpg] sfd ;lDemof] . lav]{n] af6f] k/]sfn] cfkm}n] ul/lbg] cfZjf;g lbof] . rf8af8sf a]nf lav]{nfO{ 3/}lkR5] s]xL vfg] lgDtf] cfof] . hfF8 vfFb} lxF8\bf Ps3/sf] kmn}Frfaf6 t pm p7\g} ;s]g ToxLF n8\of] . a]n'sLkv lapFem]/ p;n] 3/k6LnfO{ n7]a|f] :j/df Tof] sfd cx|fof] . 3/k6Ln] ToxfF uO{ …ef]ln efGhfefGhL lng sf7df8f}F hfg"Ú eGg] va/ 5f8] . dfdfn] b;}Fkl5 hfg] lgwf] u/] . ef]lnkN6 lav]{ lapFlemof] / va/sf] af/] ;f]Wof] t/ unt ePsf] yfxf kfof] . pm Po/kf]6{ 6]lnkmf]g ug{ cWoIfsf 3/ uof] . Po/kf]6{sf sd{rf/Ln] sfof{no aGb ul/;s]sf /x]5g\ . p;nfO{ s]6fs]6L cnkq k/]xf]nfg\ eGg] lk/ k¥of] . pm 5f]6f] af6f] x'Fb} nfld8fF8ftkm{ bf}8\of] .

ptf gf} ah]sf] ljdfg r9L d'gf / O{zfg ;f9] gf} ah] nfld8fF8f ljdfg:yn plqP . cfkm"nfO{ lng cfpg] dfG5]sf] vf]hLdf ;f9] bz ah];Dd s'/], xf]6n xf]6n ;f]wvf]h u/] . kQf] gnfu]kl5 5 306fsf] af6fdf rf/ 306fsf] af6f];Dd k'Ug] Ps kfsf] dflg;sf] ;fy nfuL cufl8 a9] . af6fdf Ps ul/a el/of e]6 eP . pgsf dd{:kzL{ uLt ;'Gb} pgLx¿n] s]xL af6f] kQ} gkfO{ sf6] M

æe]8L uf]7df e]8Lkf7f] ufO uf]7df ax/

rf8af8df ef/L af]Sg] s;nfO{ 5 / /x/Æ ->]i7, @)%( M #@_

d'gf / O{zfg af6}af6f] cufl8 a9] t/ lav]{ bfOn] le/sf] af6f] ;dft]sfn] 5n k¥of] . rf/ 306fsf] af6f] kf/ u/]kl5 ofq'af;Fu 5'l§g] a]nf eof] . ofq'afn] Pp6f l9:sfdfly r9]/ b]vfpFb} eg] -

…gfgL pm === Tof] af6f] g5f]8L uPdf pm === k/sf] rf}tf/L;Dd ;f]em} k'luG5 . === Tof] rf}tf/Laf6 tLgj6f af6f 5'6\l6G5g\ . cf]/fnf] ghfg" . == psfnf] ghfg" . === t];}{ hfg" . === sf]xL e]l6Pg / af6f] cNdlnof} eg] glhs}sf] uf]7df hfg" . == kxf8sf dfG5] clt ;xof]uL x'G5g\, 9'Ss x'g"Æ ->]i7, @)%( M $!_ .

rf}tf/L sf6]kl5 v]tsf] af6f] cfof] . ToxfF k|z:t ;fgf;fgf cfnL lyP . Pp6f t];f]{ cfnLaf6 cufl8 a9\b} uP . cfwf 306f cufl8 a9]kl5 pgLx¿n] af6f] e'n k/]sf] yfxf kfP . kms]{/ km]l/ af6f] 5'l§Ps} 7fpFdf cfOk'u] . s]xL a6'jfx¿;Fu ;f]wL csf]{ af6f] ;dft] . Tof] af6f] ;xL lyof] t/ cfnLcfnL 3'd]sf] lyof] cln k/ k'u]kl5 pgLx¿n] km]l/ klg af6f] e'n] . n8\b} / k8\b} bf];|f] bf]af6f];Dd kmls{P . s'nfsf] af6f] 5f8L l8n}l8n cufl8 a9] . emdSs ;fFem kl/;s]sf] lyof] . pgLx¿ cufl8 a9\b} uP . pgLx¿ Pp6f klx/f] uO{ af6f] x/fPsf] 7fpFdf k'u] . k5fl8 kms]{/ x]bf{ Pp6f /fFsf] afnL sf]xL cfO/x]sf] b]v] . d'gf / O{zfgn] p;nfO{ kv{g] ljrf/n] la:s'6 / rfprfp vfP . To;kl5 pgLx¿ p;nfO{ af]nfpg yfn] . d'gfn] lrRrfOg\ - æP /fFsf] afNg] bfO . xfdLn] af6f] la/fof}F . xfdLnfO{ dbt ug{'xf];\Æ ->]i7, @)%( M %^_ . /fjf vf]nfsf] lg/Gt/ :jfF=== sf] cfjfhn] pgLx¿sf] afnaf]nL lanfof] . /fFsf] afnL lxF8\g] ofq'sf] ult /f]lsPg . Tof] /fFsf] pgLx¿n] 5f8]sf] af6f] eO{ uof] . O{zfg t /f]of] klg . d'gfn] 9f8; lbFb} elgg\ - æs] eof] t < k/ kms]{/ xfdL ToxL af6f] ;dfTg ;S5f}F lg
->]i7, @)%( M %#_ . O;fgn] /fFsf] afNg] e"t kf] lyof] ls eGof] . d'gfn] t'?Gt} efOsf] cfzª\sf dfl/g\ . 6r{ afnL pgLx¿ kms]{/ bf]af6f]df cfP . pgLx¿n] sd rNtLsf] af6f] ;dft] . /ftsf] cf7 ah]lt/ Pp6f uf]7 b]vfk¥of] . pgLx¿ xlif{t eP . cfFvfdf cfFvf ldnfP/ b'j} lrRofP æx'/]{ === Æ ->]i7, @)%( M *^_ . uf]7sf] dlyNnf] tnfdf k/fn /x]5 . b'j} ToxLF 8ª/ª\u n8] . ef]lnkN6 uf]7fnf] bfO cfO{ ;f]wvf]h u¥of] . pgLx¿n] cfˆgf] kl/ro lbP . uf]7fnf] bfOn] cfkm"n] k'¥ofOlbg] cfZjf;g lbO{ cfufsf] 5]pdf /fvL b"w vfg lbof] . pgLx¿ ;a} af6f nfu] . af6fdf lav]{ bfOsf ;fydf Ps x'n dflg; e]6 eP . pgL /fFsf] afNb} d'gfsf] dfdf3/ k'uL ToxfF lbbL-efO gk'u]sf] yfxf kfPkl5 k'gM ;fyL lnO{ /ftel/df nfld8fF8f k'uL kms]{sf lyP . p;}n] klxn] ;f]Wof] - æx}g logLx¿ d'gf / O{zfg t xf]Ogg\ < ===Æ

x        x

ltgn] t'?Gt} elgg\ æxf] xf] xfdL d'gf / O{zfg xf}FÆ ->]i7, @)%( M *)-*!_ . ;a} v';L eP . lrof vfg egL ;a} bf]sfgdf k;] . d'gf / O{zfgnfO{ vf]Hb} dfdf klg ToxLF cfOk'u] . O{zfg lrRofpFb} p7\of] - ædfdf Û ===Æ d'gf lrRofpFb} pl7g\ - ædfdf === ÛÆ ->]i7, @)%( M (!_ . ;a}sf] xif{sf] ;Ld} /x]g . d'gf / O;fgsf dfdf3/ uO{ nf]suLt ;ª\sng ug]{, uf]nfuf]nf 9'ª\uf a6'nL 3/ nfg], kf}8L v]Ng l;Sg], lkª v]Ng] h:tf ;Dk"0f{ sfo{qmdx¿ k"/f x'g] eP .

 

$=^=@ kfqof]hgf / rl/qlrq0f

…dfjnLsf] ofqfÚ afnpkGof;sf] k|d'v kfq aflnsf d'gf / afns O{zfg xf] . d'gfsf a'af, cfdf, lkog bfO, cWoIf, lav]{ bfO, uf]7fnf bfO, ofq'af, el/of bfO, dfdf, lzIfs, lxSdt /fO{ ;xfos kfqsf ¿kdf pkl:yt ePsf 5g\ . d'gf, pgsL cfdf / dfOHo" gf/L kfq / c¿ ;a} k'?if kfqsf ¿kdf cfPsf 5g\ . d'gf, pgsf afa', ofq'af lzIfs, cWoIf ;r]t kfqsf ¿kdf lrlqt 5g\ eg] el/of, lav]{ bfO, uf]7fnf bfO cGwljZjf;L k/Dk/fut kl/j]zn] x'sf{Psf c;r]t kfq x'g\ . o; pkGof;df pkl:yt ;Dk"0f{ kfqx¿ ;t\ kfq g} x'g\ . s]jn lav]{ bfOsf] hfF8 vfg] afgL 5 . p;sf] o; afgLn] ubf{ d'gf / O{zfgn] b'Mv kfP . pm cfkm}n] klg emg\ b'Mv kfof] gq pm ;kmf x[bosf] enf] dflg; xf] . afn kfq d'gf / O{zfgnfO{ n]vsn] lh1f;', ;r]t, cfFl6nf], xf]l;of/ Jofjxfl/s / pksf/L kfqsf ¿kdf lrq0f u/]sf 5g\ . h:tf];'s} cfktdf klg ljz]ifu/L d'gfn] xf]; x/fPsL / 8/fPsL 5}gg\ M

pm 8/fof] / lbbLnfO{ ;f]Wof] - ælbbL Tof] /fFs] e"t klg t x'g ;S5 lg .Æ d'gfn] efOnfO{ xkf/]sf] :j/df elgg\ - æo:tf] s'/f gu/ . e"t;"t x'Fb}g eg]/ d}n] eg]sf] xf]Og <Æ t/ efOn] k|Zg /flvxfNof] - æTof] Pp6fsf] tLgj6f s;/L eP t < xfd|} cufl8 afFl8of] lg <Æ lbbLn] hjfkm lbOg\ ToxfF tLgy/L ofq' x'g'k5{ . Ps 7fpFdf cfOk'u]kl5 pgLx¿sf af6f] 5'l§Psf] x'g' k5{ / /fFsf] 5'6\ofP/ afF8]sf] x'g' k5{
->]i7, @)%( M %!_ .

h:tf];'s} b'Mvdf klg v';L x'g ;Sg] pgLx¿sf] k|z+;fof]Uo u'0f xf] . d'gfn] efOnfO{ ud|ª\u cFufnf] xflng\ / elgg\ - æca t af; a:g] 7fpF kfOof] lg x}g < efOn] klg lbbLnfO{ To:t} alnof] cFufnf] df¥of] / yfs]sf] :j/df eGof] - æs:tf] dHhf xlu lbbLÆ ->]i7, @)%( M %^_ .

 

$=^=# kl/j]zlrq0f

…dfjnLsf] ofqfÚ afnpkGof;df 3/leqsf] sf]7f, ;x/ / jfo'd08nLo If]qsf] clt ;fdfGo / ljz]ifu/L u|fdL0f If]qsf] k|fs[lts b[Zosf] lrq0f kfOG5 . o; pkGof;sf k|d'v aflnsf kfq d'gf / afns kfq O{zfgnfO{ n]vsn] sf7df8f}Fb]lv vf]6fªsf] lkkn8fF8f;Ddsf] ofqf u/fPsf 5g\ . af6fdf kg]{ ;Dk"0f{ j:t'hut\ / k|s[ltnfO{ oxfF afXo kl/j]zsf ¿kdf lrq0f ul/Psf] 5 . 3/af6 6\ofS;Ldf r9L lqe'jg ljdfg:yn k'u]sf d'gf / O{zfgn] xjfOhxfhsf] /f]df~rs ofqf u/]sf 5g\ . k"j{lt/ al9/x]sf] xjfOhxfhsf] ‰ofnaf6 tnsf kxf8, gbL, ;]tf lxdfnosf dgf]/d b[Zo x]b]{ kf/ u/]sf 5g\ . lbbLn] efOnfO{ lxdfno b]vfpFb} lrgfpg nflug\ - æTof] nfd6fª, Tof] km"jL{Uofr', Tof] uf}/Lzª\s/, Tof] Nxf]T;], Tof] ;u/dfyf / Tof] rf]o"Æ ->]i7, @)%( M @)_ . o;}u/L o; afnpkGof;df 8fF8fsfF8f, vf]nfgf eGHofª rf}tf/Lsf dgf]/d b[Zox¿ lrq0f ul/Psf 5g\ . rf}tf/Lsf] zLtn xfjf jl/kl/sf] /dfOnf] b[Zo, d'gfnfO{ Tof] /dfOnf] lyof] . ltgn] rf/}lt/ x]l/g\ - tn a]F;Ldf /fjfvf]nf ndtGg wfuf] tlGsPem}F gfua]nL k/]/ :jfF ub}{ Psgf;sf] cfjfhdf au]sf] b]lvGYof] ->]i7, @)%( M #@_ .

b;F} w'dwfd;Fu dgfOg] g]kfnL ;+:s[lt xf] . ld7f] vfg], gofF n'uf nufpg], jif{ lbg;Dd e]6 gePsf cfkmGt e]63f6 u/L /dfpg], b}lgs sfdsfh 5f8L lkª v]nL dgf]/~hg ug]{ of] ;'gf}nf] cj;/ xf] . x'g]vfg]n] ;'v;Fu b;}F dgfP klg ul/an] b;}Fdf s8f zf/Ll/s kl/>d u/]/ dfq d'v km]/L b'O{ 5fs vfg kfpg] oyfy{ kl/l:yltsf] lrq0f o; pkGof;df kfOG5 . sl7g kl/l:yltsf] ;fdgf ubf{ klg d'gf / O{zfgsf] x[bosf] dfjnL k'Ug] pdª\usf] lrq0f oxfF cfGtl/s kl/j]zsf] ¿kdf lrlqt 5 .

 

$=^=$ efiffz}nL

efiffz}nLsf] b[li6n] …dfjnLsf] ofqfÚ afnpkGof; afNosfnsf tLg cj:yfdWo] lszf]/fj:yf / afNofj:yfnfO{ nlIft u/L n]lvPsf] 5 . d'gf lszf]/fj:yfdf k|j]z u/]sL aflnsf xf] eg] O{zfg afNofj:yfsf] afns xf] . pkGof;df oL b'O{ kfqn] k|of]u ug]{ efiffn] klg pQm tYo k|dfl0ft ub{5 . O{zfg ælbbL of] lsg k[YjLsf k|f0fLx¿sf] nflu k|yd vfgf eof] <Æ d'gf ælsgeg] aRrfn] hGdgf;fy bfFt} gpd|]sf] cj:yfdf klg cfdfsf] 5ftLaf6 r';]/ vfg] vfgf xf] of] .Æ ->]i7, @)%( M ^!_ . ;/n / 5f]6f 5f]6f jfSo, ;/; ;+jfb, sfo{sf/0f ;daGwd"ns lrqfTds efiff / clewfd"ns k|:t'lt o; afnpkGof;df kfOG5 . ˆNof6, u|fpG8, cNsf]xf]n, ynfd;, 6r{, u'8, 6\o'a, s:6\o'd h:tf s]xL rngrNtLsf cª\u|]hL zAb / guGo¿kdf ;+:s[tsf tT;d zAbsf] k|of]u kfOG5 eg] clwsf+z ;/n / ;'af]w em/f{ g]kfnL zAbsf] k|of]u oxfF ul/Psf] 5 . Sjf/SjftL{, ;/Ss, 9\of:;, 5//ª, ud/ª\u, l;l/ª, 5\ofKNofSs}, uG7\ofªu'G7'ª, kmSofpFb}, unnn, ndtGg, 5\ofª\u, XjfQ h:tf k|z:t cg's/0ffTds zAbsf] k|of]un] efiff hLjGt aGg k'u]sf] 5 . oxfF k|of]u ul/Psf @* j6f lrqn] afnaflnsfsf nflu pkGof; /f]rs agfPsf 5g\ . el/of bfOsf] dd{:kzL{ nf]suLtn] pkGof; ;/; / ;fª\uLlts aGg k'u]sf] 5 M

u}/L v]tnfO{ l;dsf] kfgL 6fF8L v]tnfO{ s'nf]

slnh'usf wdf{TdfnfO{ zª\v 306} 7"nf] ->]i7, @)%( M #!_ 

 

$=^=% åGå ;+of]hg

…dfjnLsf] ofqfÚ afnpkGof; åGå ;+of]hgsf] b[li6n] ;kmn 5 dfdf3/ hfg cToGt OR5's d'gf / O{zfgsf dfdfn] cfkm" lng cfpg g;Sg] kl/l:ylt hgfO{ kq k7fPaf6} o; pkGof;df åGåsf] ;'?jft ePsf] xf] . xjfOhxfh r9\g] a]nfdf d'gf / O{zfgdWo] O{zfgsf] kf; x/fO;s]sf], nfld8fF8f ljdfg:ygndf pq]sf lbbLefOnfO{ lng sf]xL gcfPsf] kl/l:yltdf afXo / cfGtl/s b'j} åGåsf] ;[hgf ePsf 5g\ . efGhfefGhL cfpg] va/ 5f]8\g uPsf] lkogn] sf/0fjz ;dodf va/ lbg g;Sg' ef]lnkN6 va/ ug{ uPsf] lav]{ bfO hfF8sf] dftn] af6}sf] Ps 3/df 9Ng', 3/a]6Ln] c:ki6 ;dfrf/ lbg k'Ug', ef]lnkN6 d'gf / O{zfg cnkq k/] xf]nfg\ egL nfld8fF8f xflgPsf] lav]{ / pgLx¿ 5lng', /fFsf] afnL lxF8]sf] lav]{n] d'gf / O{zfgn] d/Ld/L af]nfPsf] g;'Gg' h:tf kl/l:yltx¿n] o; pkGof;df tLj| åGåsf] l;h{gf u/]sf 5g\ . lav]{ bfO 5f]6f] af6fsf] nflu le/sf] af6f] klg lxF8\of] . p;n] tLg 306fsf] af6f] 8]9 306fd} kf/ u¥of] . 5f]6f] af6f] lxF8\bf d"naf6f]lt/ x]g{' kg]{ x]Ssf;Dd p;nfO{ /x]g . pm Pp6f 7f8f] af6f] psfnf] nfUof] . ptf ukmdf d:t d'gf / O{zfg d"naf6f]af6 cf]/fnf] emb}{ lyP . x]bf{x]b}{ km]/ k¥of] ->]i7, @)%( M $)_ .

 

$=^=^ n]vsLo p2]Zo

afnpkGof; n]vgsf] p2]Zo afnaflnsfnfO{ k|z:t dgf]/~hg k|bfg ug{' / pgLx¿df ;To / tYosf] 1fg u/fpg' xf] . …dfjnLsf] ofqfÚ afnpkGof;n] oL b'a} sfo{ ;kmntfk"j{s u/]sf] 5 . afnaflnsfnfO{ sf7df8f}Fb]lv vf]6fªsf] nfld8fF8f;Dd /f]df~rs xjfOofqf, b[Zofjnf]sg u/fpFb} k'¥ofPsf] 5 . To;kl5 klg lkkn8fF8f;Dd k|fs[lts b[Zo, vf]nfgfnf, kfvfkv]/f;Fu kl/ro u/fpFb} ;fx;L k}bn ofqf u/fP/ dgf]/~hg k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . afnaflnsfn] ;fg}b]lv j}1flgs / Jofjxfl/s 1fg k|fKt u/]df sl7geGbf sl7g sfo{ klg pQm 1fg tyf cg'ejsf] pkof]u u/L ;DkGg ug{ ;S5g\ eGg] s'/fsf] k'li6 ug{' g} o; pkGof; n]vgsf] n]vsLo p2]Zo xf] . o; afnpkGof;n] afnaflnsfnfO{ nfdf] b"/Lsf] ofqf ubf{ s]-s:tf ;fdu|L cfjZos k5{g\ / s]-s:tf] ;fjwfgL ckgfpg' k5{ eGg] 1fg lbPsf] 5 . xjfOhxfhdfly hfFbf / PSsfl; tn embf{ lsg ofq'x¿sf] sfg b'V5, z/L/df kfgL sd ePdf s] x'G5, s:tf] ;kgf lsg b]lvG5, z/L/df clS;hgsf] sfd s] xf], ynfd;n] z/L/df s;/L tfkqmd lgoGq0f ub{5 eGg]h:tf j}1flgs ;To / tYodfly k|sfz kfg{' o; pkGof; n]vgsf] n]vsLo p2]Zo ePsf] 5 . hfF8/S;L vfg] afgLn] ;Ifd / c;n dflg;nfO{ klg s;/L c;Ifd ;flat ul/lbG5 eGg] s'/f oxfF b]vfOPsf] 5 . w}o{ gu'dfO{ cfkm"df ljBdfg 1fgsf] pkof]u u/L sfo{ u/]df cufl8 cfPsf r'gf}tLsf] ;fdgf ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] Jofjxfl/s 1fg afnaflnsfnfO{ lbg' klg o; pkGof; n]vgsf] n]vsLo p2]Zo /x]sf] 5 .

 

$=^=& sf}t"xn

…dfjnLsf] ofqfÚ afnpkGof;df o; pkGof;sf afn kfq d'gf / O{zfgn] dfjnL ofqf cf/De u/]b]lv g} sf}t'xnsf] ;'?jft ePsf] 5 . O{zfgn] xjfOhxfh r9\g'cufl8 b]vfpg' kg]{ kf; b]vfpg g;Sbf ca pgLx¿n] hxfh r9\g kfpg] xf] ls x}g eGg] sf}t'xn kf7sdf pTkGg x'G5 . d'gf / O{zfgnfO{ nfld8fF8f;Dd lng cfpg" eGg] va/ dfjnL k'u]sf] lyPg . pgLx¿ hxfhaf6 ToxfF plqPkl5 s] unf{g\ eGg] v'Nb'nLn] kf7snfO{ a]r}g kf5{ . d'gf / O{zfgnfO{ e]6\g le/sf] 5f]6f] af6f] psfnf] r9]sf] lav]{ bfOn] pgLx¿nfO{ e]6\5 ls e]6\b}g eGg] lk/ afnkf7snfO{ k/]sf] 5 . /ftdf af6f] la/fO{ cnkq k/]sf d'gf / O{zfgn] af]nfPsf] /fFsf] afnL lxF8]sf] lav]{ bfOn] ;'Gg] xf] ls xf]Og eGg] v'Nb'nL kf7sdf pTkGg ePsf] 5 . l5lKkFb} u/]sf] /ftdf af; vf]Hg lxF8]sf tL slnnf lbbLefO s'g} uf]7;Dd k'Unfg\ ls gk'Unfg\ eGg] lh1f;fn] klg afnkf7snfO{ ;tfPsf] 5 .

 

$=^=* syf]ksyg

…dfjnLsf] ofqfÚ afnpkGof;df syg / syf]ksyg b'j} k4ltsf] k|of]u ePsf] 5 . n]vs cfkm} af]n]/ syfj:t' cufl8 a9fpg] syg k4ltsf] ;fy} kfqkfqfaLr ;+jfb u/fO{ syfj:t' cufl8 a9fpg] syf]ksyg k4ltsf] k|of]u klg clt /f]rs 9ª\un] ul/Psf] 5 M

d'gfx¿ 5\ofKnfs5'Kn's ub}{ cufl8 a9] . gjdLsf] === h"gn] s]xL d2t u¥of] . === pgLx¿ af6f] la/fPsf] 7fpF;Dd cfOk'u] . lbbL /f]lsOg\ / efOnfO{ ;f]lwg\ - æx]/ t afa' Û cl3sf] af6f] e]l6of] x}g t <Æ efOn] uf}/ u/]/ x]¥of] / v';L x'Fb} eGof] - æxf] lbbL oxfFaf6} xfdL s'n}s'nf] cufl8 a9]sf lyof}F of] cl3s} la/fPsf] 7fpF xf] .Æ d'gf v';L eOg\ . 3/ e]l6Psf] xf]Og, uf]7 e]l6Psf] xf]Og, ;xf/f klg e]l6Psf] xf]Og / klg ltgL v';L eOg\ ->]i7, @)%( M $^_ .

 

$=^=( b[li6laGb'

       …dfjnLsf] ofqfÚ afnpkGof;df t[tLo k'?iffTds afXo ;j{1 b[li6laGb'sf] k|of]u ePsf] 5 . n]vs cfkm" 36gfeGbf k[ys\ /xL pkGof;sf] syfj:t' / sYonfO{ cufl8 a9fPsfn] oxfF lgj}{olQms ;j{1 afXo b[li6laGb'sf] k|of]u ePsf] xf] .

 

$=& lgisif{

sljtf/fd g]kfnL ;flxTosf] afnpkGof; n]vg sfo{df lj=;+= @)#^ ;fnb]lv k|j]z u/]sf x'g\ . xfn;Dd pgsf kfFrj6f afnpkGof; k|sflzt 5g\ . pgsf afnpGkff; :jf:Yo, jftfj/0f, hLjhGt', kbfy{, jg:klth:tf ljifoj:t' ;d]6]/ n]lvPsf 5g\ . pgsf afnpkGof;df dfgjLo kfqsf k|of]usf ;fy} dfgj]Q/ kfq klg :j}s/NkgfTds 9ª\un] dfgjLos/0f u/L k|of]u ul/Psf kfOG5g\ . afnaflnsfsf nflu ?lrs/ cfGtl/s tyf afXo kl/j]zsf] lrq0f klg pgsf afnpkGof;df ;kmn ¿kdf lrlqt ePsf kfOG5g\ . ;/n, ;'jf]w, lrqfTds, sfo{s/0f, ;DaGwo'Qm afnefiff,  rngrNtLsf zAb, 5f]6f5f]6f jfSosf k|of]u pgsf afnpkGof;sf efiffut k|j[lQ x'g\ . ;fdflhs s'/Llt, cGwljZjf;, e]befj, cg'kof]uL d"No / dfGotf lj?4 j}1flgs tYo k]z ug{' k|To]s s'/fnfO{ j}1flgs s;Ldf 3f]6L k|dfl0ft ug{ pgsf afnpkGof; n]vgsf p2]Zo x'g\ . pTs[i6 åGå, syf]ksyg, sf}t"xn k|of]un] pgsf afnpkGof;nfO{ /f]rs / :t/Lo agfPsf 5g\ . pgsf ;a} afnpGof;df afXo b[li6laGb'sf] k|of]u kfOG5 . g]kfnL afnpkGof; ljwfdf sljtf/fdsf afnpkGof;x¿n] gofF df]8 leœofpg'sf] ;fy} ljz]if klxrfg sfod ug{ ;kmn ePsf 5g\ . ef]lnsf] ;dfhnfO{ lglZrt :j¿k lbg' 5 eg] To;sf] ;'?jft cfhsf afnaflnsfaf6} x'g'k5{ eGg] s'/fsf] ;ª\s]t pgn] lbPsf 5g\ .


 

kl/R5]b kfr

sljtf/fdsf afnpkGof;df j}1flgs r]tgfsf] k|of]u

 

%=! lj1fgsf] kl/ro

…1fgÚ cfwf/kbdf …ljÚ pk;u{ nfuL ag]sf] lj1fg ;+:s[tsf] tT;d zAb xf] . o;sf] zflAbs cy{ ljlzi6 jf Jojl:yt 1fg x'G5 . lj1fgdf ;fwf/0ftof ef}lts ljifoj:t' x'G5g\ . s'g} klg l;4fGtsf] k|of]ufTds k/LIf0f / ljj]rgf ul/G5 . cyf{t\ ef}lts ljifosf] tŒj, l;4fGt cflbsf] k|of]ufTds ljj]rgf ul/Psf] zf:q lj1fg xf] - kf}8\ofn / uf}td, @)^) M @&%_ . o;cg';f/ j}1flgs k4ltåf/f qmda4 ¿kn] u/]sf] 1fg;ª\u|x g} lj1fg xf] eGg] a'lemG5 . lj1fgdf j}1flgs k4lt k|of]u ul/G5 . tYox¿sf] ;ª\sng, ;Tofkg, juL{s/0f / ljZn]if0f sfo{ j}1flgs k4ltdf ul/G5 . j}1flgs k4ltsf cfˆg} ljz]iftf 5g\ . j:t'lgi7tf, ;TofkgzLntf, lglZrttf, sfo{sf/0f ;DaGw, ;fdfGotf, tfls{stf, cfg'efljstf, g}lts t6:ytf, ;+zojfb, lgoGq0f j}1flgs k4ltsf ljz]iftf x'g\ .

 

%=@ afn;flxTodf j}1flgs r]tgfsf] cf}lrTo

cfhsf] o'u j}1flgs o'u xf] . o; If]qdf lbgk/lbg gofFgofF åf/ v'ln/x]sf 5g\ . hLjgsf x/ If]qdf lj1fgsf] k|of]u kfOG5 . lj1fgn] dfgj hLjgnfO{ lbgk/lbg ;lhnf] kfb}{ NofPsf] 5 . 5f]6f] ;dodf y'k}| sfdx¿ ug{ lj1fgn] g} xfdLnfO{ ;Ifd kfl/lbPsf] 5 . k|To]s s'/fsf] sfo{sf/0f ;DaGw atfOlbPsf] 5 . /x:odo dflgPsf s'/fx¿nfO{ ;fdfGo agfpFb} nu]sf] 5 .

dfgjhLjg cfh olt hl6n alg;s]sf] 5 ls j}1flgs 1fglagf cufl8 a9\g kfOnfkfOnfdf cK7]/f] kl/;s]sf] 5 . To;}n] k|To]s dflg;nfO{ j}1flgs 1fgsf] cfjZostf k/]sf] 5 . emg\ ef]lnsf s0f{wf/ cfhsf afnaflnsfdf t o;sf] 1fg cTofjZos ePsf] 5 . ef]lnsf] ;+;f/;Fu xftdf xft sfFwdf sfFw ldnfP/ cufl8 a9\g, /fi6«sf] ljsf; ug{, cfˆg} hLjg klg ;xh / ;kmn agfpg klg j}1flgs r]tgfsf] vfFrf] k/]sf] 5 .

lj1fg Tolt /l;nf] ljifo aGg ;s]sf] 5}g . sf/0f xfd|f] h:tf] cfwf/e"t cfjZostf / ;'/Iffsf] nflu ;ª\3if{ ul//x]sf] /fi6«df j}1flgs lzIff k|of]ufTds ¿kdf ;~rfng x'g ;ls/x]sf] 5}g . o;n] ubf{ lj1fg l;sfO lg/fzfhgs aGg k'u]sf] 5 . t/ j}1flgs r]tgfnfO{ ;flxTodfkm{t lbg ;s]df of] afnaflnsfsf nflu ?lrs/ x'g k'Ub5 .

x'gt cf}krfl/s lzIffdfkm{t klg ljljw j}1flgs r]tgf afnaflnsfnfO{ lbg] ul/G5 ljljw sf/0fn] ubf{ cf}krfl/s lzIff ck'/f] klg /xG5 . afn;flxTon] o:tf ck"0f{tfdf k"0f{tf Nofpg 7"nf] ;xof]u k'¥ofpF5 . kf7\ok':ts /f]usf] pkrf/sf] nflu 8fS6/n] lbPsf] k]|l:qmK;g dfq xf] t/ afn;flxTosf k':ts v'nf d}bfgdf kfOg] z'4 xfjf xf] . kxf8sf] sGb/faf6 au]sf] snsn ug]{ z'4 kfgL xf] -dfgGw/, @)%) M !%_ .

afnaflnsfdf lj1fg;flxTotkm{ ljz]if em'sfj kfOG5 . cWoogzLn afnaflnsf vf]hLvf]hL lj1fg;flxTo k9\g] ub{5g\ . lj1fg;flxTon] lj1fgsf] cWoogk|lt cfslif{t kf5{ . afNosfn tLj| ultdf l;Sg], hfGg] / a'‰g] ;do xf] . o; ;dodf pgLx¿sf] dl:tisdf ¿l9jfbL cGwljZjf;sf syf, ltn:dL hfb'u/L s'/f k/] eg] tL s'/fn] pgLx¿sf] hLjgdf gfsf/fTds c;/ k'¥ofpF5g\ h'g afnaflnsfsf] jf:tljs ljsf;sf nflu xflgsf/s 5g\ . o;}n] lj1fg;flxTo Pjd\ lj1fg;Ddt j:t'lgi7 ;flxTo dfG5]sf] cGwljZjf;nfO{ xgg ug]{ cr's ;fwg xf] . o;sf] ljsf; ug{' k5{ ->]i7, sljtf/fd @)%( M @&^_ .

cfhsf cleefjs u'?ju{ / ;flxTosf/n] afnaflnsfnfO{ Psflt/ k/Dk/fut d"No, dfGotf / wd{;Ddt s'/fx¿ l;sfpFb} 5g\ eg] csf{lt/ lj1fg;Ddt agfpg vf]lh/x]sf 5g\ h;n] afnaflnsfnfO{ cGof}n l;jfo s]xL lbFb}g . o:tf cGof}n x6fpg klg ;flxTodf j}1flgs r]tgfsf] cf}lrTo 5 . k/Dk/fb]lv rlncfPsf] lg/y{s, cg'kof]uL ljifoj:t' / rfnrngnfO{ /f]Sg s]jn lj1fg;Ddt ;flxTo ;Ifd x'G5 . ;dfh kf}/fl0fs o'uaf6 xhf/ jif{ cufl8 al9;Sof] . cfhsf] o'ufg's"n 1fg afnaflnsfnfO{ lbg klg ;flxTodf j}1flgs r]tgf cTofjZos ePsf] 5 . cfhsf afnaflnsfnfO{ To:tf] xltof/ lbg' k/]sf] 5 h;n] ubf{ ef]ln cfOkg]{ ;d:of ;dfwfg ug{ pgLx¿df Ifdtfsf] j[l4 xf];\ ->]i7, @)$^ M !$_ . lj1fg;flxTon] s]6fs]6LnfO{ ts{zLn agfpF5 . k|df0fsf cfwf/df ljZn]if0f ug]{, lgSof}{ndf k'Ug], sfo{sf/0f ;DaGw vf]Hg] afgL a;fpF5 . cnf}lss cf:yfdf kmF;L kl/>dL x'g] efj x6fpF5 . log} tYosf cfwf/df afn;flxTodf j}1flgs r]tgfsf] cf}lrTosf] k'li6 x'G5 .

 

%=# lj1fg;flxTosf] pb\ej

lj1fg;flxTosf] hGd klZrddf ePsf] xf] . O;fsf] bf];|f] ztfAbLdf n'l;ogn] …jL/f lx:6]l/sfÚ gfds k':ts n]v]kl5 o;sf] hGd ePsf] dflgG5 ->]i7, ;?eQm, @)%( M %$_ . o;df Ps JolQm ;kmntfk"j{s rGb|dfdf k'u]sf] syf 5 . k"jL{o u|Gyx¿ j]b, k'/f0f, /fdfo0f, dxfef/tdf klg j}1flgs k|;ª\ux¿ eg] gePsf xf]Ogg\ . k'?-oofltsf] syfdf xdf]{g kl/jt{gsf], c4{ gf/LZj/ / lzv08Lsf] syfdf of}g kl/jt{gsf], /fj0fsf] k'iks ljdfgdf xjfOhxfhsf], dxfef/tsf] If]Kof:qx¿df cfw'lgs uf]nf af?bsf] ;ª\s]t kfOG5 .

kfZrfTo hut\df k'ghf{u/0fkl5 cf}Bf]lus qmflGt eof] . …8flj{gn] ljsf;jfbL l;4fGt k|ltkfbg u/] . To;kl5 j}1flgs If]qdf klg cfzftLt k|ult x'g yfNof] . pGgfO;f}F ztfAbLsf] j}1flgs pGgltkZrft\ kfZrfTo If]qdf jf:tljs lj1fg;flxTosf] hGd eof] . ;g\ !*!* df d]/L z]nLåf/f /lrt …k]|s]G:6fOgÚnfO{ w]/}n] klxnf] lj1fg;flxTo dfg]sf 5g\ ->]i7, ;?eQm, @)%( M %$_ . h'n jg{n] k|mfG;]nL lj1fg;flxTodf ljz]if of]ubfg lbPsf 5g\ . a]nfotsf Pr=hL= j]N;n] lj1fg;flxTo /rgfdfkm{t ;+;f/nfO{ k|efljt kf/]sf 5g\ . o;}u/L lj1fg;flxTo l;h{gfsf If]qdf Hofs nG8g, /f];D;, rfk]s cflbsf] of]ubfg klg dxŒjk"0f{ dflgG5 . kfZrfTo hut\df lj1fg;flxTodf lbgk/lbg ljsf; x''g'sf] k5fl8 j}1flgs ;flxTosf/x¿n] of]ubfg ug{', ;j{;fwf/0f kf7sdf lj1fg;flxTok|lt ?lr x'g', of]Uo ;dfnf]rsåf/f lj1fg;flxTosf] ;dLIff x'g'h:tf sf/0fx¿ /x]sf 5g\ .

g]kfnL ;flxTohut\df lj1fg;flxTo /rgf ug{'nfO{ Tolt k|z+;fk"0f{ b[li6n] x]g]{ kl/kf6Lsf] ljsf; eO;s]sf] 5}g . w]/}k6s g]kfnL syfsf] ;dfnf]rgf ubf{ klg lj1fg syfsf] gfd s;} s;}n] dfq lnPsf] kfOG5 . lj1fg;flxTosf] vf]hL gu0o ¿kdf ePsf] kfOPsf] 5 cyf{t\ g]kfnL ;flxTodf lj1fg;flxTo :yflkt x'g cem} ;do nfUg] b]lvG5 .

lj1fg;flxTo ltn:d, cf]G7;f]G7 sfNklgs s'/fx¿ /fv]/ n]Vg gldNg] ePsf] x'Fbf g} o;tkm{ ;h{sx¿sf] snd cfzftLt ¿kdf cufl8 ga9]sf] xf] ->]i7, @)%( M @%(_ . km]l/ xfd|f] ;dfhdf 7"nfsf nflu n]Vg g;Sg]n] dfq afn;flxTo /rgf u5{ eGg] dfGotf rngdf 5 . afn;flxTo /rgf u/]df cfˆgf] cjd"Nog x'G5 ls eGg] 8/n] ;h{sx¿ afn;flxTodf xft xfNb}gg\ . jf:tjdf afn;flxTodf ;a} n]vssf] l;ltldlt snd rNb}g, sf/0f afn;flxTo n]vg k|f}9;flxTo l;h{gfeGbf ufx|f] 5
-wdnf, @)%( M @&$_ . g]kfnL afn;flxTohut\df lj1fg-afn;flxTo t emg} k5fl8 k/]sf] 5 . otf g]kfnL j}1flgsx¿ ;flxTo l;h{gfdf pq]sf 5}gg\ eg] ptf ;flxTo ;h{sdf j}1flgs r]tgfsf] sdL 5 ->]i7, @)$^ M !$_ .

g]kfnL k|f}9 ;flxTodf rflxF s]xL ;r]t ;h{sx¿n] ;flxTodfkm{t\ j}1flgs r]tgf cf/De gu/]sf eg] xf]Ogg\ . zª\s/ nfld5fg], df]xg/fh zdf{, /d]z ljsn, t'n;L/fd s'Fj/n] s]xL k|of; u/]sf 5g\ . zª\s/ nfld5fg]sf] …dfof g+= ^%#Ú syf df]xg/fh zdf{sf] …odfÚ gf6s, t'n;L/fd s'Fj/sf] …g]6f]kf/LÚ pkGof;, j}1flgs r]tgfo'Qm s[lt x'g\ . dbgdl0f bLlIftn] n]Vg'ePsf] …sr, z'qm / b]jofgLÚ klg pNn]Vo lj1fgsyf xf] . o;}u/L xl/ d~h'>Lsf] …rfnL;f}F ztfAbLÚ gfds lj1fgpkGof; k|sflzt ePsf] 5 .

afn;flxTosf If]qdf syfsf dfWodaf6 s]xL dfqfdf j}1flgs r]tgf slkn nfld5fg], w'|j l3ld/] h:tf ;h{sn] NofPsf 5g\ . slkn nfld5fg]sf] …km]l/ kfgL aUg yfNof]Ún] afnaflnsfnfO{ jftfj/0fLo r]tgf lbg'sf ;fy} jghª\unsf] dxŒj klg b;f{Psf] 5 . w'|j l3ld/]sf] …rd]/fsf] r'Rrf] lsg a'Rrf] <Ú syf;ª\u|xleqsf rf/ syfn] kz'kIfL;DaGwL j}1flgs hfgsf/L lbPsf 5g\ . o;}u/L sljtf/fd >]i7sf] …a'l4 aª\uf/fsf] kmf]gÚ efu !, @ / # klg :jf:Yolj1fgdf cfwfl/t j}1flgs r]tgfo'Qm afnsyf;ª\u|x x'g\ .

k|f/lDes cj:yfsf g]kfnL lj1fg;flxTo a9Ldf km]G6];L / sd tYofTds lj1fg kfOG5 . lj1fg;flxTo tYofTds sNkgf geP/ km]G6];Ldf cNdlng'sf] sf/0f j}1flgs lzIffsf] sdL g} xf] ->]i7, ;?eQm, @)%( M %%_ . o;/L g]kfnL lj1fg;flxTo lzz' cj:yfd} /x]sf] 5 . o;nfO{ k|f}9 t'Nofpg s]xL dfq ;flxTosf/ cu|;/ ePsf 5g\ . tLdWo] sljtf/fd >]i7sf] gfd pNn]vgLo 5 . pgL g]kfnL lj1fg;flxTosf If]qdf ;x|fgLo of]ubfg lbFb} 5g\ ->]i7, ;?eQm, @)%( M %(_ .

g]kfnL afnpkGof;sf If]qdf k|ydkN6 j}1flgs r]tgf k|j]z u/fpg] ;flxTosf/ sljtf/fd g} x'g\ . /d]z ljsnn] …ljqmd / gf}nf] u|xÚ -@)#(_ zLif{ssf] lszf]/ pkGof; k|sflzt u/]/ yk of]ubfg lbPsf 5g\ .

 

%=$ sljtf/fdsf afnpkGof;df j}1flgs r]tgfsf] k|of]u

       ;flxTosf/ sljtf/fd >]i7sf xfn;Dd k|sflzt kfFrj6} afnpkGof;df j}1flgs r]tgf kfOPsf] 5 . lognfO{ a'Fbfut ¿kdf lgDgfg';f/ k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 .

 

%=$=! jftfj/0flj1fgsf] k|of]u

       hLljt j:t'x¿sf] jftfj/0fl;tsf] ;DaGwnfO{ cWoog ug]{ lj1fgnfO{ jftfj/0flj1fg elgG5 -kf}8\ofn / uf}td, @)^) M &%_ . sljtf/fdsf] afnpkGof;df jftfj/0flj1fgsf] k|of]u kfOG5 . hxfF k|z:t dfqfdf af]6la?jf x'G5g\ ToxfF dflg;n] x/fe/f / ;'/Do lsl;dsf] jftfj/0f k|fKt ub{5 . ls/fkm6\ofª\u|f, r/fr'?ª\uLsf] dgf]/d af;:yfg klg jghª\un ePs} 7fpFdf x'G5 . hxfF jghª\un 5 ToxfF kmn / km"nsf] k|wfgtf klg x'G5 . jghª\un ePs} 7fpFdf hldgd'lg / ;txdf k|z:t dfqfdf kfgL kfOG5 . kfgLs} sf/0fn] s[lif pAhgL x'g] ePsfn] dfgj hLjg ;'vdo x'g k'U5 . k|z:t dfqfdf clS;hg k|fKt x'g] ePsfn] dfgj / cGo k|f0fL klg :j:y x'G5g\ .

 

%=$=@ hLjlj1fg;DaGwL r]tgf

hLjx¿sf] af/]df ul/g] j}1flgs cWoognfO{ hLjlj1fg elgG5 -kf}8\ofn / uf}td, @)^) M @^_ . sljtf/fdsf afnpkGof; ljz]ifu/L …sldnfsf] syfÚdf sldnf;DaGwL hLjj}1flgs r]tgf kfOG5 . sldnfx¿ ;wF} ;dfhdf a:g] u5{g\ . ;dGjofTds 9ª\udf sfo{ ug]{ / ;fd"lxs ef]hg ug]{ u5{g\ . sldnfx¿dWo] efn] / /fgL sldnf ;Gtfgf]Tkfbgdf ;lqmo /xg], pgLx¿sf] dfq kv]6f x'g], cfsfzdf ;dfud x'g], ;dfudkl5 efn] sldnf dg]{ / /fgLn] km"n kfg]{ u5]{ . cGo ;Dk"0f{ sfdbf/ sldnf kf]yL sldnf x'g\ . sldnfn] cfˆgf] cf]hgeGbf !) u'0ff a9L ef/ af]Sg ;Sg] j}1flgs tYodfly k|sfz kfg]{ sfo{ o; afnpkGof;df ul/Psf] 5 . of]4f æ;a} sfdbf/ sldnf kf]yL x'g\, ltdLx¿ hGdFb}sf kf]yL xf} . km"n kfg{ g;Sg] afFemL kf]yLÆ ->]i7, @)$^ M @#_ .

 

%=$=# /;foglj1fg ;DaGwL r]tgf

kbfy{ jf /;fog;DaGwL j}1flgs ¿kdf cWoog ul/g] zf:qnfO{ /;foglj1fg elgG5 -kf}8\ofn / uf}td, @)^) M $)_ . sljtf/fdsf] afnpkGof;df /f;foglj1fg ;DaGwL r]tgf kfOG5 . tfkn] kfgLnfO{ ttfP/ afkmdf kl/0ft u5{ . afkm cfsfzdf p8\g yfN5 . w]/} dfly k'Uof] eg] pQm afkm cl;gfsf] ¿k lnO{ hldgdf em5{ . kfgLsf tLg ¿k x'G5g\ . t/n, afkm / a/km . kfgLnfO{ lgs} dflyaf6 v;fnL 6jf{Og 3'dfP/ lah'nL lgsfNg ;lsG5 . b'O{ efu xfO8«f]hg / Ps efu clS;hg s'g} l;;Ldf /fvL cfuf] nufPdf Tof] kfgLdf kl/0ft x'G5 . lar/f] Tof] ;fgf] yf]kfn] s] eGg ;SYof] / < jf:tjdf p;sf] hGd Pp6f :s'nsf] lj1fg sIffdf ePsf] lyof] ->]i7, @)#* M @)_ .

 

%=$=$ e"ue{ lj1fg;DaGwL r]tgf

k[YjLsf] ;txleqsf] cWoog ug]{ lj1fgnfO{ e"ue{lj1fg elgG5 . e"ue{df ePsf kbfy{, agf]6 kQf nufpg] / To;sf] cWoog ug]{ zf:q e"ue{zf:q xf] -kf}8\ofn / uf}td, @)^) M (^_ . sljtf/fdsf] afnpkGof;df e"ue{lj1fg;DaGwL r]tgf kfOG5 . …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ afnpkGof;df k[YjLsf] ulx/fO a9\b} hfFbf tfkqmd klg a9\b} hfg] s'/f pNn]v 5 . æx/]s rf};¶L lkm6 tn Ps l8u|L tfkqmd a9]/ hfGYof]Æ ->]i7, @)#* M !%_ . k[YjLsf] ue{df sf]Onf, xL/f h:tf cg]s wft', uGws, g'gsf] vfgL /x]sf] j}1flgs tYodfly k|sfz kfl/Psf] 5 . k[YjLsf] l5b|af6 l5/]sf] kfgL e"ue{sf] ulx/fOdf k'u]kl5 ToxfFsf] tfkn] ubf{ tftf] x'g] / lgsf; kfPkl5 tftf] kfgLsf] ¿kdf k[YjLaflx/ lg:sg] tYodfly klg k|sfz kfl/Psf] 5 . k[YjLsf] ue{df 9'ª\uf, df6f], vlgh h:tf kbfy{ t/n cj:yfdf /xG5g\ . To:tf] :yfgdf l5b|af6 l5/]sf] kfgL k'u]df afkmdf kl/0ft eO{ cfˆgf] jf:tljs cfsf/eGbf !&)) u'0ff km}nG5 . o:tf] l:yltn] g} Hjfnfd'vL km'6\g] u5{ . æToxfF gofFgofF yf]kfx¿sf wf/fx¿ plQs} cfpFb} afkm aGb} hfFb} lyP . cGtdf xfdL ;a}sf] 7]nd7]nn] ubf{ ubf{ ToxfF hldg g} km'6\of]Æ
->]i7, @)#* M !&-!*_ . ¿vla?jf ePsf] 7fpFdf hldgd'lg oy]i6 hne08f/ /xg] / pQm hn d"nsf] ¿kdf hldgaf6 lg:sg] tYodfly klg pgsf] afnpkGof;df k|sfz kfl/Psf]
5 M ægfgL xf] Û oxL xf] d]/f] a:g] b/af/ . agd'lg h/fx¿sf] cfwf/df d k[YjLleq a:5' / vf]nf eP/ aflx/ lg:sG5' ->]i7, @)#^ M !#_ . æj}1flgs tyf e"ue{j]Qfx¿n] kQf nufPsf 5g\ ls ef/t dxfåLk pQ/lt/ ;s{+b} 5 . o;/L ;s{+bf ltAat;Fu r]lK6P/ lxdfno kj{tx¿ p7]sf 5g\Æ ->]i7, @)%( M @@_ .

 

%=$=% cGtl/Iflj1fg ;DaGwL r]tgf

cfsfz;DaGwL cWoog ug]{ lj1fgnfO{ cGtl/Iflj1fg elgG5 -kf}8\ofn / uf}td, @)^) M @)_ . sljtf/fdsf afnpkGof;df vuf]n lj1fg;DaGwL r]tgf kfOG5 . jfo'd08nLo If]qsf] w]/} dfly hfFbf tfkqmd 36\b} hfG5 / jfikLs/0f eO{ ToxfF k'u]sf] kfgL klg 7G8Ln] hDg k'U5 eGg] j}1flgs tYodfly pgn] k|sfz kf/]sf 5g\ M æx'/Ln] w]/} dfly k'¥ofPkl5 ToxfFsf] 708Ln] pm t hDg kf] nfUof] . hDbfhDb} pm cl;gf eof]Æ ->]i7, @)#* M $_ hldgaf6 dfly cfsfzlt/ xfjfsf] rfk kftnf] x'Fb} hfG5 eGg] tYo …dfjnLsf] ofqfÚ afnpkGof;df k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 .

 

%=$=^ z/L/lj1fg ;DaGwL r]tgf

z/L/;DaGwL j}1flgs ¿kdf cWoog ug]{ zf:q jf ljlwnfO{ z/L/lj1fg elgG5 -kf}8\ofn / uf}td, @)^) M !!_ . sljtf/fdsf] afnpkGof;df z/L/lj1fg ;DaGwL r]tgf kfOG5 . …cgf}7f] ofqfÚ afnpkGof;df vfgf vfPkl5 Tof] vfgf vfBgnL x'Fb} k]6df k'U5, ToxfF Ps k|sf/sf] cldnf] /; lg:sG5 h;n] cg]sf}F xflgsf/s sL6f0f' dfg]{ sfd u5{g\ elgPsf] 5 . k]6sf leQf cfkm} v'Drg] / km}ng] u/L vfgfnfO{ cf]N6fOkN6fO kf/L krfpg] sfo{ ub{5g\ . k]6eGbf tn l8of]l8gd x'G5 h;n] vfgfnfO{ /f;folgs kl/jt{g u/L emf]ndf kl/jt{g ub{5 / z/L/sf] lrNnf] kbfy{nfO{ /;fogdf 3f]lnlbG5 . l8of]l8geGbf tn ;fgf] cfGb|f 5 . ToxfF cg]sg /; k}bf x'G5g\ / l8of]l8gaf6 cfPsf] nfbL¿kL vfgfnfO{ dNg], lk:g], bNg] u/L ltgaf6 k|f]l6g, sfaf]{xfO8«]6 h:tf kf}li6s kbfy{ pTkfbg ub{5 . ;fgf] cfGb|fdf ePsf] l5b|n] ;f];L pQm kbfy{nfO{ gzfgzfdf k'¥ofO{ z/L/el/ lkmFhfpF5 . æof] t /utsf] vf]nf] lyof] / ToxfF cl3 cfGb|faf6 ufoa ePsf ;a}vfn] kf}li6s tŒjx¿ klg aUb} lyPÆ ->]i7, @)%* M !$_ . KnfHdf /ª\uxLg x'G5 . of] /ftf] /Qmsf]lzsf;Fu ldl;Pkl5 /ftf] /ª\usf] b]lvG5 . /ftf] /Qmsf]lzsf /f]6Lsf] rSsfh:t} x'G5 . o;n] z/L/sf] b"lift xfjf kmf]S;f]df k'¥ofO{ 5f8\5 / kmf]S;f]af6 clS;hg k|fKt u/L z/L/el/ lkmhfpF5 . o;}u/L z/L/df ;]tf /Qmsf]lzsf klg x'G5g\ . tL rf/ lsl;dsf x'G5g\ . tLdWo] 6L x]Nk/n] z/L/df xflgsf/s ls6f0f' k|j]z u/]sf] ;"rgf cGo ;]tf /Qmsf]lzsf, 6L /Qmsf]lzsf / aL /Qmsf]lzsfnfO{ lbG5g\ / 6L /Qmsf]lzsf / aL /Qmsf]lzsfn] xflgsf/s sL6f0f'nfO{ cfqmd0f u/L ;dfKt kf5{g\ . csf]{ ;]tf] /Qmsf]lzsf Dofqmf]km]h xf] h'g :yfgLo :t/sf] /Ifs xf] . z/L/df ;]tfeGbf /ftf /Qmsf]lzsfsf] ;ª\Vof a9L x'G5 ;/b/ k|To]s cf7;o /ftf /Qmsf]lzsfdf Pp6f ;]tf] /Qmsf]lzsf kb{5 . k|f0fLx¿sf] dl:tisdf ynfd; eGg] cª\u x'G5 h;n] z/L/df tfkqmd ;Gt'lnt ub{5 . æ;kgfdf d]/f] z/L/af6 /ftf] cfuf]sf] Hjfnf aflx/ cfof] . Tof] Hjfnfn] d ltd|f] z/L/sf] tfk x'F dnfO{ ltd|f] dl:tisdf ePsf] ynfd; eGg] cª\un] km's]/ aflx/ lgsfNof] eg]/ eGof]Æ ->]i7, @)%( M ^#_ .

 

%=$=& :jf:Yolj1fg ;DaGwL r]tgf

:jf:Yo, tGb'?:tL, zf/Ll/s cj:yf jf bzf;DaGwL lj1fgnfO{ :jf:Yolj1fg elgG5 . sljtf/fdsf] afnpkGof;df :jf:Yolj1fg ;DaGwL j}1flgs r]tgf kfOG5 . z/L/df kfgL sd ePdf hnljof]hg x'G5 . z/L/df sl/a !) ln6/ kfgL lg/Gt/ eO/xg' k5{ . P8\; /f]u nfu]sf JolQm;Fusf] zf/Ll/s ;Dks{n] dfq} geP/ ;ª\qmldt dflg;n] k|of]u u/]sf] ;'O{ :j:y dflg;n] klg k|of]u u/]df klg ;b{5 . of] /f]u s]jn /utsf] dfWodn] ;b{5 . æklxn] s]xL xfd|f ;fyLx¿n] y's, ¥ofn, l;Fufg / kl;gfdf a;]/ csf]{ z/L/df ;g]{ sf]l;; u/]sf lyP t/ o; dfWodaf6 c¿sf] /utdf ;g{ gldNg] x'Fbf pgLx¿ c;kmn eP / pN6} cfkm} d/]Æ ->]i7, @)%* M $(_ . h'l8efOg Ph]8hL eGg] To:tf] cf}ifwLsf] ljsf; eO;s]sf] 5 h;n] 6L x]Nk/ / efO/;aLr Pp6f 5]saf/ v8f ul/lbG5 / ;ª\qmldt JolQmsf] cfo' nDAofpg ;xof]u u5{ . jf:tjdf Pr\=cfO=eL= efO/;n] z/L/sf /IffzlQmsf kx/]bf/ ;~rf/sdL{ 6L x]Nk/ /Qmsf]lzsfnfO{ gfz ub{5 . s'g} klg 3fpdf xflgsf/s sL6f0f' k;] eg] Tof] kfS5 . cf}ifwLn] pQm xflgsf/s sL6f0f' df5{ / 3fp lgsf] x'G5 . PlG6afof]l6s cf}ifwL /f]usf] lgjf/0fsf nflu agfOPsf x'G5g\ t/ z/L/sf xflgsf/s sL6f0f' gfz ug{ ;]jg ul/Psf] PlG6afof]l6sn] z/L/sf] /Iff zlQmnfO{ klg lzlyn kfl/lbG5 . æoL cf}ifwLx¿n] klg cflht} kf/] . a]nf g s'a]nf cfO/xG5g\ . logLx¿n] ubf{ kf] xfdLnfO{ emg\ sfd ug{ ufx|f] eO/x]5 ===Æ ->]i7, @)%* M !*_ .

 

%=$=* ;dfhlj1fg / cGwljZjf;lj?4 j}1flgs r]tgf

s]6fs]6Lsf cufl8 e"tsf s'/f u/]df pgLx¿sf] dl:tisdf ToxL e"tsf] 5fk a:5 / 8/fpg] afgL a:5 . e"taf/]sf syf rf;f] lnP/ ;'Gbf, k9\bf, l;g]df x]bf{, e"tsf] 8/ cjr]tg dgdf /xG5 . dflg; zf/Ll/s ¿kn] sdhf]/ ePsf a]nf r]tg dgn] cjr]tg dgnfO{ bafpg ;Sb}g / cjr]tg dg ;lqmo x'g k'U5 . cjr]tg dgsf] ;lqmotfsf sf/0f klxn] ;'g]sf, k9]sf e"tsf] ;kgf b]Vg k'luG5 . æ=== ToxL zf/Ll/s / dfgl;s c:j:ytfsf sf/0f g} ltdLleqsf 8/n] ltdLnfO{ ;kgfdf v]b]sf] xf] . ;kgfsf] e"t ltd}| cjr]tg dgsf] 8/ lyof]Æ ->]i7, @)%( M &%_ .

 

%=% lgisif{

cfhsf afnaflnsfnfO{ ef]lnsf] j}1flgs o'usf k|To]s r'gf}tLnfO{ xfFs lbg;Sg] ;Ifd gful/s agfpg' sljtf/fdsf] afnpkGof;n]vgsf] Psdfq Woo xf] . pgsf k|sfzlt kfFr}j6f afnpkGof;df jt{dfg hLjgdf k|of]u eO/x]sf ljleGg lsl;dsf j}1flgs r]tgf k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf ¿kdf, k|of]u ePsf 5g\ . jftfj/0f, hLj, /f;fog, e"ue{, cGtl/If, z/L/, :jf:Yo, ;dfhlj1fg ;DaGwL ;To / tYok"0f{ j}1flgs r]tgf pgsf afnpkGof;df cfPsf 5g\ . hLjg / hut\sf k|To]s s'/fnfO{ j}1flgs s;Ldf 3f]6L x]bf{ jf:tljstfsf] glhs k'luG5 . sljtf/dsf afnpkGof;n] afnaflnsfnfO{ jf:jtljs tyf j}1flgs 1fg k|bfg ug{df of]ubfg lbPsf 5g\ .


 

kl/R5]b 5

pk;+xf/

 

;flxTosf/ sljtf/fd >]i7sf] hGd lj=;+= @))$ ;fn df3 !! ut] ;u/dfyf c~rn, cf]vn9'ª\uf lhNnfsf] /fdahf/df Ps dWodjuL{o kl/jf/df ePsf] xf] . pgn] cfˆgf lktf gGb/fdaf6 3/d} ;fdfGo n]vk9 ug{ hfg]kl5 cf]vn9'ª\ufsf] ;u/dfyf ldl8n :s'ndf egf{ eO{ ToxLFaf6} sIff gf} pQL0f{ u/] . lj=;+= @)!* ;fndf pgsf] kl/jf/ cf]vn9'ª\ufaf6 w/fg a;fOF ;¥of] . pgn] lj=;+= @)@) ;fndf P;\= Pn\=;L= w/fgaf6} pQL0f{ u/] . To;kl5 dx]Gb| ax'd'vL SofDk;af6 jfl0fHozf:qdf k|df0fkq tx, snf ljifo lnO{ :jtGq ljBfyL{sf ¿kdf :gfts tx, ;dfhzf:q ljifo lnO{ cfu/f ljZjljBfnoaf6 :gftsf]Q/ tx k"/f u/] . ;g\ !((& df ;+:s[lt ljifo lnO{ pgn] uf]/vk'/ ljZjljBfnoaf6 ljBfjfl/lw pkflw k|fKt u/]sf 5g\ .

cf]vn9'ª\uf ahf/df a;]{gL ljleGg rf8kj{df x'g] u/]sf hfqf, gf6s, gfr g} sljtf/fdsf] ;flxTo k|j]zdf k|]/0ffdf ;|f]t x'g\ . pgL cln nhfn' :jefjsf ePsfn] pgsf lktfn] pgnfO{ o:tf sfo{qmddf ;fg}b]lv ;lqmo u/fP . pgnfO{ lxGbL uLtdf s]6L agfO{ grfOGYof] . cfˆg} g]kfnL efiffsf] uLtdf gfRg] OR5fn] ubf{ pgn] cf7 jif{sf] pd]/df uLt /rgf u/] . lj=;+= @)!# ;fndf /fhf dx]Gb| cf]vn9'ª\ufdf ;jf/L x'Fbf …of] :s'nnfO{ SofDk; agfOb]pmÚ af]nsf] uLt /rgf u/L ufP . pgsf lktf sfª\u|];L sfo{stf{ lyP . pgn] lj=;+= @)!& ;fndf sfª\u|];sf tkm{af6 ef]6 dfUg r'gfjL uLt /rgf u/L ufPsf lyP . ljBfnosf lzIfs eLdk|;fb >]i7sf] k|]/0ff / ;xof]udf ljBfnosf] …h'gls/LÚ klqsfdf lj=;+= @)!& ;fndf …sfnÚ zLif{ssf] sljtf k|sflzt u/] . o; sljtfdf pgn] sfnnfO{ dfgj hLjgdfly cf3ft gkf/L k/ hf eg]sf 5g\ . o;}u/L sfª\u|];L ljåfg\ b]j/fh 9sfnsf] k|]/0ffdf pgn] …jgdf/fÚ zLif{s lgaGw klg n]v] .

w/fg a;fOF;/fOkZrft\ pgsf] ;flxlTos JolQmTjn] dnhn / gofF jftfj/0f k|fKt u¥of] . w/fg k'Ubf;Dd pgL lbgdf !÷@ j6f sljtf n]Vg] eO;s]sf lyP . pgsf sIffdf rf/kfFrhgf /fddWo] u'?ju{n] sljtf n]Vg] rflxF /fd egL ;Daf]wg uy]{ . o;f] ubf{ub}{ pgL sljtf/fd gfdn] af]nfOg yfn] . cfh ;flxTosf If]qdf pgL oxL gfdn] kl/lrt 5g\ .

dx]Gb| ax'd'vL SofDk;df k9\bf sljtf/fd dfS;{jfbL lrGtgaf6 k|efljt eP . pgL cfˆgf] ;flxlTos ultljlwsf sf/0f :j=lj=o'=df ;flxTo Pjd\ ;+:s[lt ;lrjsf ¿kdf dgf]lgt ePsf lyP . w/fgdf pgn] uf]kfn/fh hf]zLsf] k|]/0ff kfP . w/fgaf6} pgsf] sljtf k|sfzg sfo{sf] cf/De eof] . lj=;+= @)@@ ;fndf ;j{k|yd pgsf] …l;Gb'/Ú zLif{ssf] sljtf k|]/0ff klqsfdf 5flkof] . o;} jif{ sf7df8f}Faf6 ejfgL l3ld/]sf] …efg'Ú klqsfdf …slj rSsf s'Dxfn]sf]Ú zLif{ssf] sljtf klg k|sflzt eof] .

lj=;+= @)@$÷@% ;fnlt/ sf7df8f}F nfu]sf sljtf/fdsf] k/z' k|wfg / z}n]Gb| ;fsf/sf ;fy, ;+/If0f / ;xof]u k|fKt u/] . …b'O{ dÚ / …sf]7f aflx/Ú zLif{ssf syf k|sflzt u/] . lj=;+= @)@^ ;fndf ;'? ePsf] c:jLs[t ;flxTo cfGbf]ngsf pgL klg Ps k|0f]tf x'g\ . pgn] xfn;Dd o;nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbPsf 5g\ . c:jLs[t ;flxTosf] d'vklqsf ….. dGq ..Údf pgn] lj=;+= @)@^ ;fndf …Pp6f syf lhGbuLsf]Ú zLif{ssf] syf k|sflzt u/] . lj=;+= @)@* ;fndf ….. dGq ..Úsf] 5}6f}F cª\sdf …3f]if0fkqÚ zLif{ssf] sljtf 5kfP . o;df pgn] gfª\uf]kg, :jfefljstf g} oyfy{ ;flxTo xf] eg]sf 5g\ . pgn] ;flxTodf c:jLs[t lrGtgsf] ;'?jft u/] . pgsf c:jLs[t lgaGw klg k|sflzt x'g yfn] . pgsf] dfGotfcg';f/ ;flxTodf dfgjhLgsf s'¿k / cefju|:t kIfnfO{ h:tfsf] t:t} ptfg{' gfª\uf]kg jf :jfefljstf xf] . dflg;nfO{ s[lqd agfpg] ;Dk"0f{ ;f+:s[lts / ;fdflhs k/Dk/f / d"Noaf6 k[ys u/L p;nfO{ :jR5 dfG5]sf] ¿kdf ptfg]{ hdsf]{ pgn] u/]sf 5g\ .

tTsfnLg cj:yfdf gjk|ltefx¿sf] sb/ ug]{ gLlt ;/sf/sf] lyPg . /fk|kfn] klg o'jf ;flxTosf/x¿nfO{ a]jf:tf ul//x]sf] lyof] . sljtf/fdnufot s]xL gj;flxTosf/x¿n] cfˆgf s[lt k|sfzgfy{ lj=;+= @)#! ;fn c;f]h d;fGtsf lbg gofF ;8sdf a;L ofq'x¿sf] h'Qf kfln; ug]{ sfo{ u/] . of] …a'6kfln;Ú cfGbf]ng klg tTsfnLg k|zf;g Joj:yfk|ltsf] c:jLs[lt g} lyof] .

sljtf/fdsf s[lt k':tsfsf/ ¿kdf eg] lj=;+= @)#^ ;fnb]lv k|sflzt x'g yfn] . o;} ;dob]lv pgsf] ;flxTo l;h{gfsf b'O{ wf/ b]vf k/] M -s_ k|f}9;flxTo / v_ afn;flxTo . k|f}9 ;flxTocGtu{t pgsf c:jLs[t ;flxTo kb{5g\ eg] afn;flxTodf o;sf] s'g} 5fk kfOFb}g .

k|f}9;flxTocGtu{t pgsf syf, lgaGw, pkGof;, gf6ssf k':tsfsf/ s[lt k|sflzt 5g\ . lj=;+= @)#^ ;fndf pgsf] …sfnf] syfÚ syf;ª\u|x k|sflzt eof] . !^ j6f syf ;dfj]z ul/Psf] o; ;ª\u|xn] hLjgsf] cWFof/f] kIfnfO{ ;ª\s]t ub{5 . …k|nfkÚ -@)#*_ pgsf] bf];|f] syf;ª\u|x xf] . o;df @@ j6f syf ;dfj]z ePsf 5g\ . …d'lQm ;ª\3if{sf c:jLs[t syfx¿Ú -@)$^_ rflxF pgsf] t];|f] syf;ª\u|x xf] . o; ;ª\u|xdf ( j6f gofF syf / afFsL klxn]sf ;ª\u|xdf k|sflzt eO;s]sf syfx¿ 5g\ . /fhgLlts ljs[lt, u2f/Lsf lrq ptfg{'sf ;fy} :jR5 d"No / dfGotf :yfkgf ug{' g} pgsf syfn]vgsf] p2]Zo b]lvG5 .

lj=;+= @)#^ ;fndf k|sflzt …d]/f c:jLs[t dfGotfÚ pgsf] klxnf] lgaGw;ª\u|x xf] . o;df pgn] cfˆgf] ;flxTodf k|]/0ff, k|j]z, ;flxTok|ltsf wf/0ffx¿ j0f{gfTds z}nLdf JoQm u/]sf 5g\ . …s] lsg elgof]Ú -@)#*_ bf];|f] lgaGw;ª\u|x xf] . @( j6f lgaGwsf] o; ;Fufnfn] g]kfnL ;dfhdf k|rlnt cfxfg, e"tk|]t, b]jb]jL, ;fdflhs d"NodfGotfdfly j}1flgs sf/0f;lxt k'i6\ofOF lbg] sfo{ u/]sf] 5 .

lj=;+= @)$* ;fndf k|sflzt :jefjuLtf sljtf/fdsf] gf6\os[lt xf] . gf6\ol;4fGteGbf k[ys z}nLdf tof/ ul/Psf] o; gf6sdf eljiodf j}1flgs If]qsf] pGgltn] ubf{ dfgjdfly cfOkg]{ b'b{zfsf] ;ª\s]t kfOG5 .

…askqÚ -@)$^_ sljtf/fdsf] klxnf] c:jLs[t pkGof; xf] . o; pkGof;sf] nIo ;dfhdf lgDg:t/sf, ckx]lnt, lj;ª\ultaf]wn] u|:t kfqsf] zf/Ll/s / dfgl;s s'07fsf] dfld{s lrq0f ug{' /x]sf] 5 . pgsf] bf];|f] pkGof; …s's'/sf] syfÚ -@)%(_ kz'sf] dflg;k|ltsf] xflb{stf / ljZjf; clg dflg;sf] kz'k|ltsf] ljZJff;3ft b]vfpFb} dflg;nfO{ kz'eGbf 3[l0ft, :jfyL{, kltt k|f0fLsf] ¿kdf lrq0f ul/Psf] 5 .

sljtf/fdn] rnlrqsf If]qdf klg of]ubfg lbPsf 5g\ . lj=;+= @)$* ;fndf pgn] …d'lQm;ª\3if{Ú rnlrqsf] syf, ;+jfb, uLt, k6syf n]vgsf] sfo{ ug{'sf] ;fy} lgdf{0f klg u/]sf x'g\ . lj=;+= @)$^ sf] 36gf cufl8 / k5fl8sf] 36gfdf cfwfl/t o; rnlrqsf] ;fdflhs /fhgLlts …k|zf;lgs ljs[ltsf sf/0f b]zeQm, OdfGbf/ gful/sn] kfPsf] oftgfsf] lrq0f u/]sf] kfOG5 . ufpFsf 7"nf egfpFbf zf]ifsn] ;j{;fwf/0fnfO{ u/]sf] zf]if0f / lbPsf] b'Mvsf] tl:a/ oxfF ptfl/Psf] 5 .

pgsf …d]/f c:jLs[t ofqfsf c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿Ú, …oL c:jLs[t >i6fx¿Ú, u/L b'O{ lgaGw;ª\u|x, …df6f] af]N5Ú gf6s, …pm a]nfsf c:jLs[t a'4Ú u/L b'O{ pkGof; zL3| k|sfzf]Gd'v 5g\ .

k'/fgf, hL0f{, cg'kof]uL ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts / k|zf;lgs d"No / dfGotfnfO{ c:jLsf/ ub}{ :jfefljs hLjgf]kof]uL j}1flgs dfGotf k|ltkfbgsf nflu ;ª\3if{ ug{' g} pgsf] c:jLs[t ;flxTo n]vgsf] ceLi6 xf] . pgL o;nfO{ :jefjjfbL lrGtg eGb5g\ .

;flxTosf/ sljtf/fd >]i7sf] snd afn;flxTosf] kmfF6df klg ;zQm ¿kn] rn]sf] kfOG5 . pgsf afn;flxlTos s[ltx¿df tLg syf;ª\u|x, Ps lrqsyf / kfFrj6f pkGof; k|sflzt 5g\ . …/x:odo u'kmfÚ -@)$%_ pgsf] afnrnlrq xf] . pgsf] cª\u|]hL efiffdf n]lvPsf] …k|md b Dofª\uf] 6«L PG8 cb/ kmf]s6]N; k|md g]kfnÚ -@)%#_ zLif{ssf] syf;ª\u|x cd]l/sfsf k|fOd/L / ;]s]G8/L :s'nsf lzIfs tyf ljBfyL{sf nflu ;Gbe{;fdu|Lsf ¿kdf /flvPsf] 5 .

…a'l4aª\uf/fsf] kmf]g efu !Ú, …efu @Ú / …efu #Ú sljtf/fdsf tLgj6f afnsyf;ª\u|x x'g\ . lj=;+= @)%% ;fndf k|sflzt oL tLg} afnsyf;ª\u|xn] :jf:Yo;DaGwL ljljw ;d:of, ltgsf ;dfwfgsf pkfo / ltgaf6 aRg] pkfosf af/]df afnaflnsfnfO{ 1fg lbPsf 5g\ . a'l4aª\uf/fnfO{ a'l4sf] k|tLs dfgL :j}/sNkgfTds 9ª\udf kmf]g u/fO{ 1fg lbg nufPsf 5g\ . pgsf] …h'h'xL/fÚ afnlrqsyfdf s]6fs]6Ldf j}1flgs / Jofjxfl/s 1fg k|fKt ePdf pgLx¿n] cfˆgf] h'lQm, a'l4 / ;fx;sf] k|of]u u/L 7"nf sfo{ klg ug{ ;S5g\ eGg] s'/fsf] lrq0f 5 .

sljtf/fdn] afn;flxTodf pkGof; ljwfaf6 xft xfn]sf x'g\ . lj=;+= @)#^ ;fndf k|sflzt …jgb]jLÚdf jghª\un ePsf] 7fpF x/fe/f x'g] / hldgd'lg klg hne08f/ /xg] x'G5 t/ hne08f/ gePsf] 7fpF phf8 / ;'Vvf x'g k'U5 eGb} j[Iff/f]k0fsf] cfjZostf o; pkGof;dfkm{t b]vfPsf 5g\ . bf];|f] afnpkGof; …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ -@)#*_ df kfgLsf ljljw :j¿k, o;sf] pkof]lutf, dxŒjdfly k|sfz kfl/Psf] 5 . …sldnfsf] syfÚ @)$* hLjlj1fgdf cfwfl/t afnpkGof; xf] . o;df sldnfsf] ;dfhsf] lrq0f u/L afndfgj ;dfhnfO{ cg's/0fLo 1fg lbOPsf] 5 . pgsf] …cgf}7f] ofqfÚ -@)%*_ afnpkGof;n] z/L/lj1fg;DaGwL j}1flgs 1fg lbg'sf] ;fy} P8\; /f]u ;g]{ sf/0f / ;fjwfgL k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 . o;}u/L …dfjnLsf] ofqfÚ -@)%(_ afnpkGof;df ;xL, Jofjxfl/s / j}1flgs 1fg k|fKt s]6fs]6L cfˆgf] 1fg / cg'ejsf] k|of]u u/]/ cfˆgf cufl8 cfOk/]sf ;d:ofsf] ;lhn} ;dfwfg / ;fdgf ug{ ;S5g\ eGg] s'/f] b]vfOPsf] 5 .

afnaflnsfnfO{ Jojxf/f]kof]uL / hLjgf]kof]uL 1fg lbg', cfhsf afnaflnsfnfO{ ef]ln cfOkg]{ ;f/f ;d:ofsf] ;fdgf ug{ tof/ kfg{', k'/fgf, hL0f{ / clxtsf/L ;fdflhs / ;f+:s[lts d"No / dfGotfk|lt ljt[i0ff hufpg', ;To-tYodf cfwfl/t d"No / dfGotfsf] :yfkgfdf hf]8 lbg' ;/n / ;'af]Wo zAbsf] k|of]u ug{', afnaf]nLsf] k|of]u ug{', :j}/sNkgfTds z}nL ckgfpg', sfo{sf/0f ;DaGw b]vfpg', ;ª\lIfKttf ckgfpg' h:tf k|j[lQ pgsf afnpkGof;df kfOG5 . g]kfnL afnpkGof;sf If]qdf sljtf/fdn] g} j}1flgs r]tgfnfO{ k|j]z u/fPsf x'g\ . pgL o; sfo{nfO{ lg/Gt/ ult lbO/x]sf 5g\ . afnpkGof;n] afnaflnsfnfO{ jftfj/0flj1fg, hLjlj1fg, /;foglj1fg, e"ue{lj1fg, cGtl/Iflj1fg, z/L/lj1fg, :jf:Yolj1fg ;DaGwL r]tgf k|bfg u/]sf 5g\ . o;sf ;fy} pgsf afnpkGof;df cGwljZjf;lj?4 j}1flgs r]tgf klg kfOG5 . o;/L g]kfnL afnpkGof; ljwfdf sljtf/fd Ps ;zQm lj1fg-afnpkGof;sf/ x'g\ . pgsf k|To]s afnpkGof;df j}1flgs r]tgf kfOG5 .

 

;Defljt zLif{sx¿

 

sljtf/fdsf afnpkGof;df s]lGb|t eO{ ug{ ;lsg] cWoog cg';Gwfgsf ;Defljt zLifs{x¿ o;k|sf/ 5g\ M

!=  sljtf/fdsf anfpkGof;sf] s[ltk/s cWoog -cnu cnu_

@= sljtf/fdsf afnpkGof;df kfq of]hgf

#=  sljtf/fdsf afnpkGof;sf] efiffz}nL k/s cWoog


;Gbe{;fdu|L ;"rL

 

s_ k':tsx¿sf] ;"rL

kf]v/]n, afns[i0f / c¿ -@)$)_ g]kfnL a[xt\ zAbsf]z, sf7df8f}F M g]=/f=k|=k| .

kf}8\ofn, xl/x/ / nId0fk|;fb uf}td -@)^)_ lj1fg zAbsf]z, sf7df8f}F M g]=/f=k|=k| .

k|wfg, k|df]b -@)%&_ g]kfnL afn;flxTosf] Oltxf;, sf7df8f}F M ;femf k|sfzg .

kmS;, /fNkm -;g\ !(($_ b gf]a]n PG8 / b lkk'n, nG8g M b qmf]6]G6 klAnl;ª .

a:g]t, s[i0faxfb'/ -@)%(_ cfw'lgs g]kfnL pkGof; -;}4flGts ljZn]if0f_, sf7df8f}F M bLIffGt k':ts e08f/ .

/fO{, OGb|axfb'/ -@)%@_ g]kfnL pkGof;sf cfwf/x¿, sf7df8f}F M ;femf k|sfzg .

ljZjo'lgel;{6L OG;fOSnf]k]l8of OG6/g];gn -n]lS;sg ;+ !(*!_ ef]No'd @

>]i7, sljtf/fd -@)##_ k|nfk -syf;ª\u|x_, sf7df8f}F M ;femf k|sfzg .

          -@)#^_ jgb]jL -afnpkGof;_, sf7df8f}F M ;femf k|sfzg .

          -@)#*_ kfgLsf] yf]kf -afnpkGof;_, sf7df8f}F M ;femf k|sfzg .

          -@)$*_ sldnfsf] syf -afnpkGof;_, sf7df8f}F M afnsf];]nL k|sfzg .

          -@)%*_ cgf}7f] ofqf -afnpkGof;_, sf7df8f}F M ;femf k|sfzg .

          -@)%(_ dfjnLsf] ofqf -afnpkGof;_, sf7df8f}F M ;femf k|sfzg

>]i7, bof/fd -@)$*_ g]kfnL ;flxTosf s]xL k[i7, sf7df8f}F M ;femf k|sfzg .

;'j]bL, /fh]Gb| -@)%#_ g]kfnL pkGof; M k/Dk/f / k|j[lQ, jf/f0f;L M e"ldsf k|sfzg .

 

v_ kqklqsfsf] ;"rL

vltj8f, uf]kfn -@)%(v_ æc:jLs[t cfGbf]ng g]kfndf sfo{ut Pstfsf] klxnf] gd'gf xf]Æ tGg]/L, -jif{ @$, cª\s !, c;f/-;fpg-ebf}_ -;fef/ Pd\= P= g]kfnL zf]wkq_  k[= !(!-@)& .

lu/L, uf]ljGb …k|]/0ffÚ -@)%(_ æsljtf/fd;Fu s'/fsfgLÆ tGg]/L, -jif{ @$, cª\s !, c;f/-;fpg-ebf}_ -;fef/ cleJolQm_  k[= @#@-@#* .

bLlIft, dbgdl0f -@)%(_ æd]/f s]xL l6Kk0fLx¿Æ tGg]/L, -jif{ @$, cª\s !, c;f/-;fpg-ebf}_ k[= !)(-!!$ .

wdnf, r]tgfy -@)%(_ æsldnfsf] syf kf7\ok':ts aGg'n] dnfO{ yk bfloTjaf]w ePsf] 5Æ tGg]/L, -jif{ @$, cª\s !, c;f/-;fpg-ebf}_ -;fef/ /fi6«jf0fL_ k[= @&)-@&& .

k|wfg cd/s'df/ -@)%(_ æbf]nvfdf /fdaxfb'/b]lv sljtf/fd;DdÆ tGg]/L, -jif{ @$, cª\s !, c;f/-;fpg-ebf}_ k[= !@#-!$$ .

kf}8\ofn, afa'/fd -@)%(_ æsljtf/fdsf] :jLs[lt / c:jLs[ltaLr 3f]lTnFbfÆ tGg]/L,
-jif{ @$, cª\s !, c;f/-;fpg-ebf}_ -;fef/ ul/df_  k[= @-!& .

k|wfg k|df]w -@)%%_ æg]kfnL efiffdf lnlvt afn;flxTo Ps l;+xfjnf]sgÆ dw'ks{,
-;dfnf]rgf ljz]iffª\s_ -jif{ #!, cª\s $_ k[= !)) .

aGw', r"8fdl0f -@)$%_ æafn;flxTo cl:tTj / k|of]hgÆ, afn;flxTo, jflif{s jif{ !
k[= !-% .

dfgGw/ zfGtbf; -@)%)_ æafn;flxToåf/f lzIffÆ afn;/f]sf/, -jif{ $, cª\s !^, df3-kmfu'g_, k[= !% .

nD;fn, xl/x/ -@)%(_ æsljtf/fdnfO{ sljtf/fd a9Ldf rnlrqn] agfof]Æ tGg]/L,
-jif{ @$, cª\s !, c;f/-;fpg-ebf}_, k[= !&^-!*@ .

ljqmd, ælkmNdL If]qdf gofF k|of; d'lQm;ª\3if{Æ, tGg]/L -jif{ @$, cª\s !, c;f/-;fpg-ebf}_ -;fef/ k|sfz_, k[= !^%-!^& .

zdf{, xl/x/ -@)%(_ æafnaflnsfsf Kof/f n]vs sljtf/fdÆ tGg]/L, -jif{ @$, cª\s !, c;f/-;fpg-ebf}_ -;fef/ 5nkmn_ k[= (&-!)) .

zdf{, cg'/f]w -@)%(_ æsljtf/fdsf] ;j{:jLs[t d'lQm;ª\3if{Æ tGg]/L, -jif{ @$, cª\s !, c;f/-;fpg-ebf}_ -;fef/ o'u;+jfb_  k[= !&@-!&# .

zdf{, tf/fgfy -@)%(_ æk|fSsyg :jefjuLtfdflyÆ tGg]/L, -jif{ @$, cª\s !, c;f/-;fpg-ebf}_ -;fef/ :jefjuLtf_ k[= %)-%# .

>]i7, sljtf/fd -@)$^_ æafn;flxTodf j}1flgs r]tgfsf] vfFrf]Æ afn;flxTo,
jflif{s, jif{ @, k[= !@-!% .

              -@)%(_ ælxGbL lkmNd rNg glbg] sfo{qmd cToGt ;do;fk]If 5Æ tGg]/L, -jif{ @$, cª\s !, c;f/-;fpg-ebf}_ -;fef/ hglbzf_  k[= @($-@(* .

             -@)%(_ ælj1fg;flxTo;DaGwL k|Zgsf] k|To'Q/Æ tGg]/L, --jif{ @$, cª\s !, c;f/-;fpg-ebf}_       k[= @%*-@^( .

>]i7, ;?eQm -@)%(_ ælj1fg;flxTo;DaGwL kqÆ tGg]/L, -jif{ @$, cª\s !, c;f/-;fpg-ebf}_ k[= %$-%( .

 

u_ zf]wkqx¿sf] ;"rL

cof{n, cRo'tz/0f -@)%*_ g]kfnL afn;flxTosf] cWoog -lq=lj=, ck|sflzt ljBfjfl/lw zf]wu|Gy_

vltj8f, uf]kfn -@)%(_ ;flxTosf/ sljtf/fd >]i7sf] hLjgL, JolQmTj / s[ltTjsf] Ps cWoog /Tg/fHonIdL SofDk; -lq=lj=, ck|sflzt :gftsf]Q/ zf]wu|Gy_

kf}8\ofn, /fd -@)^)_ cfw'lgs g]kfnL syfsf afn kfqsf] dgf]j}1flgs ljZn]if0f
-dfgljsL ;ª\sfo lq=lj=, ck|sflzt ljBfjfl/lw zf]wkq_

 

 




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