मेरा अस्वीकृत मान्यताहरू ( अस्वीकृत आन्दोलनका ऐतिहासिक फेहरिस्त संग्रह)

d]/f c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿

sljtf/fd

k|sfzs M cleJolQm k|sfzg, rfalxn sf7df8f}F,

  

k|yd ;+:s/0f— @)$^, d"No M;fwf/0f ¿= #). –, d'b|s M– k|lt/f]w lk|lG6Ë k|];, gofF afg]Zj/, sf7df8f}F






k|sfzsLo

 

;flxTodf, ;flxTosf] ljsf;sf] qmddf, ;do–;dodf cg]s jfbljjfb, ljrf/wf/f, ts{–ljts{ Pj+ hLjgsf d"No / dfGotfx¿k|lt gofFgofF b[li6sf]0f Pj+ wf/0ffx¿sf] k|fb'ef{j eO/xg] s'/f ;j{ljlbt} 5 . sltko o:tf ljjfb, wf/0ff / dfGotfx¿ s]jn km];gsf nflu b]vf k5{g\ eg] slt nx}nx}df nfu]/ klg cfpF5g\ . clt slt t cf8Da/ Pj+ cxª\sf/sf cfwf/df klg pbfpF5g\ t/ h'g;'s} sf/0fn] k|fb'ef{j eP klg ;a}h;f]df alnof], lgwf]{, vf]qmf], vFlbnf], ljåtfk"0f{ jf xn'[sf lsl;dsf] h:tf] eP klg cf–cfˆgf] ljrf/, ts{, dfGotf, bz{g cflb t x'G5, x'G5 / hf] vf]qmf, lgwf{ 5g\ tL sfnfGt/df la:tf/–la:tf/ lanfpFb} hfG5g\ / hf] vFlbnf, alnof 5g\ tL emgemg km:6fpFb} hfG5g\ . rls{b} hfG5g\ / emfFlub} hfG5g\ t/ jt{dfgdf eg] ultnf cultnf ;a} jfbljjfbn] Pp6f xNnf, Pp6f rrf{ / Pp6f pT;'stf rsf{pF5g\ g} .

s;}sf s'/f dfGg' gdfGg' Pp6f s'/f xf] eg] s;}sf s'/f ;'Gg' csf]{ s'/f . ctM s;}sf] s'/f dfGg] jf gdfGg] cfˆgf] :j]R5fnfO{ ;jf]{kl/ /fv]/ o;kfln xfdLn] >L sljtf/fdsf] cfˆgf s'/fx¿ eGg] OR5f, cfu|xsf] cfb/ u/]sf 5f}F— h'g s;}sf nflu ;fwf/0f uGyg klg x'g ;Snf t/ s;}sf nflu af}l4s v'/fs klg x'g ;Sg]5 .

xfdLnfO{ eg] lgZro g} >L sljtf/fdsf bz{g, lrGtg, d"No / dfGotfsf wf/0ffx¿, ts{ / b[li6sf]0fx¿ -s]xL q'6L / ckl/kSjtf;lxt g} klg_ ljrf/0fLo nfu]sf 5g\ / sljtf/fdsf] :ki6jflbtf ?lrs/ nfu]sf] 5 . k|sfzg of]Uo nfu]sf] 5 . k~hLs[t ug{ of]Uo nfu]sf] 5 / cfzf u/]sf 5f}F– xfd|f] of] klxnf] k|sfzg xfd|f >2]o kf7snfO{ klg ?lrs/ g} nfUg] 5 . c:t'M .

cleJolQm cfjt{ -å}dfl;s_ ;flxlTos klqsfsf] k|sfzg @)@& ;fnb]lv ePsf] lyof] / ToxL cleJolQm klqsfs} xfFuf–laFufsf ¿kdf clxn] @)$^ b]lv …cleJolQm 5fkfvfgfÚ Pj+ …cleJolQm k|sfzgÚ sf] klg :yfkgf ePsf] 5 . oxL gofF …cleJolQm k|sfzgÚ sf] k|yd k|sfzgsf ¿kdf k|:t't 5– of] …sljtf/fdsf c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿Ú . o:t} eljiodf klg p2]Zok"0f{, :t/Lo / ;'?lrk"0f{ ;flxTosf] k|sfzg ub}{ n}hfg] xfd|f] OR5f, p2]Zo /x]sf] s'/f lgj]bg ub}{ k|:t't s[lt k|sfzg ug]{ df}sf lbg' ePsf]df xfdL >L sljtf/fdk|lt s[t1 5f}F .


gd:sf/ Û



gu]Gb|/fh zdf{

 

 




;fdfGo kof{jnf]sg

– dbgdl0f bLlIft

sljtf/fdHo"sf] n]vsLo eljio s'g lbzfdf cu|;/ x'Fb}5 eGg] ljifonfO{ eljion] lglZrt ug]{5 . of] k':ts x]bf{ / pxfFsf clxn] d}n] k9]sf syf / sljtfx¿dfly Wofg lbFbf pxfF Pp6f ;flxlTos :s'nsf] ¿kdf :yflkt e};s]sf] n]vs xf] eGg] lgisif{df d k'u]sf] 5' . k|:t't k':tssf] clGtd cWofo æd]/f] ;flxlTos ofqfÆ k9]kl5 sljtf/fd lglDt cfhsf]eGbf k[ys, lgs} pHofnf], hLjgjfbL, oyfy{jfbL, dfgjjfbL ;flxlTos hLjg v'Ng]df d]/f] ljZjf; a9]sf] 5 .

n]vs dxf]bon] /rgfsf] clGtdlt/ æsndn] dfq s]xL x'g g;Sg] o; b]zdf ======Æ egL ljrf/ k|s6 u/]sf k9\bf d s]xL ljl:dt ePsf] 5' . d]/f ljrf/ eg] o;sf 7Ls ljkl/t lbzfdf /x]sf 5g\ . d 7fG5'— ;flxTon] g} t ljZjnfO{ ablnlbg] xf]Og . Tof] sf /fhgLlt, bz{g, ;ª\u7g / qmflGtsf] xf] . ;flxTon] dflg;nfO{ dfq ablnlbG5 . dflg; ablnPkl5, To;n] cfkm"nfO{ lrGg yfn]kl5 ljrf/ / ;dfhdf cfˆgf] :yfg, cfˆgf] dxTj / ;f}Gbo{ 1fg To;df ePkl5 ;+;f/ ablng yfN5 . emg ;'Gb/ ;+;f/sf] lgdf{0f x'G5 . ;flxTon] g}lts pTyfglt/ dfu{ bz{g u/]/ dflg;nfO{ abNg' k5{ .

@)!& ;fnkl5sf] g]kfnL ;flxlTos kmfF6df ljsf;qmdnfO{ x]bf{ of] b]zdf kl/jt{g Nofpg ;flxTon], ;flxlTos sndx¿n] cfˆg} kf/fdf sfd u/] eGg] d 7fG5' . hf] cj}w /xFbf / sfd ug{ kfpFbf klg g]kfnsf /fhgLlts zlQmx¿n] cfkm}F+ ug{ ;s]sf lyPgg\ . cj;/ kfpFbf klg cfkm"nfO{ plrt dfu{df n}hfg ;s]gg\ . a¿ b'O{k6s xltof/ p7fP/, b'O{k6s ad k|xf/åf/f, cfkm"df ljefhgåf/f / cfˆgf cxª\sf/åf/f d'n'sdf k|hftGqsf] ljsf;df hfgL–ghfgL / cfTds]lGb|t dgf]ut Jojxf/åf/f k|hftflGqs ljsf;nfO{ l9nf] t'NofP/ s]xL cª\zdf cK7\of/f]df klg kf/] .

tL ;a}eGbf k[ys g]kfnL ;flxTosf] ;DejtM @)@# ;fnb]lv …/fNkmfÚ egf}F …c:jLs[t hdftÚ egf}F, …cdn]vÚ egf}F of …a'6kfln; cleofgÚ egf}F . tL cleofgx¿n] cfˆgf] e"ldsf v]n]/ d'n'snfO{ @)#^ ;fndf 3f]if0ff ul/Psf] /fli6«o hgdt ;ª\u|xdf k'¥ofpg d2t u/] .

tL dfly elgPsf ;flxlTos cleofgx¿ h'g;'s} gfddf rnfOPsf eP tfklg kl/0ffddf ltgn] g]kfnL ;flxTodf / ;flxToåf/f cGttM ;fdflhs lrGtgdf Pp6f gofF ;fdlos wf/fnfO{ hGdfP . Tof] wf/fn] ;dfhdf JolQmnfO{ p;sf] cl:tTTj / dxTjaf/] af]w u/fpg] kl/0ffd pTkGg u¥of] . To;f] x'Fbf Tof] cjlwsf] uDeL/ ljZn]if0f lglDt 7fpF klg 5}g . To;sf/0f d ;ª\lIfKt ¿k/]vf dfq} cª\lst ug]{ r]i6fdf nfu]sf] 5' .

;dfhsf] ljsf; / ;fdflhs ljsf;sf lgodaf/] sfn{ dfS;{n] u/]sf cWoog / ltgn] 7DofP/sf tT;DaGwL lgod, sDo'lgHd, dfS;{jfbsf] Jojxfl/s :j¿kl;t dte]b /fVg]x¿n] ;d]t cfwf/e"t tTTjdf dt aemfpg ;s]sf] b]lvPsf] 5}g . dfS;{jfb ePsf] x'gfn] eg]/ 7f8} OGsf/ ug'{ x7jflbtf xf] . gq eg'F ;dfh / zf:qLo cfwf/df— ;fdflhs ljsf;sf] Oltxf;sf] zf:qLo cWoogsf] cfwf/df x]g]{x¿n] ;dfhsf] P]ltxfl;s ljsf; åGåfTds ultn] eO/x]sf] x'G5 eGg] d"n dfS;{jfbL bz{gnfO{ c:jLsf/ ug{ ;s]sf 5}gg\ .

g]kfnL ;flxTosf] åGåfTds ljsf;af/] Jojl:yt cWoog eO;s]sf] 5 eg] klg dnfO{ yfxf 5}g . ;fdfGo tj/df x]bf{ @)!& ;fn ! k'ifsf] kl/jt{gkl5 s]xL jif{;Dd To;a]nf ljsl;t x'Fb} uPsf] :t"ltjfbL / ;j{;QfjfbL lbzfsf] Antithesis sf ¿kdf /fNkmf, c:jLs[t hdft, cdn]v, a'6kfln; cflb ;flxlTos k|jfxo'Qm cleofg z'? ePsf x'g\ eGg] d]/f] wf/0ff 5 . tL cleofgdf OGsf/L kIf k|d'v lyof] . OGsf/Låf/f g]kfnL ;flxTo / ;dfhdf ltgsf lglDt :jLs[ltk/s d"Nosf] vf]hL / To;df k|of;sf k"j{¿k eP/ tL cleofgx¿ hlGdPsf lyP .

d]/f] ljrf/df @)@# ;fnb]lv @)#^ ;fn;Ddsf tL cleofgsf] ;dli6 ltgdf /x]sf d"n ;dfg wf/fx¿nfO{ x]g'{ ;xfotfsf/L / pkof]uL 7x5{ . s'g cleofgsf] k|f/Destf{ s'g JolQm lyof] / To;n] slxn] s'g zAbåf/f jf s'g gfd /fv]/ s'g cleofg z'? u/]sf] lyof] < eGg]df lg0ff{os / :yfoL dxTj /xFb}g . To;} u/L s'g} Pp6f cleofgsf] ljj/0fnfO{ s]nfpg'df klg d cfˆgf lglDt dxTj b]lVbgF .Æ c:jLs[t hdftÆ, æt/njfbÆjf æ:jefjjfbÆ cflb zAbut ljjfb / ltgsf ljj/0fdf xf]Og ls tL zAbåf/f s]nfO{ OGsf/ ug{ / s]sf] :yfkgf ug{ vf]lhPsf] lyof] < eGg]df dfq d dxTj b]V5' . To;}sf/0f egf}F, t/njfb jf :jefjjfbnfO{ d ;flxlTos bz{gsf] ultdfg k4ltdfq 7fG5' . bz{gsf] k[ys ¿k / ljifoj:t' eg] xf]Og .

oxfF s] klg eGg' pko'Qm xf]nf eg] @)!& sf] kl/jt{gnfO{ OGsf/ ug{ g]kfnL ;flxTon] To;a]nf klg ljZjsf cGo efiffdf k|rlnt /x]sf cl:tTTjjfb / cd"t{ z}nLsf] k|of]u ug{ vf]h]sf] lyof] . df]xg sf]O/fnfdf To;a]nf cd"t{ g]kfnL sfJowf/fsf] k|d'vtf klg lyof] . cd"t{nfO{ ;j{yf ;Gb]zljlxg t eGg ldNb}g . ;dodf NofOPsf] :yfkgf Thesis nfO{ OGsf/ u/]/ cfˆgf] ;Gb]zsf] ;Dk|]if0fsf lglDt cd"t{ z}nLsf] k|of]u ul/Psf] dfq xf] . cfofd]nL n]vg klg To:t} xf] .

g]kfnL ;flxTodf pTkGg ePsf] Tof] lj/f]w Antithesis sf] cjlw lj= ;+= @)#^ ;fnsf] /fli6«o hgdt ;ª\u|xsf] 3f]if0ffkl5 ;+of]hg / ;Dk|]if0f Synthesis df kl/0ft eof] . Tof] ;+of]hg To;a]nfsf] æ;8s sljtf qmflGtÆ sf ¿kdf ;flxTodf k|s6 ePsf] lyof] . @)#^ ;fnkl5 lj=;+= @)@# ;Fu} z'? ePsf] Antithesis lj/f]w / OGsf/L k"0f{tof / cjz]if ;d]t /lxt ¿kdf cGTo eof] eGg] klg xf]Og . OGsf/jfbL n]vs cem} 5g\ . k/Gt' Tof] k|xf/sf] eg] g]kfnL ;flxTodf lj=;+= @)#^ kl5 cGTo g} eof] . sxfF;Dd eg] klxn]sf] lj/f]wjfbL lbzfdf n]Vb} /xg]df efiff, ljrf/ / z}nLdf ;d]t kl/jt{g eof] .

lj=;+= @)#^ df pTkGg Synthesis sf] l:ylt clxn] g]kfnL ;flxTosf] d"nwf/f Thesis sf] ¿kdf cu|;/ 5 / o;sf] k|ltkIfsf] ¿kdf t/ lj=;+= @)@# sf]eGbf k[ys d"No / dfGotfnfO{ ;fd'Gg] /fvL clxn] Antithesis sf] ljsf; x'g vf]lh/x]5 . clxn]sf] o'jf n]vgsf] d"nwf/fdf Tof] Antithesis k|s6 x'Fb} cfPsf] 5 .

cfˆgfaf/] sljtf/fdn] æcfˆgf] klxrfg cfkm}F+n] vf]Hg rflxgFÆ eGg'ePsf] 5 . To;f] eP pxfFn] cfkm"nfO{, cfˆgf] lrGtg / hLjgnfO{ cfsl:dstfåf/f jf ;+of]uåf/f htf uof] pt} hfg clglZrttflt/ h8 j:t' em}F, kj{tLo vf]nfn] aufpFb} nfg] 9'Ëf / au/ em}F k|jflxt x'g clgolGqt 5f]8\g'ePsf] 5 t < of] k':tssf] cGTodf /x]sf] æd]/f] ;flxlTos ofqfÆ df pxfFn] cfkm"nfO{ To:tf s'g} cfsl:ds k|jfxdf aUg eg] 5f]8]sf] b]lvFb}g .

sljtf/fdn] d"Nox¿sf] lgif]w ug'{ePsf] 5 . d"Nox¿sf] lj36gsf] kIf lng' ePsf] b]lvG5 . t}klg pxfFn] l;kmfl/; ug{ vf]hsf] lj36g / OGsf/ ug'{ ePsf d"Nox¿ s] s:tf x'g\ < eGg]lt/ Wofg lbFbf pxfF z"GotfjfbL -Nihilism_ eg] b]lvg'x'Gg . To;}sf/0f xf]nf pxfFn] cfkm"nfO{ :jefjjfbL -t/njfbL <_ eGg ?rfpg'ePsf] . ;dfhnfO{ / ;dfhsf dflg;nfO{ :jefj cg'¿k k|jflxt x'g lbg] dfu ug'{nfO{ lgif]wjfbL -Nihilist) elgxfNg ldNb}g eGg] d 7fG5' . sljtf/fdsf c:jLs[ltx¿ d"Nosf ljs[ltx¿nfO{ d"Nosf gfddf k|d'vtf lng kfO/x]sf / hLjGt /xg kfPsf ?9LjfbL d"Nox¿nfO{ OGsf/ u/]sf] ¿kdf b]vf k/]sf 5g\ .

oxfFlg/ s] eGg' k5{ eg] cfkm"n] u/]sf lgif]w / cfkm"n] lgif]w gu/]sf d"Nox¿aLr eg] sljtf/fddf rflxg] hlt :ki6tf ljsl;t eO;s]sf] b]vf kb}{g . of] lj/f]wfefif pxfFsf] ;flxlTos ofqfdf / pxfFsf] gLhfTds hLjgdf k|s6 ePsf] 5 . Tof] lj/f]wfefifdf lgif]wtTTj lsl~rt k|jn b]vf k5{ .

of}gsf ;DaGwdf / pxfFn] eGg'ePsf] æeF"8LjfbÆ af/] pxfFsf] ljrf/ k9\bf Tof] dfly elgPsf] lj/f]wfefif emg :ki6 b]vf k5{ . s]xLn] sljtf/fdnfO{ of}gdf 5f8fjfbL eGg] u/]sf] ;'lgPsf] 5 t/ o; k':tsdf pxfFn] ;f] ljifodf k|:t't ug'{ePsf] ljrf/n] 5f8fjfbdf k'¥ofpFb}g . xf] s'g}–s'g} /rgfdf pxfFn] cfˆgf ljrf/nfO{ g} s]xL gf£g'ePsf] 5 eg] To:tf vfn] n]vgsf] k[i7e"ld / kl/j]z cflbnfO{ s]nfpg' kg]{5 .

æeF"8LjfbÆ df sljtf/fdn] dflg;sf] d"n rl/qnfO{ g} 6fpsf]n] 6]sfP/ ple08f] kfg'{ ePsf] 5 .Æ dfG5] hLljt j:t' xf] / k|yd cfjZostf hLljt /xg' xf] . hLljt /xg p;nfO{ pmhf{ rflxG5 . pmhf{ vfgfaf6 k|fKt x'G5 . vfgfsf] ;DaGw …vfg'Ú jf …e"F8LÚ ;Fu 5 .Æ egL pxfFn] eGg'eof] . To;f]eGbf pxfFn] g cfkm"lt/ x]g'{eof] g dfgj ;d'bfo / To;sf] ljsf; Oltxf;lt/ g} . ;a} kz'k+IfL / Tof] cflbd jgdflg;sf lglDt pxfFsf pko'{Qm jfSo hlt ;To 5g\ cfh pxfFsf lglDt tL jfSonfO{ kof{Kt dflgb}g . vfgf / e"F8Lsf Go"gtd\ cfjZostf eGbfdfly p7\g vf]Hbf / To;} qmddf cfkm"df ;r]t >dsf] ljsf; u/]/ g} Tof] Pithecanthropus tL Homo-erectus dflg; x'Fb} uP . Tof] ;r]t :jefj g} dflg; x'g' xf] . ;a} k|sf/sf cWofTd -oxfF d}n] O{Zj/jfbL jf Metaphysical cWofTdaf/] eg]sf] xf]Og . oBlk dfgj ;Eotfsf] ljsf;df tL cWofTdn] klg ;+;f/el/ k|jn e"ldsfnfO{ lglZrt tj/df ;DkGg u/]sf lyP_ sf] k|f/De ToxL >d ;r]tgfaf6 ljsl;t ePsf] xf] . hf] dfgj x'g'sf] d"n klxrfg xf] . sljtf/fd of] wf/0ffnfO{ OGsf/ ug'{x'Fb}g eg] Tof] pxfFn] eg]sf] æeF"8LjfbÆ n] of] dfgj ;d'bfonfO{, sljtf/fd / dnfO{ kmsf{P/ ToxL rfnL;nfv jif{ klxn]sf] Pitheeanthropus df k'¥ofpg ;S5, t/ ;Sg] eP . lgZro g} pxfFn] Tof] lbzf /f]Hg' ePsf] xf]Og .

sljtf/fdn] æof}gjfbsf] k|Zg / d]/f] e"F8LjfbÆ egL Pp6} lzif{sdf dflg;sf] :jefjn] ubf{ k/:k/df ;+lZni6 /x]sf tL b'O{ ljifo -Tof] ;+Zn]if0f / ;sggdf d"No, cWofTd / ;f}Gbo{ r]tgf tyf j}1flgstf klg ;dfg tj/df ;+lZni6 5g\ eGg] dxTjk"0f{ kIf 5 t/ Tof] cs}{ ljifo xf] of] k':tssf] ;Gbe{df_ af/] pxfFdf :yfkgf eg] k/:k/df lj/f]wL b]lvG5g\ . dfgj / To;sf] ;fdflhs Jojxf/ lqmofnfO{ To;/L s[lqd ljefhg u/]/ 5'§ofpg ldNb}g . dflg; Intigreted Personality xf] . PsLs[t JolQmTj xf] dfgj . Tof] PsfTdstfnfO{ dfgj;DaGwL ;flxTodf vl08t / ljeflht l;4fGtsf cfwf/df x]g{ ldNb}g .

dflysf z'?lt/sf k|s/0fdf d}n] sljtf/fdsf / cGo c:jLs[ltx¿nfO{ Antithesis eg]sf] s'/f pxfFs} n]vfOdf k|s6 ePsf] 5 . pxfFn] g} eGg'ePsf] 5– …of] Pp6f j}rfl/s ;ª\qmd0fsfn lyof] .Ú clg pxfF eGg'x'G5– æc:jLs[t cfGbf]ng s'g} …jfbÚ sf] nflu n8fOF lyPg .Æ pxfFn] …jfbÚ eg]/ s]nfO{ eGg vf]Hg'ePsf] xf] k|i6 5}g . …jfbÚ n] s'g} ljlzi6 l;4fGt / :yfkgfnfO{ dfq xf]Og bz{gnfO{ ;d]t hgfpF5 . lgs} ;ª\s'lrt k|of]udf kf6L{ut ljrf/nfO{ af]w u/fpg klg …jfbÚ sf] k|of]u ul/G5 .

5f]6s/Ldf eGg] xf] eg]— ;+;f/df b'O{j6f dfq bz{g 5g\ . tL x'g\– æcWofTdjfbÆ / æef}ltsjfbÆ . dfgj Oltxf;df bfz{lgs lrGtg z'? ePsf] ;dob]lv ;a} lrGtg, :yfkgf, pTklt, l;4fGt / ljrf/ tL b'O{dWo] s'g} Pp6fsf] ;]/f]km]/f]df dfq ePsf kfOPsf 5g\ . kbfy{sf] k|fyldstfnfO{ ef}ltsjfbn] / r]tgfsf] k|fyldstfnfO{ cWofTdjfbn] :jLsf/ u/] . tL b'O{ jfbeGbf leGg / aflx/ t];|f] s'g} lrGtgsf] cl:tTTj slxNo} b]vf k/]g . tL b'O{ d"n bz{g aflx/, cyf{t tL b'O{ …jfbÚ af6 k[ys /x]/ s'g} klg tflTTjs ljrf/ k|:t't ug{ dfgj ;dfhn] hfg]sf] klg 5}g . k|nfksf s'/f cs}{ x'g\ .

To;sf/0f d"No;DaGwL s'/f ug{ yfNgf;fy To:tf s'g} klg rrf{, ljZn]if0f / dfGotf cGttM ;ª\ultk"0f{ 5g\ eg] tL b'O{dWo] s'g} Pp6f bz{gdfly 6]s]/ c8]sf] b]lvg]5g\ . s]xL lrGtgstf{n] obfsbf tL b'j}nfO{ 6]Sg vf]h]sf] glblvg] klg xf]Og . To:tfx¿ of t cNkcWoogsf dgf]ut lrGtgwf/fsf x'G5g\ gq cfˆg} k/:k/ lj/f]wsf e'd/Ldf k/]/ ;ª\ultljxLg /xL b'O{ v'§fn] b'O{ gfpdf 6s];/x 8'a]/ ljlng x'g k'U5g\ .

oxfF s] la;{g' x'Fb}g eg] ef}ltsjfbsf] Oltxf; of] ljZjdf cWofTdjfbL lrGtgeGbf klg k'/fgf] 5 . r]tgfsf] k|fyldstf ls kbfy{sf] k|fyldstf eGg] k|Zgn] cfGtl/s, j}rfl/s lj;ª\ult / åGå/xLt hjfkmut ztfAbLb]lv dfq kfpg yflnPsf] xf] . Tof]eGbf klxn], tL b'O{ cfwf/e"t k|ZgnfO{ hjfkm 7Dofpg d2t ug{ ;Sg] j}1flgstf ts{zf:qn] cfjZos dfqfdf ljsf; ul/;s]sf] lyPg .

æt/njfb <Æ af/] rrf{ ubf{ sljtf/fdn] To;nfO{ …lj1fgÚ / …j}1flgstfÚ eGg] :yfkgfåf/f k|i6 ug{ vf]Hg'ePsf] h:tf] b]lvG5 . pxfFsf tL egfO{x¿nfO{ clnslt sf]6\ofpg yfNgf;fy pxfFn] j}1flgs x'g] r]i6f ug'{eGbf klg …lj1fgÚ / …j}1flgsÚ eGg] cfsif{s zAb k|of]u ug]{ nf]e ug'{ePsf] k|i6 x'g yfN5 .

dfgj / To;sf] ;dfh tyf ;dfhdf To;n] ug]{ d"No cg';/0f / ;f] Jojxf/nfO{ t/n kbfy{sf] cljrn ultl;t bfFHg ldNb}g . dflg;, dfgj ;dfh / ltgsf] Jojxf/ sljtf/fdn] eGg'eP h:tf] æ:jefjjfbLÆ x'Fb}gg\ . r]tgfsf] pTklt kbfy{s} ljsf; xf] t/ To:tf] ljsf; xf] hf] ;DkGg ePkl5 Ps csf]{af6 5'l§G5 . cfˆgf] r]tg:j¿kn] ubf{ ;/n zAbdf elgg] ef}lts kbfy{ / ltgsf b[Zo lgodeGbf r]tg ;dfh / To;sf lgod cfwf/e"t tj/df leGg 5g\ . pbfx/0fsf lglDt— sljtf/fdn] g} eGg'ePsf] gbLsf] hnk|jfx / dfgjLo ;dfhsf] k|jfx k"0f{tof leGg lgodsf, leGg rl/qsf / leGg kl/0fltsf 5g\ . hn k|jfxsf] ;j{dfGo :jefj cUnf] 7fpFaf6 tn emg'{ / cGTodf ;a}eGbf tNnf] w/ftn ;fu/df ldl;g k'Ug' xf] . Tof] k|jfxdf Jojwfg gkf/]df ;a} hnljGb" lglDt Ps ;dfg lgolt k"j{ lgwf{l/t 5 . ltgn] oGqjt\ kl/rflnt eP/ ;fu/df k'Ug} k5{ hlxn] k'u"g\ .

dfgj ;dfhdf eg] o:tf] x'Fb}g / slxNo} ePsf] 5}g . ;r]t ultdGttf lglDt s'g} lgolt lgwf{l/t 5}g lsgeg] To;sf] r]tgfn] lgoldtdf lg/Gt/ x:tIf]k ul//xG5 . dflg;n] ug]{ ofjt\ sfd ofjt\ d"No lgdf{0f, ofjt ;[li6 / ofjt lrGtg To:tf gofF kl/0ffdsf :yfkgf / vf]hL x'g\– h;sf] p2]Zo g} lgoltdfly ljho kfpg' xf] . …t/njfb <Ú / :jefjjfb, lgoltjfbnfO{ :jLs[lt xf] t/ r]tgkIfn] Tof] lgoltkIfdfly ljho kfP/ lgoltnfO{ cfˆgf] jzalt{ u/fO To;sf] cGTo u/]sf] x'G5 .

dflysf s'g} klg bfz{lgs ljifox¿lt/ ;d'lrt Wofg lbg]eGbf klxn] g} sljtf/fdn] bfz{lgs k|ltkfbg lglDt bfz{lgs zAbfjnLsf uDeL/ k|of]u ug'{eP/ cfˆg} cGof}nnfO{ k|s6 ug{ k'Ug'ePsf] b]lvG5 . To:t} cGof}ndf k/]/ pxfFn] ædfG5]df cfjZostf ;dofg's'n km/s eP/ hfG5g\ t/ tL d"Nox¿ kl/jt{g x'Fb}gg\ .Æ h:tf] dfgjLo Oltxf; / ;dfhzf:q lglDt ;j{yf ck|dfl0fs / cdfGo s'/f n]Vg'eof] .Æ To;}n] Pp6f d"No hlt;'s} sdhf]/ ePklg cGt;{DaGw /fVg] c¿ d"Nox¿sf anaf6 of] hLljt /xG5 / ;Qfdf sfod /xG5 .Æ h:tf] k/:k/ lj/f]lw :yfkgf k|:t't ug'{eof] . k|rlnt zAbfy{ / bfz{lgs kl/0ffdx¿d} x]/km]/ gu/L pxfFsf oL b'a} jfSoleq ;ª\ult / k|fdfl0fstf vf]Hg / kfpg ldNb}g . k[i7 !! df /x]sf] pxfFsf] …askqÚ nfO{ sljtf dfGg ;lsG5 t/ To;nfO{ bfz{lgs lrGtgsf] sf]6Ldf /fVg' pko'{Qm sf/0fx¿n] ubf{ ldNb}g . ctM æd}n] elgxfn]F n8fs" ag]F, n8fs" efiffdf af]N5'Æ eGg] pxfFsf] egfO sljtf dfq xf] .Æ d]/f] 3f]if0ffkq g} 5}g .Æ eg]kl5 lrGtg 5}g . s'g} lbzf / cfzf 5}g . hLjg g} 5}g eGg] 7xl/G5 . To;f] eP s]sf] n8fOF / s]sf] n8fs" efiff < xfjfdf jf a]lgodsf] n8fOF < cUnf] w/x/faf6 kmfn xfGg'eGbf slt g} km/s x'G5 / < To;}sf/0f pxfFn] eGg'eof]– æd s] n]V5', tkfO{+Fx¿s} ;fd' 5 . slxn] s]df lkm6 xf]nf, slxn] s]df .Æ uf]ndfn slt;Dd eg]– æd}n] :ki6 eg]sf] 5'— dfS;{sf] c/fhstfjfbaf6 lgs} k|efljt ePsf] 5' .Æ of] k':ts / of] jfSo sfn{dfS;{n] k9]eg] a]kQf d'5f{ kg]{ 5g\ . To:t}— ær]tgzLn ju{ d"Nox¿af6 zfl;t / zf]lift x'Fb}gg\ . ha ls r]tgxLg ju{ tL d"Nox¿af6 zfl;t / zf]lift x'G5g\ .Æ o:tf jfSox¿nfO{ a9LeGbf a9L rdTsfl/s lrq sfJo eGg ;lsG5 . uDeL/ lrGtg xf]Og .

o; 7fpFdf Pp6f uDeL/ ljifodfly Wofg lbg' cfjZos 5 . ;a} ;flxTon] bfz{lgs jf j}1flgs x'g' kb{}g . To:tf] x'g' ;flxTosf] …vf]6Ú xf] t/ ;fy} n]vsn] cfkm"nfO{ bz{g / lj1fg;Ddt t /fVg} k5{ . bz{g / lj1fgsf] pk]Iff ug]{ ;flxTo g} ;s] oyfy{df 5f8fjfbL ;flxTo, ?9LjfbL ;flxTo 7xl/G5 .

t}klg @)!& n] z'? ug{ yfn]sf] ;flxTowf/fsf] k|s6 lj/f]wsf] ¿kdf z'? ePsf] / oxfF d}n] eg]sf] Antithesis k|jfx / To;l;t k|:t't u/]sf] 5 . of] k':tsaf6 s] klg k|i6 x'G5 eg] @)!& k|lt lj/f]w hgfO ;dfhnfO{ gofF lbzfdf k|j[Q ug{ k|lt1f u/]sf g]kfnsf /fhgLlts zlQmx¿n] To;a]nf s'g} dxTj glbO{ pk]Iff u/]sf dfgjL d"Nout ;flxlTos If]qnfO{ of] cfGbf]ngn] u|x0f u¥of] . To:tf] u|x0fdfq u/]g ls …lgif]wÚ sf] k/f]If k4ltaf6 ;sf/fTds dfgjLo d"Nosf kl/efiff / :yfkgfdf cfˆgf] sndnfO{ ;dlk{t u¥of] .

/fhgLlts cfGbf]ngeGbf ;flxTosf] If]q k[ys xf] tf klg sndåf/f lrGtg / dfgjLo d"Nosf] If]qdf k|j]z u/]/ To;dfly Jofks / leqL k|efj kf/]/ ;flxTon] b]zdf gofF dflg; / tL dflg;sf] gofF ;dfh ;[li6 ul//x]sf] x'G5 . ;fdflhs kl/jt{g lglDt k/f]If tj/df cfwf/ tof/ kfl//x]sf] x'G5 . @)!& kl5 @)#^ ;fn;Dd g]kfndf /fhgLlts zlQmx¿n] cfˆgf xftdf ljkmntf g} ljkmntf hDdf kfb}{ uPsf] ;dodf sljtf/fd / tL ;flxlTos cfGbf]ngx¿df ;ª\nUg ;flxTosf/x¿n] eg] cfˆgf If]qdfkm{t ;dfhk|ltsf] bfloTTjnfO{ k"/f ug]{ oyf;So k|of; u/] . of] k':tssf k[i7x¿– @)#( b]lv )$* ;Dddf /x]sf bzhgf n]vssf To;a]nf …3f]if0ffÚ elgPsf ljrf/x¿sf] ljZn]if0f ubf{ d km]l/ klg ToxLdfly elgPs} lgisif{df k'u]sf] 5' .

/fNkmf, cdn]v, c:jLs[t hdft, cd"t{ z}nL, cl:tTTjjfb, a'6kfln;, t/ntf, :jefjjfb cflb h] gfpF /x]sf 5g\ ltgn] cfˆgf] ;dodf u/]sf ;flxlTos k|of;nfO{ o'/f]k]nL NIHILISM sf] sf]6Ldf /fVg ldNb}g . tL g]kfnL k|of;df k|s6 ePsf lgif]w, lgif]wsf lglDt lgif]w h:tf] pGgfO;f}F ztfAbL k"jf{w{df o'/f]kdf b]vf k/]sf] z"Gotfjfb NIHILISM lyPg . oL g]kfnL k|of; ;sf/fTds d"Nosf] vf]hL / :yfkgfsf cfˆgf k|sf/sf sf]lz; lyP . To; a]nfsf] g]kfnL cj:yfdf pTkGg ePsf] k4ltsf] cg';/0f lyP . Tof] vf]hLdf sljtf/fd @)#^ ;fn;Dd Pp6f lqmofzLn snd /xg'eof] .

d"Nosf] To;a]nfsf] vf]hL / :yfkgf k|of;sf] Pp6f k|d'v r/0f @)#^ ;fndf ;DkGg eof] . h;sf] cleJoQm Tof] ;fnsf] æ;8s sljtf qmflGtÆ eof] . To;kl5 sljtf/fdn] n]vgaf6 cfkm"nfO{ lsg k/ /fVg'eof] / n]vgsf cGo If]qdf df lsg cfkm"nfO{ ;Lldt /fVg'eof] eGg] k|ZgnfO{ of] k':tsn] kof{Kt hjfkm lbPsf] 5}g .

æ;8s sljtf qmflGtÆ kl5 klg d"Nosf] vf]hL / :yfkgf k|of; kl/jlt{t ¿kdf, a9L k|i6 ;Gb]zjfxL eP/ rln/x]s} 5 . ;do lglv|;s]sf] c:jLs[t hdft eg] klg t/njfb eg] klg cfod]nL nLnfn]vg eg] klg Tof] gofF ultzLntfdf cfˆgf] k'/fgf] k4ltnfO{ lnP/} ;ª\nUg x'g] sf]lzzdf nfu]sf b]lvG5g\ . ltgsf lglDt s] s:tf] eljio 5 < eGg] ljifo oxfF d]/f] xf]Og . sljtf/fdn] cfˆgf] k|of; km]l/ z'? ug{ yfNg'eof] . of] /fd|f] nIf0f xf] . bz{g / lj1fgsf ;DaGwdf ca cfˆgf ljrf/nfO{ ;ª\ultk"0f{ /fv]/ ;flxlTos k|of;df pxFf cu|;/ /lx/xg'eof] eg] gofF sljtf/fdsf ¿kdf pxfF b]vf kb{} hg'x'g]5 / g]kfnL ;flxlTos If]qdf km]l/ cfˆgf] 7fpF lng'x'g]5 eGg] ljZjf;df d k'u]sf] 5' .

sljtf/fdsf] k|:t't k':tsdf ljz]if dxTj s]df /x]sf] b]lvG5 eg] g]kfnL ;flxTosf] Pp6f 5'§} / cfjlws /x]sf] vf; wf/nfO{ lnP/ o;df ljj]rgf ul/Psf] 5 . Tof] wf/fnfO{ a'‰g lgs} ;xfotf x'g] ;fdfu|Lx¿ o;df ;ª\slnt 5g\ . g]kfnL ;flxTodf @))& kl5 k|i6 x'g yfn]sf] jfdkGyLwf/faf/] dfq of]eGbf klxn] t/ lgs} ck"0f{ tf}/df clelnlvt ul/Psf] lyof] eGg] dfly Wofg lbFbf of] k|of;sf] dxTj :yflkt x'G5 . oBlk sljtf/fdn] eg] cfˆg} ;Gbe{df snd rnfpFbf Pp6f wf/fs} ljj]rgf x'g uPsf] b]lvG5 .


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g]kfnL jfËdosf] If]qdf Pp6f rlr{t gfd xf]–sljtf/fd . clxn] pxfFsf c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿sf] k|sfzg x'g' nfu]sf] / To;df cfˆgf b'O{ zAb n]Vg kfpFbf dnfO{ v';L nfUg' :jefljs} xf] t/ g]kfnL jfËdosf] If]qdf hxfF;Dd dnfO{ nfU5, klxnf] k6s s'g} ljrf/, b[li6sf]0f, cf:yf, jfb, dt, cleJolQm jf dfGotfx¿sf] l;Ë} k':tsdf cfˆgf] dGtJo k|s6 ul/xfNg d of]Uo JolQm lyOgF jf xf]Og ls eGg] nflu /x]5 . sljtf/fd;Fu d w]/} lsl;d / b[li6sf]0fn] ;DalGwt 5' . slxn] xfdLx¿ ;fyL h:tf 5f}F . slxn] bfh'–efO h:tf, slxn] u'? / lzio h:tf, slxn] xflsd / sfl/Gbf h:tf . xfdL b'a} k"j{af6 -cf]vN9'Ëf / ef]hk'/_ cfPsf 5f}F . b'a} syf, sljtf, afn;flxTo n]V5f}F . b'a} afg]Zj/ 5]p5fp -jfUdtL / wf]jLvf]nf 5]p_ a:5f}F . kmf]gdf 306f}F s'/f u5f}{+ . xfd|f] kl/ro / ldqtfsf], :g]x / ljZjf;sf], ;fyL–efOsf] ;[hgzLn n]vgsf] of] qmd @) jif{eGbf k'/fgf] eO;Sof] . clxn] olt w]/} jif{kl5 jfUdtLdf kfgLsf xhf/f}F 5fn alu;s]kl5, sljtf/fdn] cfˆgf j}rfl/s b[li6sf]0fx¿nfO{ k':tsfsf/sf] ¿k lbg'ePsf] 5 / d klg s]xL eGg tD;]sf] 5' . /fhgLlt, snf, ;flxTo, 1fg, lj1fg jf egf}F jfËdosf] ;a} If]qdf gofFgofF cfofd, l6Kk0fL, b[li6sf]0f / dfGotfx¿ cfO/xG5g\ . sltko dfGotfx¿ :yfoL x'G5g\ . tL ch]o, sfnhoL / zfZjt x'G5g\ eg] slt ;dosf] 5fndf x/fpF5g\ . sljtf/fdn] cfˆgf dfGotfx¿nfO{ lg8/ eP/ k|:t't ug{ ;Sg' g} ljz]if dxTjsf] s'/f xf] . ltgsf] ;Totf bL3{dfGotf cnu s'/f xf] eGg] dnfO{ nfU5 . c:jLs[t hdftk|ltsf] ;ª\nUgtf, :jefjjfb, nlIft ;d"x, d"No, of}gjfb, sfnf] syf, t/njfb / ;flxlTos ofqf h:tf ljleGg ;d"x, pk–;d"xdf ljeflht k|:t't k':ts sljtf/fdsf] j}olQms ljj/0f dfq xf]Og @)@) ;fnkl5 g]kfnL ;flxTodf b]vf k/]sf] l/;fxf k':tf -Angry Generation_ sf] syf ofqfsf ;fy} P]ltxfl;s 3f]if0ffkqx¿sf] clen]v klg xf] . a'6kfln;, cdn]v, /fNkmf, h:tf cg]sf}F ;flxlTos ljrf/wf/fsf] qmddf c:jLs[t hdft b]vf k¥of] / o;df tTsfnLg w]/} o'jf ;flxTosf/x¿ ;xefuL /x] . sljtf/fdsf] c:jLs[t hdft tyf a'6kfln; h:tf ;flxlTos gjhfu/0f;Fusf] ;xeflutf jf k|lta4tf dfq k':tssf] u'0ffTds kIf geO sljtf/fdsf tTsfnLg / ;d;fdlos ljrf/wf/f tyf b[li6sf]0fx¿ klg o;df ;ª\slnt 5g\ . oL ljrf/ / b[li6sf]0fx¿ cWoog ubf{ sljtf/fd vfnL ;[hgzLn n]vs dfq xf]Ogg\ ls k|a'4 ljrf/ssf ¿kdf cufl8 cfpg'ePsf] 5 . x'g;S5, pxfFsf ljrf/x¿df xfdL ;a} ;dxt gxf]pF t/ klg g]kfnL ;flxTodf Pp6f zzQm ljrf/sf], Pp6f b[li6sf]0fsf], Pp6f ;an kIfsf] h'g lj?jf pxfFn] pdfg'{ePsf] 5 To;nfO{ xfdLn] dg{ glbO hf]ufO/fVg' cfjZos 5 eGg] d 7fG5' . cGTodf g]kfnL ;flxTosf] km"naf/Ldf o; lsl;dsf] ljrf/zLn ;[hgfTds k':ts n]vgsf] :jfut ub}{ d sljtf/fdsf gofF zzQm ;[hgfx¿sf] ck]Iff /fVb5' . ;wGojfb Û

 

 


d]/f dfGotfkl5sf e"ldsf

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d]/f dfGotfx¿nfO{ d}n] …c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿Ú eg]/ gfdfÍg u/]sf] 5' . …c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿Ú eGgfn] @)@^ df z'? ePsf] c:jLs[t hdftsf] ;flxlTos cfGbf]ngsf dfGotf egL lng' x'g d]/f] cfu|x 5 . To;a]nf cfGbf]ngsf ;xefuLx¿n] cf–cfˆgf lx;fan] cf–cfˆgf b[li6sf]0f / l;4fGtx¿sf ;fy o; cfGbf]ngdf efu lnPsf lyP . clxn] d To;} c:jLs[t hdftsf] ;xefuLsf x}l;otdf d]/f cfˆgf dfGotfx¿ / To;sf] k[i7e"ld k|:t't ub}{5' .

h'g a]nf c:jLs[t hdftn] cfˆgf] cfGbf]ng z'? u¥of] To;a]nf tTsfnLg :yflkt ;flxTowf/fn] o; cfGbf]ngnfO{ a'‰g] r]i6f g} gu/L Ps}rf]l6 lx+;|s, 3[l0ft, ljWj+;sf/L / c;fdflhs tTTj dfg] / l6s6 s6fpgtkm{ hf]8 u/] t/ s]xL jif{d} pgLx¿sf] hf]8 lzlyn x'g uof] . g t c:jLs[t hdftnfO{ To;n] gfd]6} u¥of] g t cfˆgf wf/fdf g} ljlng u/fpg ;kmn eof] . s'g} lgSof}{ndf gk'uL lzlyn eof] . o;/L b'a} wf/f nfdf] ;do;Dd ;dfgfGt/ alxg} /x] .

cfh k|To]s cfGbf]ngsf] ;Gbe{df c:jLs[t hdftsf] pNn]v clgjfo{ ¿kdf NofOg] u/]sf] 5 t/ s;}n] klg c:jLs[t hdftsf] j:t'ut ¿knfO{ :ki6 kfg{ eg] ;s]sf 5}gg\ . bfFt gePsf] dfG5]n] df;' rkfPsf] h:tf] dfq x'g] u/]sf] 5 . pgLx¿nfO{ Pp6f cK7\of/f] g} 5 . c:jLs[t hdftaf/] gaf]n'F pgsf s'/fx¿n] k"0f{tf gkfpg] af]n'F eg] af]Ng] s'/f g} kfOPsf] 5}g . Oltxf;n] s'g} s'/fnfO{ clen]v} x'g glbPkl5 sxfF uP/ pgLx¿n] cWoog ug]{ < c:jLs[t hdftnfO{ Pp6f cg'zf;gxLg lgdf{0f lj/f]wL hdftsf] ¿kdf lrgfOof] / nfdf] ;do;Dd ToxL 5lj sfod /Xof] . hdftsf] cfGbf]ng k|zf;lgs bjfj / cflwsfl/s k|sfzg dfWofd / k|lti7fgx¿sf c:jLsf/af6 s]xL lzlyn t eof] t/ n]vsx¿n] cfˆgf snddf lhpFbf] g} /fv] . oxL hLjGttfsf sf/0f x/]s ;flxlTos df]8x¿df c:jLs[t hdftsf] pNn]v gu/] cfh ljåfg ;flxTosf/x¿ cfˆgf ;[hgfnfO{ ck"0f{ 7fGb5g\ / cflwsfl/s clen]v -Documentation_ geP klg oqtq ;'lgPsf cfwf/df jf hdftsf n]vssf syf sljtfnfO{ dGyg u/]/ kfOPsf yf]Knfyf]KnL ljrf/x¿ ;ª\slnt u/]/ cfˆgf] sfd rnfpg] u5{g\ . h;df d kfpF5'– k"0f{tf 5}g . ljåfgx¿sf] cK7\of/f] / jt{dfg l:yltn] b]vfPsf] cfjZostfnfO{ x]/]/ d}n] oL d]/f dfGotfx¿ k':tsfsf/df k|:t't u/]sf] 5' . o;df c:jLs[t cfGbf]ng / o; cfGbf]ngdf ;xefuL ePsf ;[hgzLn n]vsx¿sf 3f]if0ffx¿ klg k|:t't u/]sf] 5' .

cflwsfl/s clen]vsf cfwf/df s]xL geP klg hdftsftkm{af6 of] cflwsfl/s clen]vsf ¿kdf k]z ug]{ w[i6tf lnPsf] 5' . kf7sx¿af6 d Ifdf rfxG5' ls logdf ;a} ;fyLx¿sf 3f]if0ffx¿ / k|ltkIfLsf ljjfbnfO{ k]z ug{ d]/f] Ifdtfn] EofPg . klxnf] s'/f t d;Fu ;a} ;ª\u|lxt 5}gg\ / bf];|f] s'/f cfkm";Fu ePsf s'/fx¿ 5fKg klg lgs} ufx|f] kg]{ /x]5 . …cleJolQmÚ klqsfn] olt ;3fOlbof] . Pp6f lghL kIfaf6 olt x'g' klg 7"n} dfGg' k5{ / km]l/ c¿ ;xof]u k|fKt ePdf d c¿ s'/fx¿ klg qmlds¿kdf k]z ug]{ g} 5' . olb d}n] jf …cleJolQmÚ n] qmdzM s]xL lbg ;s]gf}F eg] klg dnfO{ nfU5 xfdL bf]ifL x'g] 5}gf}F . Tof] cfGbf]ng xfdLx¿n] cfˆgf] JolQmut ;ª\nUgtf;fy p7fg u/]sf eP klg Tof] JolQmut k|ltjfb lyPg . Tof] 36gf /fli6«o 36gf lyof] . o;sf] k"0f{tM 8s'd]G6];g ;DalGwt lgsfox¿n] ug'{ kYof]{ / Tof] ul/Pg . h;sf] sf/0f Pp6f Uofk v8f ePsf] 5 . o;/L pgLx¿sf cg'Q/bfoL sfo{ef/sf] cjufn xfdLdfly cfOgk/f];\ . oxL cfu|xsf;fy d]/f c:jLs[t JolQmut dfGotfx¿ k|:t't 5g\ . h;df c:jLs[t cfGbf]ngsf] k[i7e"ld klg clelnlvt 5 . c:jLs[t cfGbf]ngaf/] o;sf] k[i6e"ld k]z ubf{ 7"nf] :j/df oxL eGg rfxG5' ls— c:jLs[t jf gsf/ ;f+:s[lts ljgf;sf] rfxgf xf]Og . of] Pp6f o:tf] rfxgf xf], h;af6 hL0f{ eO;s]sf] :yflkt ;f+:s[lts tTTjx¿nfO{ :jefjtM hLjgf]kof]uL / ;dfhf]kof]uL agfpg d2t ldNb5 . :yfkgfsf] lj?4 of] cfGbf]ng kl/isf/ jf ljsf;sf] nflu k|ltjfb lnP/ åGådf v8f lyof] / 5 . of] Pp6f k|ultzLn cfGbf]ng xf] . @)@^ ;fndf z'? ePsf] of] c:jLs[t cfGbf]ng s'g} gofF cfGbf]ng xf]Og . x/ ;dodf x/ ljsf;zLn / k|ultzLn ;dfhdf of] qmd / k|s[of ljBdfg lyof], 5 / x'g]5 . of] Pp6f zfZjt k|s[of xf] . x/ k'/fgf cjojx¿dfly kl/is[t cjojx¿sf] k|lt:yfkgfsf] qmd xf] . h;df k"j{jlt{ ;a} pkof]uL cj:yfx¿sf ;sf/fTds d"Nox¿ ;'/lIft /xG5g\ . d]/f dfGotfx¿s ;Gbe{df eg'F– ;dfhleq kflnP/, kf]l;P/ w]/} ;fdflhs lzIffx¿ kfPsf] 5' . d]/f] k[i7e"ldsf ;d:t dfgjhfltsf xhf/f}F jif{sf ;ª\3if{x¿ 5g\ . k|flKtx¿ 5g\ . d"Nox¿ 5g\ / cg'ejx¿ 5g\ .

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;f]emf] eGg] xf] eg] d afs'lggsf] c/fHojfbsf] ;fx|} ghLs 5' t/ n]lggsf] Jojxfl/stfsf] klg d lj/f]wL 5}g . dfG5] PSsf;L cg'zfl;t x'Gg . ToxfFF cg'zf;g sfod ug]{ s8L klg rflxG5 . ;Fu} n]lggsf] Tof] s8Lsf] Joj:yf ePkl5sf] n'5frF'8L klg d b]Vb}5' . afs'lggsf] pQ/flwsf/L dflgg] qmf]kf]TsLgn] a]Un} s8L ;'gfPsf lyP / Tof] slxNo} k|ltkflbt ePsf] 5}g . cfh ;dfhjfbL d'n'sx¿df h'g czflGt / :yL/xLgtf b]lvG5 To;af6 dnfO{ nfUb5– dfS;{ tyf afs'lggsf] c/fHojfbL ;dfh hxfF JolQmx¿ :jtGqtfsf ;fy ;f; km]g{ ;S5g\, Pp6f o"6f]lkof dfq /x]sf] 5 . o;/L d'lQmsf] k|;ª\udf w]/};Fu ;lDdlnt 5' / w]/};Fu ljeflht 5' . x'g ;S5 d s'g} hjfkm kfpFlbg . s'g} lglb{i6 ;dfh Joj:yfsf] Jojxfl/s ¿k lbg ;lQmgF . x'g ;S5 d]/f] kl/slNkt c/fhstfjfbL ;dfh Pp6f o"6f]lkof dfq /xg] 5 t/ d Pp6f s'/fdf :ki6 5' ls d}n] d]/f] :jtGqtf d]/} hLjgsfndf ef]Ug' k5{ .

x'g ;S5 o:tf]eGbf d k"0f{tM JolQmjfbL b]lvG5' t/ ha;Dd JolQm :jo+ r]tgzLn x'Gg / ha;Dd cfˆgf cg'e"ltx¿n] cfˆgf cGwljZjf;x¿sf] tuf/f]nfO{ kG5fpg ;Ifd x'Gg ta;Dd d cfd zf]lift ju{sf] d'lQmsf] ;Defjgf b]lVbgF . d cfkm" ;d"xjfbL x'Fbfx'b} klg / ju{ ;ª\3if{sf] kIfw/ x'Fbfx'Fb} klg k|ydtM cfˆgf] d'lQmsf] k|of;df 5' . dnfO{ nfU5 o:tf :jtGqtfk|]dL, r]tgzLn JolQmTjx¿nfO{ ;d]6\g] ;+oGq gePsf sf/0f d]/f] ;dfh o;/L JolQm–JolQmdf l5GgleGg eO;s]sf] 5 . o;} xbdf ;dfhn] JolQmx¿af6 s]xL an kfO/x]sf] 5}g / o;sf] ljsf;qmd pFwf] ultdf k|j[Q 5 . To;}n] d'lQmsf] l:ylt emgemg 6f9f x'Fb}5 .

dnfO{ d]/f] ;fdflhs hLjgdf Pp6f c¿Ro ;fdflhs hLjg afFRg afWotf 5 t/ h] xf];\ cfkm" cfˆgf] kf/fn] afFRg d :jtGq 5' . Ps}rf]l6 dfq cfkm"nfO{ ;d:t ?9Lu|:t d"Nox¿af6 gfËf] agfPkl5 o;/L afFRg ;lhnf] x'g] /x]5 . o; lx;fadf d ;dfhdf uP/ d]/f] :jtGqtfsf] eLv dflUbgF . d cfˆgf] kf/fn] afFR5' / Tof] afFRg] kf/fsf] jsfnt ;dfhdf ub{5' . ToxL jsfntdf cfpF5g\ d]/f c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿– ;flxTosf] dfWofddf Pp6f åGåfTds k|s[of, h;n] d'lQm k|;ª\usf] ljsf;qmddf qmdzM of]ubfg lbg]5 . hLjgnfO{ x]g]{ d]/f] b[li6sf]0f k"0f{tM :jefjjfbL 5 . t/n :Jffefljs cfofdx¿df hLjg z}nLnfO{ 9fNg] k|s[ofdf 5' . ;flxlTos åGådf d en} 7fpF7fpFdf k5fl/Psf] 5' tf klg d]/f] Jojxfl/s hLjgdf d]/f] :jefjjfbL hLjgz}nL kmlnkmfk l;4 ePsf] 5 . dnfO{ o;/L afFRg ;lhnf] ePsf] 5 .

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d}n] cYof{Psf] :jefjjfbaf/] bf];|f] cWofodf nfd} lrGtg k]z u/]sf] 5' . To;nfO{ oxfF k]z gu/f}F t/ olt eg]/ rfFlx d d]/f dfGotf ;DaGwLe"ldsf 6'ª\Uofpg rfxG5' ls– d]/f dfGotfx¿ cem} kl/isf/sf] vf]hLdf 5g\ . kl/isf/sf nflu :jefjjfbL b[li6sf]0f lnPsf] 5' / d]/f] :jefjjfbL b[li6sf]0f ;a} ;fyLx¿sf] k|ltjfbnfO{ ljZn]if0f ug{ / ;fdflGos[t ljrf/x¿nfO{ u|x0f ug{ v'Nnf 5 . dfG5]nfO{ dfG5]s} :jfefljs 7fpFdf /fv]/ / dfG5]sf] d"n k|j[TofTds :jtGqk|]dnfO{ /fv]/ x/]s ljifoj:t'nfO{ j:t'ut x]g]{ k|s[ofnfO{ d}n] :jefjjfb eg]sf] 5' . :jfefljs åGåfTds lrGtg / :jfefljs j}rfl/s ljnog o;sf] d"n k|j[TofTds t/n :jefj xf] .

o;} k':tssf] Ps cWofodf d}n] cfˆgf :jefjjfbL t/ntf / gofF t/njfbLx¿;Fusf] ljjfbaf/] klg n]v]sf] 5' . gofF t/njfbLx¿n] cfˆgf] d'vkq k"jf{4{ cÍ !% sf] ;DkfbsLodf d]/f]af/]df s]xL ljjfbf:kb xfFs 5fk]sf] x'Fbf of] cWofo n]Vg h?/L ePsf] xf] . kf7sx¿n] ;f] xfFs s] lyof] < hfGg rfx]sf] x'Fbf tn x'ax' k|:t't u/]sf] 5' .







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$= d]/f k|:t'lts/0fsf k[i7e"ld, k|lts efiff / z}nL

;flxlTos ljwf / d]/f] ljwfxLgtf

;+k|]if0fLotfsf] k|Zg / d]/f ;+/lIft ;d"x

d s'g jfbL x'F

k|ultzLntsf] cjwf/0ff / d]/f] kl/slNkt ;dfh

d"No / d"Nolj/f]w

of}gjfbsf] k|Zg / d]/f] e"F8Ljfb

d ;flxlTos ls ljrf/ ls b'a} <

d]/f] ;flxTo

k|1f–k|lti7fg, l6=eL= / /]l8of]df d]/f] bflvnL

%= d]/f syf cf:yf

sfnf] syfsfaf/] eGbf eGg' kg]{ s'/fx¿

d syf lsg n]V5' <

^= c:jLs[t hdft ;DaGwL la;{g gx'g] s'/fx¿

efpkGyLsf] 3f]if0ff

;f=lj= 7fs'/sf] 3f]if0ff

z}n]Gb| ;fsf/sf] 3f]if0ff

htu /~hgsf] 3f]if0ff

j=cf= sgslåksf] 3f]if0ff

OGb| /fhe08f/Lsf] 3f]if0ff

df]xg zdz]/ yfkf tyf lji0f'nfn >]i7 -;Dkfbs lIflth_ sf] 3f]if0ff

k'is/ nf]xgLsf] 3f]if0ff

k|sfz k|]dLsf] 3f]if0ff

c~hL/ k|wfg -;Dkfbs /]iff_ sf] 3f]if0ff

sljtf/fdsf] 3f]if0ff

&= d]/f] …t/ntfÚ / t/n -tf_ jfbL;Fusf] ljjfb

*= d]/f] ;flxlTos ofqf

-s_ n]vgsf k|of;x¿

-v_ afNosfnsf] cWoog, ljifout k|ToIfLs/0f / ltgsf k|efjx¿

-u_ w/fgdf pTsif{sfn

-3_ sf7df8f}Fdf ;ª\3if{

-ª_ a'6kfln; cleofgdf ;ª\nUgtf

-r_ afn ;flxTolt/ kbfk{0f

-5_ ;f+:s[lts ;flxTodf kbfk{0f

-h_ cGo ;flxlTos sfddf rfv

-em_ d]/f] ;'if'Ktsfn

-`_ d]/f] k'ghf{u/0f

-6_ clxn]sf] l:yltdf eGg' kg]{ s'/f

-7_ cGTodf s[t1tf 1fkg / s]xL cfu|x

 


!= yfngLdf eGbf eGg' kg]{ s'/f

d}n] ;fob d]/f] n]vgsf] yfngLb]lvg} syf, sljtfx¿df j}rfl/s dfGotfx¿ lbg z'? u/]F . ;w}F} o:tf] nfUof] 36gf, efjgf jf sNkgfx¿n] dfq s'g} kg k|:t'lt k"0f{ x'Gg . ;w}F} j}rfl/s dfGotfx¿af6 clek|]l/t eP/ n]v]F / 36gf jf sNkgfx¿n] bf]>f], t];|f] :yfg dfq kfP . PskN6 o:tf] nfUYof] syf n]Vg' eg]sf] 9fF6\g' xf] . sfNklgs kfq / 36gfx¿nfO{ uF'y]/, sy]/ n]v]sf n]vx¿nfO{ 9F6fO g} dfGby]F . o:tf] nfUYof] o:tf 9F6fOx¿ n]v]/ xfdL kf7sx¿sf] cd"No ;do gi6 ub}{5f}F . n]v jf syfaf6 sfNklgs s'/fx¿ n]Vb} cfbz{sf] kf7 lbg] k/Dk/fb]lv klg dnfO{ plQs} cjufn lyof] . cfkm" kf7sx¿sf] 6fpsf]df a;L cfbz{ u'? aGg dnfO{ Psbd} 9f]Fu nfUbYof] . d}n] slxNo} klg cfkm"nfO{ kf7sx¿eGbf dfly /flvgF . d tTsfnLg ;flxlTos dfGotfdf cfkm" :jo+ Psbd} lkm6 x'Ggy]F . n]v, syf, sljtf n]Vy]F t/ tL n]vgx¿n] ;flxTosf] bhf{ kfpFb}gy] . slxNo} kfPgg\ . t}klg d]/f] cfˆgf] n]Vg] w[i6tf sfod} /Xof] . cfkm"leq Pp6f b[9 dfGotf lyof] . ToxL dfGotfsf] k|jQmf ag]F . o;/L g} d]/f] c:jLs[t hdft;Fu ;ª\nUgtf /Xof] ;w}F} k/Dk/fut ;flxlTos dfGotfsf lj?4, j}rfl/s cleJolQmsf ;fy . -c:jLs[t hdftsf] yfngL / d]/f] ;ª\nUgtfaf/] kl5Nnf kGgfx¿df n]v]sf] 5' . _

To;}n] g]kfnL ;flxTo hutdf, d]/f] s]xL 7fpF 5 eg] Pp6f 5f8f, p208, c;flxlTos, lgn{Hh cleJoQmfsf ¿kdf 5 . cfh ;don] s]xL kN6f vfPsf] 5 . o; klN6Psf] ;don] g]kfnL ;flxTo hutdf klg k|efj kf/]sf] 5 . t}klg d]/f] 5lj cem} ToxL ¿kdf 5 .

o; 5f8f, p208, c;flxlTossf] To;}n] w]/} 7fpFdf pkl:ylt x'Fb}g . lgdGq0ff cfpFb}g . dxTj 5}g . dxTj dflgb}g . pNn]v x'Fb}g . cGtjf{tf{x¿ 5flkGgg\ . n]vx¿ 5flkGgg\ .

zfob d}n] cem :ki6 ¿kdf oL x/kmx¿nfO{ k|:t't ug'{k5{ . lsgeg] o;f] x'g'df d]/f] cfˆg} Jojxf/ / ;f]rfOsf] t/Lsf klg sf/0f aGg k'u]sf] 5 . h;/L ;f]Rb5' ;a}n] To;/L g} ;f]Rg' k5{ eGg] d]/f] cfu|x /x]g, 5}g / slxNo} x'Fb}g .

s'g} klg ;ef jf uf]i7Ldf d]/f] pkl:ylt x'g' eg]sf] d]/f] p208tfsf] sf/0f Hofbftd ;xefuLx¿nfO{ vNnf] jf cf3ft kfg]{ klg x'g]5– dnfO{ o:t} nfUYof] . sxL s;}n] af]nfPg jf n]v sljtf dfUb}g jf dfu]g eg]/ slxNo} ph'/L jf c;Gt'i6L 5}g, ul/gF . To;} klg xfdLdf obfsbf of] rng 5 ls hf] cfP/ cfkm"nfO{ lgdGq0ff ug{ cfu|x ub{5 p;}n] klxnf lgdGq0ff kfpF5 . l;6 kfpF5 . l6s6 kfpF5 . Tof] dfUg] sfd cfkm"n] ul/gF . To;}n] /]l8of], l6=eL=, k|1f–k|lti7fgsf ;ef jf uf]i7Lx¿df d]/f] pkl:ylt hlgPg / o;df klg pxfFx¿dfly d}n] c;Gt['i6L hgfPsf] xf]Og . ;a} lgsfox¿sf cfˆgf cfˆg} ;Ldf x'G5g\ . ;Lldt >f]t, ;fwgx¿ / ;Lldt l;6 x'G5g\ . o:tf] ;Ldfleq ;Lldt l;6 lnP/ sfd ul//x]sf lgsfox¿nfO{ ;LdfeGbf a];L ;flxlTos ;fyLx¿ l;6 dfUg cfOk'Ubf cfkb\sf] s'/f] x'g cfpF5 . csf]{ s] klg x'G5 eg] cufl8 gk/]sf jf sxfF, stf 5g\ eGg] kQ} gePsf JolQmnfO{ stf vf]hL lxF8\g] < d}n] d]/f] 7]ufgf klg lbPsf] 5}g . lbg gvf]h]sf xf]Og . EofOPg . cfjZos 7flggF . cfˆgf] klxrfg cfkm}F+n] vf]Hg rflxgF . km]l/ d tL lgsfox¿df sfo{/t ;fyLx¿sf] ufx|f], ;fx|f], cK7\of/f]nfO{ klg a'‰b5' . d]/f n]vx¿ tL dfWofdaf6 k|;fl/t x'g ufx|f] x'g] s'/f ;w}F} a'em]sf] 5' . pgLx¿nfO{ ;lhnf] k/f];\ eg]/ To;cg'¿k n]Vg] sfd klg ul/gF . zfob d]/f] vfg] af6f] oxL ePsf] eP d}n] To;/L g} 9fF6\g], 5Ng] sfd ug}{ kg]{ x'GYof] . d}n] vfg] af6f] c¿ g} u/]F . To;}n] To; lx;fadf d}n] cfkm"nfO{ a]Rg' k/]g .

h] xf];\, d]/f] n]vgsf] z'?b]lv g} d}n] cfˆgf] cleJolQmsf] nflu kof{Kt d~rx¿ kfpFb} cfPsf] 5' . a¿ @)#^ ;fnkl5 s]xL jif{ cfkm"n] cfˆgf n]vx¿ 5fKgdf s]xL ;':tL NofPsf] lyPF . of] ;dodf d}n] ;f+:s[lts n]vx¿ n]v]F / 5kfPF . ljleGg ;/sf/L dfWofddf lkm6 x'g] oxL Pp6f ljwf lyof] h;df d]/f] snd rNYof] . rfv lyof] / kf7sx¿aLr d]/f] xflh/L sfod /xGYof] . s]xL jif{ otf d]/f tTsfnLg ;xofqL ;fyLx¿ ljleGg dfWofdsf clwsf/L ag]sf 5g\ . pgLx¿n] d]/f rLhx¿ 5fKg cfu|x lnFb} cfPsf 5g\ / 5fKb} klg 5g\ . dnfO{ kf7sx¿ 5]pdf k'gM hf];sf ;fy pkl:yt x'g Pp6f xf};nf k|fKt ePsf] 5 . df}sf ldn]sf] 5 . d k|:t't 5' .

xfn syf, sljtf ;do–;dodf 5flkb} cfPsf 5g\ . d]/f] g]kfnL ;flxTodf k'gM hf];sf;fy cfpg'df …cleJolQmÚ df -jif{ !(, k"0ff{Í %^_ df k|sflzt k/z' k|wfgåf/f k|:t't æ;qf}F cg'xf/–sljtf/fsf]Æ eGg] cGtjf{tf{{ ;lxtsf] n]vn] 7"nf] of]ubfg k'¥ofPsf] 5 . pxfFsf] …n]vÚ n] d]/f j}rfl/s dfGotfx¿nfO{ vf]tn]sf] 5 / o;} sf/0fn] g]kfnL ;flxTosf ;xefuL ;fyLx¿n] d]/f j}rfl/s dfGotfx¿df rfv / rf;f] lng vf]h]sf 5g\ . yfn]sf 5g\ . of] cfh @)@& ;fnkl5 !( jif{ latfP/ ;Dej ePsf] xf] . -k/z' k|wfgk|lt d w]/} cfef/L 5'_ To;} k|;ª\udf t/njfb -t/ntfjfb_ af/] klg s]xL n]vfn]v ePsf] 5 . t/ntfsf wf/0ff d]/f c:jLs[t ;flxTosf 3f]if0ffkqx¿df k|d'v pkdfsf ¿kdf k|:t't ePsf] s'/f pNn]v ePsf k|df0fx¿ ;d]t k]z u/]kl5 t/njfbL ;fyLx¿;Fu kqklqsfdf lgs} n]vfn]v ePsf] 5 / o;df ;ª\nUg kqklqsf jf ;dfnf]rs ;fyLx¿;Fu w]/} rrf{ kl/rrf{ x'Fb}5g\ . cem} x'Fb} hfg]5g\ . o; n]vsf kl5Nnf kGgfx¿df o; ;DaGwdf klg n]Vb}5' .

t s] eg], ca l9n} eP klg d}n] eGg vf]h]sf s'/fx¿df la:tf/} rfv a9\b} cfPsf] kfPsf] 5' . d}n] laleGg ;fyLx¿nfO{ kmf]g jf e]63f6df oL s'/fx¿ eGg'eGbf n]vx¿af6} k|i6 ug{ kfPF eg] c¿ rfv /fVg] kf7s ;fyLx¿;dIf klg oL s'/fx¿ k'Ug ;Qmy] eGg] dg;fo ;fy d]/f dfGotfx¿ æc:jLs[t dfGotfx¿Æ k|:t't 5g\ .


@= c:jLs[t hdft / d]/f] ;ª\nUgtf

d]/f c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿ c:jLs[t hdftsf] j}rfl/s / af}l4s cfGbf]ngsf k[i7e"lddf x]g'{ kg]{ x'G5 . To;}n] o;df c:jLs[t hdftaf/] / To;df d]/f] ;ª\nUgtfaf/] n]Vg' cfjZos 7fGb5' .

w]/} 7fpFdf w]/}kN6 w]/} ;fyLx¿n] df}lvs jf lnlvt ¿kdf …c:jLs[t hdftÚ sf] j}rfl/s cfGbf]ngnfO{ d[t 3f]if0ff u/]sf 5g\ . s]xL lzi6 ;fyLx¿n] lzi6 efiffdf …tkfO{+Fsf] c:jLs[t hdft s] x'Fb}5 <Ú eg]/ klg ;f]w]sf 5g\ .

cfh cfP/ t/njfbLx¿sf] t/ntfjfbL cfGbf]ngsf] k|;ª\udf w]/}n] w]/}kN6 c:jLs[t hdftsf] gfd s'g} g s'g} lx;fadf cf]sNb} cfPsf 5g\ . of] g} Pp6f k|df0f xf] ls c:jLs[t hdftsf] xflh/L cem} ;flxlTos ljrf/sx¿sf lbdfudf 5fOg} /x]sf] 5 . d/]sf] 5}g . k|Zg olQ;Dd xf] ls, s;n] slt;Dd o;nfO{ a'em]sf] 5 <

;fyLx¿nfO{ s] hjfkm lbg] < s'g} ljrf/ jf :s'n af]s]/ lxF8\g] s'/f xf]Og . hdftsf ;b:ox¿ a9fP/ h'n'; u/L lxF8\g] s'/f xf]Og / laNnf le/]/ lxF8\g] s'/f klg xf]Og . d n]Vb} 5' / d]/f n]vgx¿df h'g ljrf/x¿ cf]sN5' ToxL g} xf] d]/f] ;flxlTos …c:jLs[tjfbÚ . olb s'g} jfb;Fu of] ldNg hfG5 eg] klg 7Ls} 5 . ldNg hfFb}g eg] klg 7Ls} 5 . d / d]/f ;a} ;xwdL{ ;fyLx¿n] slxNo} klg xfdLn] gofF s'/f lbFb}}5f}F eg]/ eg]sf 5}gf}F . xfdLn] eGg vf]h]sf s'/fx¿ xfd|} dfq x'g\ klg eg]sf 5}gf}F . Tof] Pp6f j}rfl/s ;ª\qmd0fsfn lyof] . To;a]nf hL0f{, yf]qf, k'/fgf ;flxlTos dfGotfx¿n] cfˆgf] ;QfnfO{ sfod /fVg gofF ljrf/, ljrf/s / cfGbf]ngnfO{ c:jLs[t ub{y] . ToxL yf]qf] dfGotfnfO{ 9fNg s]xL ljb|f]xL ;flxlTos ;fyLx¿n] Ps;fy p7]/ xf]:6]df x}F;] u/]sf lyof}F xfdLnfO{ xfd|f] cfˆgf] eGg] 7fpF agf];\, d~r agf];\ eg]/ . xfdLn] s'g} Pp6f ljz]if kl/eflift l;4fGt jf jfbsf nflu Psq eP/ 9\jfË km'ls/x]sf lyPgf}F . o; n8fOFdf xfdLx¿aLr ;a} lsl;dsf ;fyLx¿ Ps 5q eP/ p7]sf lyof}F . xfdLn] slxNo} ;fydf sf] s:tf 5g\ eg]/ x]/]gf}F . Psfsf{nfO{ c:jLsf/ ug]{ k|j[lQ /fv]gf}F . To;}n] o; gofF j}rfl/s cfGbf]ng ug]{ hdftnfO{ Pp6f gfd lbg] cfjZos 7fGof}F . :yflkt a"9f] dfGotfaf6 c:jLs[t xfd|f] hdftnfO{ …c:jLs[t hdftÚ ;aeGbf pko'Qm gfd lyof] . dfGgf];\ of] Pp6f sfo{qmd lyof] / ;a} sfo{qmdx¿sf gfd x'G5g\ . ljleGg ;dodf Pp6f Joj:yf jf ;+:yf jf hdftn] ljleGg gfdfs/0f;fy leGgleGg sfo{qmdx¿ ;~rfng ug{ ;S5g\ . Tof] To:t} sfo{qmd lyof] . ToxL hdftsf w]/}h;f] ;fyLx¿n] cGo sfo{qmdx¿df klg cfˆgf] ;ª\nUgtf /fv] . tL sfo{qmdx¿ lyP– a'6 kfln; cleofg, ;8s sljtfqmflGt, gjo'jf n]vg OToflb . xfdLn] slxNo} s'g} klg cfGbf]ngdf t]/f] d]/f] ug]{ jf 6fOK8 x'g] sfd u/]gf}F . ;a} yf]qf lg/ª\s'z dfGotfx¿ lj?4 n8\g] cleofgx¿df xfd|f ;fyLx¿sf] ;w}F} ;lqmo ;fy /Xof] . /xg]5 .

o; ;Gbe{df d}n] eGg' kg]{ x'G5— c:jLs[t cfGbf]ng s'g} …jfbÚ sf] nflu n8fOF lyPg . To;sf/0f of] hLljt 5 jf 5}g eGg]h:tf cy{xLg k|Zgsf] s;Ldf kb}{g . s'g} klg cfGbf]ng Ps5Q Ps} ¿kdf nfdf] ;do;Dd /xFb}g . cfGbf]ng :jo+ cfkm" aFfRgsf] nflu xf]Og . s]xL xfl;n ug{sf nflu x'G5 . s'g} s]xL xfl;n u/]/ ;dfKt x'G5 t s'g} aLr}df zlQmåf/f bafOG5 . c:jLs[t cfGbf]ngnfO{ To; lx;fadf d"NofÍg ug'{ k5{ .

d]/f] cfˆg} wf/0ff 5— xfdLn] h'g cj:yfdf Tof] cfGbf]ng z'? u¥of}F cfh Tof] cj:yf 5}g . w]/} cg's"n cj:yfsf] ;[hgf eO;s]s]f 5 . cfh zf:qLo wf/0ffdf xfd|f n]vsLo ljwfx¿ c:jLs[t x'g' k/]sf] 5}g . a"9f ;flxlTosx¿ dfem gofF ;flxlTosx¿ ;dsIf a;]/ s'n{g ;S5g\ . gofF hdftn] s]xL eGg vf]h]sf] 5 eg] >f]tfx¿ To;df rfv /fV5g\ . j}1flgs, tfls{s s'/fx¿ ;'Gg vf]H5g\ . To:tf kf7sx¿sf] hdft v8f eO;s]s]f 5 . ;flxTodf ljrf/ / l;4fGtx¿sf] k|j]z eO;s]sf] 5 / d eG5'— oL ;a} xfdL ;ª\nUg ePsf cfGbf]ngx¿—c:jLs[t hdft, a'6kfln;, ;8s sljtfqmflGt, gjo'jf n]vg / To;afx]s xfdL ;ª\nUg gePsf]—t];|f] cfofd, /fNkmf / cdn]vx¿s} ;ª\3if{af6 ;Dej eof] .

d}n] dfly s] eg]sf] 5' s] eg] xfdL j}rfl/s ljb|f]xL xf}F . k'/fgf hL0f{ dfGotfsf lg/ª\s'ztfnfO{ kftfn ug{ Psq ePsf lyof}F / s'g} jfb jf l;4fGtsf nflu n8\b} lyPgf}F, 5}gf}F t/ ;Fu;Fu} eg]sf] 5' xfdL w]/}y/Lsf ljrf/sx¿ -n8fs"x¿_ 5f}F . To;dWo]df d Pp6f lyPF / 5' . x'g ;S5 hdftsf ;a}af6 cnu 5' . cyjf d}n] eg]sf slt s'/fx¿ xfdLeGbf aflx/sf ;fyLx¿;Fu ldNb5g\ / of] klg x'g ;S5 d]/f ;xwdL{ ;fyLx¿s} ljrf/af6 d km/s klg 5' . o;f] eg]/ d]/f] s'g} lglb{i6 af6f] 5}g rflxF eg]sf] xf]Og . d]/f] lglb{i6 af6f] 5 æ:jefjjfbÆ . o;} :jefjjfbsf;fy c:jLs[t hdftdf d]/f] ;ª\nUgtf /Xof] . kl5Nnf] cWofodf :jefjjfbaf/] n]v]sf] 5' .


#= :jefjjfbL lrGtg

d}n] cYof{Psf] æ:jefjjfbÆ df ljz]iftM c:jfefljs, cg'kof]uL, yf]qf / hL0f{ d"Nolj?4 k|ltjfb ub}{ :jfefljs s'g} k|s[ofsf s'/fx¿ cfpF5g\ . o; lrGtgdf d tL d"Nox¿sf s'/f ub}{5' hf] k|ydtM dfG5]sf] cfjZostf kl/k"lt{ ug{ :yflkt ePsf x'G5g\ / kl5 uP/ dfG5] dfly g} zf;g ug{ nfUb5g\ . dfG5]sf lbdfudf, ;+:sf/df clkmd;/x nfUb5g\ / To;} cg'¿k Jojxf/ ug{ dfG5]nfO{ nÝ kfb{5g\ .

lj8Dagf t s] eg] dfG5]sf cfjZostf ;dofg's'n km/s eP/ hfG5g\ t/ tL d"Nox¿ kl/jlt{t x'Fb}gg\ . dfG5]sf cfjZostf k"lt{ ug{ 5f]8\5g\ t/ klg cfˆgf] k'/ftg :j¿k sfod ug{ Pp6f hLljt ;Qfwf/Ln] em}F ;ª\3if{ ul//xG5g\ / k|To]s lj/f]wsf] k|ltsf/ ub{5g\ . ufx|f] s] 5 eg] s'g} klg d"Non] PSn} k|ltsf/ ub}{g lsgeg] d"Nox¿sf] cfˆgf] l;Ëf] cl:tTTj x'Gg . logLx¿ cfˆgf ;fdflhs ;+/rgfdf ePsf c¿ d"Nox¿;Fu cGt;{DaGw /fv]/ sfo{/t x'G5g\ . Pp6f d"No lj3l6t x'g' eg]sf] ;Dk"0f{ ;+/rgfdf wSsf nfUg' xf] . To;}n] Pp6f d"No hlt;'s} sdhf]/ eP klg cGt;{DaGw /fVg] c¿ d"Nox¿sf anaf6 of] hLljt /xG5 / ;Qfdf sfod /xG5 .

cyf{t d"No kl/jt{g x'g' jf ug'{ eg]sf] ;Dk"0f{ ;fdflhs ;+/rgfsf] kl/jt{gsf] s'/f] x'g cfpF5 . s'g} klg k'/ftg ;dfh o:tf] kl/jt{gsf] kIfdf x'Fb}g . ;dfh hlt k'/ftg jf ?9LjfbL 5 plQ g} d"No kl/jt{gsf] nflu s7f]/ x'G5 . o:tf ;dfhsf dfG5]x¿ d"Nox¿sf] ;]jf ub{5g\ . d"Nox¿af6 ;]jf lng ;Qm}gg\ . ;fdflhs ?9Lut d"No g} pgLx/sf ;f+:s[lts lglw x'G5g\ . To;}n] 8f]¥ofPcg';f/ To; ;dfhsf ;b:ox¿ ef}lts lhGbuL Joltt ub{5g\ . o:tf ;dfhdf k|ultsf nflu st} :yfg /xGg . ultzLntf x'Fb} x'Gg . s'g} efF8fdf aGb t/n kfgL h:t} JolQmx¿ t/ntf aˆofpFb} cfkm" lqmi6nfOh x'Fb} db}{ hfG5g\ . dfG5]–dfG5] /xGg . d"Nodfq /xG5 . d"Nodfq afFRb5 . pgsf ;Dk"0f{ j}olQmstf / :jtGqtf d"Nosf] gfddf jlnbfg x'G5g\ .

o:tf] ;dfhsf] hu j:t'ut x'Gg . k[YjLdf x'Gg . ?9Ldf x'G5 . cfsf;df x'G5 . cfˆgf] ljsf;sf qmddf cfkm"nfO{ :yfloTTj lbg -6]Sg lbg_ k[YjLdf 6fpsf]n] 6]Sb5 . lsgeg] cfsf;df pgsf v'§fn] 6]Sg] 7fpF x'Gg . ca :jfefljs lx;fan] ;f]Rg' kg]{ x'G5 . o:tf ;dfhsf] ljsf; stflt/ x'G5 < :jefljstfsf] lgodn] ljsf; hult/ x'Gg 6fpsf]lt/ x'G5 t/ o; ;dfhsf] 6fpsf] t k[YjLdf 6]lsPsf] x'G5 . Pp6} dfq ljsf;sf O{F6f yKg' kbf{ klg;Dk"0f{ z/L/nfO{ prfNg' kg]{ x'G5 . prfn]kl5 dfq Tof] O{F6f /fVg ;Dej x'G5 .

dfG5] r]tgzLn k|f0fL xf] . dfG5]nfO{ :jefljstfsf] d"No yfxf 5 . :jtGqtfsf] d"No yfxf 5 . j}olQmstfsf] d"No yfxf 5 . pm ;w}F} 6fpsf]n] 6]s]/ hLjg wfGg] c:jfefljstfdf afFRg rfxGg . s'g} klg d"Non] dfG5]nfO{ ;]jf k|bfg ub}{g t/ pN6} dfG5]nfO{ g} gfd]6 x'g] u/L zf]if0f ub{5 / kL8f lbg nfUb5 eg] To;k|lt pm ljb|f]xdf pqG5 . lhpFb} d/] t'No afFRg' / dg'{df ha s'g} km/s /xb}g . pm Hofg} 5f]8]/ le8\b5 .

d"No Pp6f ;fdflhs tYo xf] . ;a} k|sf/sf ;dfhx¿df of] s'/f 36\b5 cyf{t\ of] n8fOF nl8G5 . km/s olt xf] Tof] ;dfh slQsf] k'/ftg jf cfw'lgs 5 . slQsf] k/Dk/fjfbL jf k|ultzLn 5 . Pp6f k|ultzLn ;dfhsf] cfwf/ e"FOaf6 alnof] u/L p7]sf] /xG5 . O{F6f yKg' kbf{ ;Dk"0f{ ;dfhnfO{ prfNg' kb}{g . O{F6f Pp6f qmddf, 6'Kkfdf ;lhn} /fVg ;lsG5 . o:tf] ;dfh Jojl:yt x'G5 . kl/jt{gsf nflu v'Nnf x'G5 . s'g} efF8fdf s}b gePsf] t/n kfgL h:t} :jfefljs cfofdx¿df ultzLn x'G5 . Pp6f ;dfh slQsf] k|ultzLn 5 eGg] s'/f pgsf ;+/rgfleq ePsf hLjgk4ltsf] j}1flgstf, kl/jt{gzLntf / …t/ntfÚ df e/ k5{ . d]/f] :jefjjfb o;} t/ntfsf] :ki6Ls/0f xf] . d}n] cfˆgf askq / 3f]if0ffkqx¿ o;/L em08} !( jif{ cl3 n]lv;s]sf] lyPF .


askqM :jefjjfb

xfdL ;a}sf] nflu cfˆgf] /ª, ¿k / cfsf/ 5}g .

xfdL ;a} oxfF cfpgf;fy k/Dk/fut k'/fgf k|m]ddf 9flnG5f}F . k|m]d cg'¿k xfdLn] cfkm"nfO{ cfsf/ lbPsf 5f}F .

xfdL cfkm"n] cfkm}F+nfO{ 9fn]sf xf]Ogf}F . 9flng' xfd|f] :jefljs u'0f xf] / Tof] k|m]d xfdLn] agfPsf xf}F . :jfefljs x}g . xfdL s[lqdtfleq ljjz :jfefljs 5f}F . xfdLn] cfh lnPsf] oyfy{ j:t'tM ToxL xf] . xfd|f] oyfy{sf] cfwf/ g} coyfy{ 5 .

Tof] cfkm}F+n] agfPsf] cfwf/ jf k|m]dnfO{ xfdLn] ;lhnf]sf nflu ws]Ng', aª\UofpFg', ;f]‰ofpg', b"nf] kfg'{ / 6fNg' w]/} u¥of}F t/ klg ;Gt'i6L slxNo} ldn]g . -xfd|f] z'?jft g} unt 5_ o;sf] lhDd]jf/ xfdL cfkm}F 5f}F . xfdL cfkm"nfO{ ToxL cg'¿k 9flng cfkm}Fn] ljjz u/fPsf xf}F .

o; lx;fan] xfdL /ª, ¿k / cfsf/xLg t/n kfgL elgg ;S5f}F .

t/ xfdL cfsf;, em/gf, s'jfsf ultzLn kfgL x}gf}F . xfdL s'g} cfsf/df efF8fleq ljjz, lgZrn eP/ a;]sf 5f}F . af;L 5f}F . uGxfpFb}5f}F . xfd|f] kfgLTTj aflkmP/ hfFb}5 . xfdL 36\b} 5f}F / 3gTTj a9\b} 5 . kmf]xf]/, d}nf / b'u{Gw xfd|f 3gTTjsf u'0fx¿ x'g\ / o;af6 hlGdPsf] sfnf] / wldnf] /ª xfd|f] lghL /ª x'g k'u]sf] 5 .

xfdLn] cfˆgf] kfgLTTj aˆofO;s]sf 5f}F . xfdL oL d}nfx¿ dfq afFsL /x]/ o;/L aflSnO;s]sf 5f}F ls cfˆgf :jfefljstf xfdLn] dfl/;s]sf 5f}F / efF8f 3f]lK6of];\ / klg ;lhn} au]/ aflxl/g ;SQm}gf}F .

oL d}nfx¿ k|m]daf6 :yflkt d"Nox¿ x'g\ .

kfgLTTj xfd|f] :jfefljstf xf] . :jfefljstf aflkmP/ xfdL b]z, wd{, lgod, ;Qf / To;k|ltsf] dof{bf / cf}krfl/stf dfq afFlr/x]5f}F . xfdL Tof] oflGqs dfG5] d"Nox¿;Fu lqmi6nfOh x'Fb} db}{ hfFb}5f}F .

-cl:tTTj bfhL{lnË @)@*, ..dGq.. – ^ sf7df8f}F @)@* / lj:yflkt cg'xf/x¿ @)@* df k|sflzt_


d}n] ;w}F cfˆgf ljrf/nfO{, dfGotfnfO{ Jojxfl/s /fVg] qmddf e"OFdf vGofPF / To;nfO{ ;w}F æt/nÆ :j¿kdf /fv]/ 3f]if0fkq n]v]F . syf, sljtf n]v]F . s'g} ljrf/ k|ltkfbgsf] nflu lyPg . Pp6f :jfefljs x'g] qmd lyof] . cfkm}FnfO{ :jefjdf 9fNg] r]i6f lyof] .


3f]if0fkq

d}n] cfkm"nfO{ oxfFg]/ cfOk'u]/ lj:yflkt kfPsf] 5'

-dfGotfnfO{ t/n ¿kdf lnP/—_

d}n] cfˆgf dfGotfsf efF8f xftdf lnP/ gfËf] e"OF– :jfefljstfdfly vGofPF .

efF8fcg'¿k :yflkt dfGotfx¿ cfsf/nfO{ c:jLsf/]/ :jfefljs

cfofdx¿df :jtGq eP .

cfh d :jfefljs 5' .

cfh d]/f] gofF hGd 5 .

d s'g} klg cfofddf s;} u/L klg hfg ;S5' .

d s'g} klg cfofddf s;} u/L ghfg klg ;S5' .

slt xfF; p7\bf] s'/f—

o; clglZrt l:yltdf /x]/ d 3f]if0ffkq n]Vb}5' .

3f]if0ffkq .

cfkm}Fn] cfkm}FnfO{ 3]/fx¿leq 3f]lift ug'{ kg]{

d]/f] 3f]if0ffkq s] x'g ;S5 <

d]/f] 3f]if0ffkq s] xf] <

d]/f] 3f]if0ffkq oxL xf] ls d]/f] 3f]if0ffkq g} 5}g .

!^–)#–@)@*

-gofF uf]/]6f], @)@* lrtjg o'jfSnjdf k|sflzt_


syf, sljtf n]v]F . s'g} ljrf/ k|ltkfbgsf] nflu lyPg . Pp6f :jfefljs x'g] qmd lyof] . cfkm}FnfO{ :jefjdf 9fNg] r]i6f lyof] . o; xbdf hxfF, hltkN6 d}n] :jfefljs x'g] r]i6f u/]F— Tolt g} kN6 k'/fgf dfGotf / ljwfx¿n] 7Ss/ lbP . oL ;a 7Ss/;Fu d]/f] cfˆgf] :jfefljs x'g' n8fOF lyof] . ;a} n8\g]n] To;} u/] . ;a} cfGbf]ngsf/Lx¿n] To;} u/]sf x'g\ / of] n8fOF xfdLn] cfh dfq x}g– dfG5]sf] Oltxf; z'? ePb]lv, u'kmfsfnb]lv g} n8\b} cfpFb} 5f}F . xfdL cfGbf]ngsf/Lx¿n] t/n kfgL eP/ s}of}F k'/fgf dfGotfsf kxf8 kmf]¥of}F . st} cfkm}F r§fgL dfGotfx¿af6 ts]{/ :jfefljs eP/ aUof}F . st} xHhf/f}F ;fn;Dd s'g} dfGotfsf cj/f]wnfO{ 9fNg g;s]/ hd]/ a:of}F . tfn eP/ hDof}F . st} s7fª\lu|P/ lxpF eof}F . st} tfltP/ aflkmof}F . ;w}F ;a} cj:yfx¿df kl/jlt{t eP/ klg xfdL t/n g} /Xof}F . :jfefljs eP/ aUof}F . pbfx/0f M of] sljtf— lj=;+= @)@@ ;fndf n]lvPsf] xf] .



slj rSsf s'Dxfn]sf]


aflkmG5 tfkdf .

p7\5 ;u/df .

p8\5 xfjfdf .


ablnG5 afbndf . ?G5 zLtdf .

rDsG5 lah'nLdf .

s8\sG5 d]3df .

jif{G5 jiff{df .

hD5 lxpFdf . pn{G5 e]ndf . k:5 wtL{df .

kUnG5 lxdgbLdf .

lg:sG5 em/gfdf . xfF:5 Hjfnfd'vLdf .




aU5 gbLdf .

k'U5 ;fu/df .

s'b\5 nx/df .


slj ========== .

-3'D5 kmgkmgL_

bf]xf]l/G5 rSsf s'Dxfn]sf] em}F .


-efg', jif{ @, ls/0f %÷ @)@@ sflt{s, k[= !* df k|sflzt_

klqsf ;fef/M lzj /]UdL dfkm{t M sfzLgfy tdf]6

:jefjjfbL lrGtg :ki6tM Pp6f ;fdflhs lrGtg xf] . o; lrGtgnfO{ k|:t't ug{ ;flxTonfO{ Pp6f dfWofd dfq agfPsf] x'F .

:jefjjfbL lrGtg Pp6f j}1flgs k|s[of xf] . o;df sNkgfzLntfsf nflu s'g} u'~hfO; /xFb}g . sNkgf ul/G5 eg] klg o;sf] v'§f cfkm" plePsf] e"lddf x'G5 / sNkgfsf] nflu Pp6f j}1flgs cfwf/ x'G5 . cfsf;lt/ o;sf] hu 5}g . e"OFdf plePsf] o; lgdf{0fsf] ljsf; cfsf;lt/ x'G5 . o;sf] ljsf;sf nflu cfsf; sd{:yn x'G5 .

:jefjjfb Pp6f ;fdflhs lrGtg ePsf] gftfdf o;n] Pp6f ;dfhsf] ;a} d"No, ;+:yf, lgsfo / ;b:ox¿nfO{ oyfl:ylt x]b{5 . cyf{t\ Pp6f ;dfhdf sfo{/t, /fhgLlts, cfly{s, wfld{s, ;flxlTos ;a} ;+/rgfx¿ / o; k5fl8sf ;+:yf, d"No, dfGotf, k/Dk/f, k|j[lQ, kl/jt{gzLntf, ;ª\u7g, lj36g cflb o;sf ljifoj:t' x'G5g\ .

:jefjjfbL lrGtg Pp6f j}1flgs b[li6sf]0f xf] . o;n] j:t'nfO{ j:t's} :jefjdf oyfl:ylt x]b{5 . of] b[li6sf]0f ;dfhjfbL jf ;fDojfbL jf k|hftGqjfbL jf c/fhstfjfbL jf ufGwLjfbL jf of}gjfbL s'g} jfbL xf]Og . oyfl:ylt;Ddt j:t'jfbL xf] . kfgL / To;sf] ultzLntf / t/ntf ;a};a} jfbLx¿sf nflu ToxL x'G5 . s;}n] kfgLnfO{ psfnf] au]sf] t s;}n] cf]/fnf] au]sf] b]Vg] x'Fb}g . ;a}n] kfgLsf] :jefjut :j¿knfO{ ;dfg¿kn] b]V5g\ .

:jefjjfbL k|s[of Pp6f ef}ltsjfbL k|s[of xf] . k|ToIf k|df0f gx'g], kfly{j OlGb|ox¿åf/f cg'e"t gx'g] s'g} klg tYodf cf:yf g/fVg] k|s[of xf] . ToxL e"lddf oyfy{ afRg] k|s[of xf] . h'g e"ldn] p;nfO{, JolQmnfO{ cfwf/ lbPsf] 5, vfgf lbPsf] 5, cf>o lbPsf] 5, ToxL e"ldaf6 hLjgsf] kl/efiff n]Vg] k|s[of xf] . hLjg s'g} cnf}lss zlQmaf6 lgolGqt 5}g . To;}n] of] s'g} …tflTTjsÚ jf …cfsf;LÚ jf …cfTdjfbLÚ tYo xf]Og . ef}lts cfwf/e"t s'/fx¿sf] …sdLÚ jf …k"0f{tfÚ af6 hLjg k|efljt x'G5 . To;}n] of] ef}lts tYo xf] .

ef}lts cfjZostfsf] kl/k"lt{ ePkl5 dfq hLjgdf pmhf{ k|fKt x'G5 . pmhf{ k|fKt ePkl5 dfq z/L/df :km"lt{ cfpF5 / ta uP/ dfq JolQmn] cfbz{jfb, /fi6«jfb, :jtGqtf, wd{ / tTTjzf:qsf s'/fx¿ ug{ Ifdtf /fVb5 . oL k5'jf s'/fx¿ vfP/ dfG5] c3fpGg / hLjg ;Dej x'Gg .

:jefjjfbL lrGtgsf] d"n w/ftn cy{ jf vfgf xf] . ;a} dfG5]x¿sf] hLjg Pp6f vfgfsf] syf xf] . ;a} ;dfh, ;a} /fi6«sf] syf klg vfgfs} syf xf] . hLjgsf] nflu vfgf Ps tYo xf] . oxL vfgfsf] pkef]u, ljt/0f / pTkfbgsf] syf g} ;a};a} Oltxf; jf kf}/fl0fs ufyfx¿sf syf x'g\ . To;}n] :jefjjfbL lrGtg ;dfh jf JolQmsf] cfly{s w/ftnaf6 ljZn]if0f ug]{ k|s[of xf] .

:jefjjfbL lrGtgdf /fhgLlt Pp6f cË eP klg o;nfO{ cfly{s w/ftndf /fv]/ x]l/G5 . ;dfhsf] Pp6f cË ePsf] lx;fadf o;nfO{ c:jLsf/ ug{ ldNb}g t/ of] cy{gLltnfO{ zf;g ug]{ cËsf] ¿kdf /xFb}g . /fhgLlt cy{gLltaf6 zfl;; x'G5 . x'g'k5{ .

:jefjjfb hLjgsf] :jfefljs t/n k4ltnfO{ kl/eflift ug]{ Pp6f j}1flgs lrGtg xf] . snf xf]Og . ;flxTodf k|o'Qm eP/ dfq o;n] snfTd cleJolQm kfpF5 .

dnfO{ nfU5— c:jLs[t hdftsf] cfGbf]ngdf s'g l;4fGtsf;fy d]/f] ;xeflutf /Xof] / cfh;Dd s'g cfwf/df d]/f n]vgx¿ pleG5g\ < :ki6 u/]F . d]/f n]vsLo dfGotfx¿ ;fyLx¿sf k|Zgsf cfwf/df k5fl8 k|:t't ug]{5' . clxn] of] :ki6 ug{ rfxG5' ls o; :jefjjfbL lrGtgnfO{ d}n] cfˆgf] PSnf] JolQmsf] l;4fGt eg]sf] 5'OgF . ;a};a} n]vsx¿n] :jfefljs eP/ dfG5]sf :jefjnfO{ JoQm ug{ ;S5g\ . w]/}n] ub}{ g} 5g\ . d}n] cfˆg} kf/fdf JoQm ug]{ sf]l;; dfq u/]sf] x'F . o;sf ;fy} s]xL :jLsf/f]lQm k]z ub{5' . ddf / d]/f] kl/eflift …:jefjjfbÚ df dfS;{sf] Dialectical Materialism, Anarchism and Theory of Super Structure and Substructure sf k|;:t k|efjx¿ 5g\ . To:t} afs'lggsf] Anarchism / cu:6 sfD6sf] Positivism n] emg} a];L k|efj kf/]sf 5g\ . plQs} k|efj lxGb" bz{g …rfjf{sÚsf l;4fGt / jfddfuL{ zfQmx¿sf l;4fGtn] klg kf/]sf 5g\ .


$= d]/f k|:t'tLs/0fsf k[i7e"ld– k|tLs, efiff / z}nLM


k/z' k|wfgn] Pp6f kf6L{df e]6 x'Fbf eGg'ePsf] lyof]– …tkfO{+sf syfdf tLg s'/fx¿ 5g\ . k|tLs, 7f8f] z}nL / gf6sLotf .Ú

tLgj6} s'/x¿nfO{ d}n] dfg]F . o; dfg]df ls d d]/f cfˆgf eGg'x¿ k|tLssf dfWofdx¿af6 eG5' / tL k|tLsfTds eOlbPsfn] :jefj}af6 gf6sLo x'G5g\ / d k|tLssf] dfWofdaf6 af]Nbf 7f8f] z}nLaf6 af]ln/x]sf] x'G5' t/ d]/f ;a} syfx¿ k|tLsfTds 5}gg\ . To;}sf/0f tL ;adf 7f8f], v;|f] z}nL / efiff k|of]u ePsf] 5}g / gf6sLotf klg .

…;qf}F cg'xf/ sljtf/fdsf]Ú eGg] n]vdf eg] pxfFn] klxnf b'O{ s'/fx¿ dfq pNn]v ug'{eof] . kl5Nnf] cyf{t\ …gf6sLotfÚ nfO{ pNn]v ug'{ePg . Ps} jfSodf pxfFn] tLg u'0fx¿ eGg'ePsf] lyof] t/ To; nfdf] n]vdf lsg Tof] t];|f] s'/f pNn]v ug'{ePg <

hjfkm ;fob To;} n]vsf] ;du|tfdf 5 . d]/f h] ef]Ug'x¿ cyf{t\ ef]ufOx¿ 5g\ To;}sf k|ltlaDa d]/f syfdf b]lvG5g\ . …lhGbuL afFRg] qmddf ef]luPsf ;f/f tLtf ufx|f ;f/f cK7\of/f kl/l:yltn] sljtf/fdnfO{ ToxL ljifo lbPsf] 5 . To;}nfO{ n]V5Ú OToflb . cyf{t\ ljifo gf6sLo lyPg . k|:t'tLs/0f gf6sLo lyof] . ;fob k/z' k|wfgn] oxL ;f]Rg'ePsf] lyof] .

d lsg k|tLsdf cfˆgf efjx¿ JoQm ub{5' < clg lsg d]/f] k|:t'tLs/0f gf6sLo x'G5g\ < / 7f8f] efiffdf x'G5g\ <

hjfkm of] xf] ls h'g kl/l:yltdf d afFRb5', h'g ;fdflhs Joj:yfdf a;L d}n] ;fdflhs hLjg ef]Ub}5' To; kl/l:ylt jf ;fdflhs Joj:yf jf ;dfhaf6 h'g;'s} k|tfl8t eP klg o;sf] lj?4 d s'g} s'/f ;f]em} jf :ki6 eGg ;lQmgF . ToxfF ;fdflhs dof{bf 5g\ . ;fdflhs dfkb08x¿ 5g\ . cfbz{x¿ 5g\ / sfg"g 5 . oL ;a ;Ldfx¿ ;f]em} g3\gfn] d bl08t x'g ;S5' . t To; l:yltdf d s;/L cfˆgf c;Gt'i6Lx¿ JoQm ug{ ;S5' < s;/L d d]/f nlIft kf7sx¿;Dd cfˆgf ;Gb]zx¿ k7fpg ;S5' < Pp6} af6f] /xG5— k|tLs . To;}n] d k|tLssf dfWofdaf6 af]ln/x]sf] x'G5' .

To:t} lj/f]w jf ljb|f]x s'g} klg g/d z}nLdf n]lvGgg\ . s]xL geP klg drflxF To;/L n]Vg ;lQmgF . To;}n] d]/f] efiff 7f8f] x'G5 . cyf{t\ o;/L eg] x'G5— Pp6f ?i6 JolQmsf] lj/f]w jf ljb|f]x /ËLrËL x'Gg .

;kmf s'/f s] eg] g/d / dL7f} z}nLdf n]Vg d}n] sf]l;; gu/]sf] x}g t/ lj8Dagf t s] eg] Tof] ;'xfpFbf] ljifoj:t' g} d;Fu /x]g . 5}g . ;ª\3if{/t 5' . n8fOFdf 5' . Pp6f n8fs" s;/L ;+j]bgzLn x'g ;S5 . s;/L g/d / /f]dflG6s x'g ;S5 < d}n] slxNo} s'g} zf]ifs d"No;Fu ;Demf}tf ug{ rflxgF . n8fs"sf x}l;otn] ;w}F d}n] kmnfdsf 6f]k nufPF . sjr nufPF / xftdf tLI0f zq'3ftL xltof/ /Xof] . o; kl/wfg jf xltof/;Fu d s;/L km"njf/Ldf eFj/f eP/ u'gu'gfpg ;S5' < p8\g ;S5' < s;/L ;'Gb/ kv]6fx¿ lnP/ k"l0f{dfsf] rGb|;Dd p8fg eg{ ;S5' . s;/L k/Lx¿nfO{ ;kgfdf Nofpg ;S5' . d]/f x/]s rfndfndf kmnfdsf ss{z Wjlgx¿ lg:sG5g\ . To;df dL7f; s] xf];\ < ;ª\uLt s] xf];\ < d cfkm}Fn] xf/]sf] 5' dL7f z}nL n]Vg] k|of;df / ;w}F :jfefljs ePsf] 5' ss{z / ?i6 z}nLdf .

d]/f] efiffdf df]xstf 5}g jf d]/f] efUodf Tof] 5}g eGg] k/z' k|wfgHo"sf] egfO 5 . o;df oxL eGg' kg]{ x'G5 ls d}n] n]vgsf] k|f/Dedf hlt efiffdf cEof;x¿ u/]F kl5 cfP/ ul/gF . Pp6f ;do cfof] ha l;ª\uf/k6f/n] dnfO{ gk'Ug] eof] / xft v'§f ;a} d}nf ug'{ kg]{ afWotf cfof] . ToxL afWotfsf] efiff d]/f] lgolt lyof] . ToxL efiff dfq n]Vg hfGg] ePF . hfg]/ / ghfg]/ l;ª\uf/k6f/sf efiff / ljifonfO{ a'h'{jf ;flxTo eg]F / cfˆg} :t/af6 n]Vg nfu]F . d}n] ;w}F cfˆgf s'/fx¿ eGg dfq rfx]F . z}nL l;ª\ufg{ rflxgF . To;}n] d]/f] z}nL ;'Gb/ ag]g . Pp6f ;fwf/0f k|jQmf ag]F . o;df d]/f] ljifon] klg k|efj kf¥of] . d]/f] ljifo g} o:tf] ag]g h;n] ;'Gb/, df]xs, dgf]/d, g/d / nlrnf] z}nL / zAb ljGof;sf] dfu u/f];\ . d}n] elgxfn]F n8fs" ag]F . n8fs"sf efiffdf af]N5' .

d}n] of] klg eGg' kg]{ x'G5 ls d}n] slxNo} /fd|f] /rgf lbG5' eg]/ n]lvg . ;w}F cfˆgf eGg'x¿ eG5' eg]/ n]v]F . Tof] s'g} ju{ ljz]ifnfO{ /fd|f] t s'g}nfO{ g/fd|f] x'g ;SYof] . of] dfGgf];\ ls dL7f–dL7f ;kgfx¿ syfdf e/]/ lg/Lx ju{nfO{ Joª\Uo lbg rflxFg . n]vx¿df xn'jf, k'/L agfP/ ef]sf] hgtfnfO{ k]6 eg{ k7fpg jf gLltsf s'/fx¿ 5fk]/ cfª 9fSg g;Sg] gfËf hgtfnfO{ c;Eo eGg rflxFg . of] dfGgf];\ ls ;''Gb/ km"naf/Lleq x'n]/ duGt]x¿nfO{ …nf} oL ;'Gb/ km"nx¿ x]/]/ cfjZostfnfO{ k"lt{ u/Ú elgg . d}n] ;w}F k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf¿kdf k|tLssf dfWofdaf6 jf cfTdsyfsf z}nLaf6 xfg]{, lkl;g], xtf]T;fxL x'g], cNdlng], hfg]/ jf ghfg]/ e/f}6] x'g], lk6\7" x'g], ljjz eP/ gf]s/ x'g], rf]/ x'g], /G8L x'g], OToflb sdhf]/ju{sf] k|jQmf eP/ n]v]F . tL zx/Lof xf]pg jf ufpFn], lzlIft jf clzlIft, wgL u/La jf dWodjuL{, pgLx¿sf tL ljjztf, lg/Lxkgf / dfu{bz{gxLgtfnfO{ b]v]/ ddf{xt x'G5' / To;}af6 k|efljt eP/ n]V5' .

d]/f] n]vg s'g} ju{ ljz]ifnfO{ p7fpg] jf lzIff lbg] nIo /fVb}g . d tLg} ju{sf] Ps kLl8t kfq x'F . d]/f] n]vg kL8faf6 p7]sf] lrTsf/ dfq xf] . k|nfk dfq xf] . cl:tTTjsf nflu n8fOF xf] .

tkfO{+nfO{ nfUbf] xf] of] sljtf/fd s] eGb}5 < sxLF st} lkm6 gx'g] s'/f eGb}5 . of] ;a klg ju{ ljz]ifsf] x]g]{ b[li6sf]0fdf km/s kb{5 . cg'e"ltsf /ªdf km/s kb{5 . Pp6f c3fPsf] dfG5] / ef]sfPsf] dfG5]sf] rfv, x]/fO, cg'e"lt / cleJolQmx¿df cfsf;–hdLgsf] km/s kb{5 . h:t} oxfF d s]xL pbfx/0fx¿ k]z ug{ rfxG5' . Pp6f Jojl:yt km"naf/LnfO{ x]/]/ c3fpg] wgL dfG5]sf] x]/fO cleJolQm o:tf] x'g;S5 M

æo; dgf]/d afudf cfˆgf] ar]sf] ;donfO{ pkof]u ug{ nfnflot ePF / clxn] o; afusf] ;f}Gbo{sf] /;f:jfbg ub}{5' .Æ

ToxL s'/fnfO{ d o;/L n]Vb5'– æs]xL km";{b lyof] / oxfF of] km"naf/Ldf c3fPsf dfG5]x¿ s] x]g{ cfpF5g\ < Tof] a'‰g cfPsf] 5' .Æ

Pp6f ;'Gb/ ;flxTo /Rg] c3fP/sf ;flxlTosx¿sf] efiff o:tf] x'g ;S5– ælk|o ltdLnfO{ b]Vbf d]/f] dg r~rn x'G5 . ;Dk"0f{ ;+;f/ / cf:yfx¿nfO{ la;{G5' . o:tf] nfU5 ltdL g} d]/f] lhGbuL xf} . ltdL g} Ps dfq ;To xf} .Æ

ToxL s'/fnfO{ d o;/L n]Vb5'– æsfnL Û tFnfO{ b]Vbf ;xf/fsf] cg'e"lt x'G5 . t}Fn] dfq d]/f] b'MvnfO{ a'‰5];\ . o:tf] nfU5– ;+;f/df d]/f c¿ sf]xL klg 5}gg\ . tFdfq 5;\ .Æ

c3fpg]x¿sf] Pp6f ;'Gb/ / kl/is[t cleJolQm o:tf] x'g ;S5– æul/i7 vfgfn] pgLx¿ t[Kt eP, :sr lkP/ dQ eP/ cfˆgf ;Dk"0f{ pQ]hgfnfO{ Ps csf{sf] cª\ufnf]df s;]/ zfGt kf/] .Æ

d]/f] ljifo / cleJolQm o:tf] x'g ;S5– æef]sf] k]6df pgLx¿nfO{ lgGb|f k/]g . Ps cDvf]/f kfgL lkP/ lbgel/sf ;Dk"0f{ ysfg / ef]snfO{ Ps csf{sf] tftf] cª\ufnf]df la;{g] sf]l;; u/] .Æ

k|To]s klxnf] / bf];|f] cleJolQmdf efiffsf] s'/f dfq x}g x]g]{ b[li6sf]0fx¿ klg km/s 5g\ . lng] cg'e"ltx¿ km/s 5g\ . Ps ju{n] csf]{ ju{sf] x]/fO / cg'e"ltnfO{ a'‰b}g . o;sf] cfwf/ g} km/s x'G5 . klxnf] cleJolQmn] h'g lx;fadf x]/]sf] jf cg'e"t u/]sf] 5 Tof] lx;fanfO{ >[ª\uf/sf] cfjZostf kb{5 . sNkgfzLntfsf] cfjZostf kb{5 t/ bf];|f] lx;fadf sNkgfzLntfsf nflu 7fpF /xGg . j:t'k/stf jf j:t'lgi7tfsf] cfjZostf x'G5 . ;fob j:t'lgi7tfdf ;flxTosf] u'0f x'Gg .



;flxTo ljwf / d]/f] ljwfxLgtf M

o:t} k|Zg 5 ljwfdf . syf / csyfsf] ljjfb lyof]– Tof] hdftdf . cyf{t !@÷!% jif{cl3 . ;fob d]/f] p7fg ;flxTo / c;flxToaf6 eof] . cyf{t\ ;flxTosf] :yflkt kl/efiff s] xf] / stf lyof] x]l/gF slxNo} klg . n]Vb} uPF of] ;Dem]/ ls d d]/f eGg'x¿ n]Vb}5' . ;flxTo ;[li6 u5'{ eg]/ xf]Og . o;/L cfkm"nfO{ :ki6 u/]kl5 ;lhnf] x'g] /x]5 . d}n] Pp6f n]v]F / To;nfO{ sljtf dfUg]x¿nfO{ lbPF . Tof] pgLx¿n] lnP . To;}nfO{ syf eg]/ csf]{nfO{ lbPF . Tof] klg pgLx¿n] syf eg]/} lnP . cyf{t\ Tof] o:tf] a]nf lyof]– hlxn] :yflkt ;flxTosf ljwf / d"No w/d/df lyof] . ;ª\qmd0fsfndf lyof] . To;sf cfˆgf v'§f alnof lyPgg\ . dnfO{ cem xf};nf a9\of] Tof] ljwfsf ;Ldf / kl/efiffx¿nfO{ xfFs lbg . uf]i7Lx¿df Pp6} s'/fnfO{ slxn] sljtfsf] no xfn]/ k9]F t slxn] uBsf] nodf . s;}af6 s]xL lj/f]w ;'lgPg . yfxf 5}g ;|f]tfx¿ dh:t} ljwfsf] dfGotfnfO{ b'Tsfg]{ lyP jf ljwf s] xf] Tof] :yflkt dfGotfnfO{ g} a'‰b}gy] jf Tof] ljwfsf] dfGotf g} Tolt sdhf]/ lyof] .

s]xL ;fyLx¿n] eg]sf 5g\– of] t sljtf ePg lgaGw eof] . To:t} of] syf ePg lgaGw eof] jf j}rfl/s n]v dfq eof] . d]/f] cfˆg} wf/0ff 5– n]vleq kfq x'Ng] lalQs} syf x'G5 . ;fob d]/f] ljrf/ :yflkt dfGotf;Fu d]n vfFb}g . To:t} ;fª\uLlts jf nofTds z}nLdf s]xL s'/f k|:t't ul/of] eg] sljtf aG5 . Tof] klg d]n vfPg . eG5g\– ljrf/k|wfg n]v eof], lgaGw eof] . ;fob lgaGw ljrf/;Fu c¿ ljwfeGbf glhs 5 . To;f] xf] eg] d}n] n]Vg] u/]sf] lgaGw} ;xL . h;n] h] eg]/ k9] klg x'G5 . d]/f] cfˆgf] s'g} l9kL 5}g .


;Dk]|if0fLotfsf] k|Zg / d]/f nlIft ;d"x M

k/z' k|wfgn] n]Vg'ePsf] 5– ;f]emf] egfO / aqmjfSo u7g k4ltn] s;/L s'g dfqfdf ;Dk|]if0f ug{ ;S5 < yfxf 5}g .

d eG5'– ;Dk|]if0f u5{ . 36Ldf klg cfˆgf ;xwdL{, ;dfg kl/l:ylt ef]Ug], ;djuL{ ;dfg:t/sf kf7sx¿n] a'‰5g\ . To; ju{df To; wd{;Fu -wd{ eGgfn] Religion eGb} 5'OgF– :jefj eGb}5'_ To; kl/l:ylt;Fu / cfly{s, ;fdflhs jf /fhgLlts :t/;Fu k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf ;DaGw /fVg] leGgleGg ju{sf kf7sx¿n] klg a'‰b5g\ . cyf{t d]/f] n8fOFsf] k/k|]Iodf eGg] xf] eg] ;xwdL{ n8fs" / ;xwdL{ n8fs"n] Tof] efj a'‰b5g\ lsgeg] d]/f efiff, d]/f k|tLs / jqmjfSo k4lt -5]8 xfFgfO_ tL b'a}sf aLrsf …;DaGwÚ nfO{ sfod ug]{ jf n8fpg] jf b"/L sfod ug]{ tTTjx¿sfaf/]df x'G5g\, h'g b'a} ju{df cfˆgf] ljifo / efiff ePsf sf/0f ;Dk|]if0fLo x'G5g\ .

d}n] lng], n]Vg] x/]s ljifodf b'O{ ju{x¿ x'G5g\ / pgLx¿aLrsf] ;DaGw / ;ª\3if{x¿nfO{ k|:t't ub{5' . olb s'g} kf7s d]/f] ljifodf s'g} klg k|ltåGåL kfq /x]sf] 5}g eg] ltgdf s'g} n]v ;Dk|]if0fLo x'Gg . cyf{t\ Pp6f dflns / gf]s/aLrsf] ;DaGwnfO{ d n]V5' eg] Pp6f dWodjuL{o kf7sn] d]/f] ljifonfO{ a'‰b}g . p;df g t dflns x'g's} cg'ej 5 g t gf]s/ g} . To:t} Pp6f 8fS6/n] 8fOaLl6hsf /f]ux¿af/] s]xL n]V5g\ jf s]xL lzIff lbG5g\ eg] Tof] n]v 8fS6/ jf 8foljl6hsf] /f]u gePsf] JolQmnfO{ ;Dk|]if0fLo x'Gg . d}n] eGg vf]h]sf] oxL xf] ls ;dk|]if0f x'gsf nflu Ps kIfdfq lhDd]bf/ x'Gg . ;Dk|]if0fstf{ / u|x0fstf{df k|ToIfLs/0fdf ;dtf x'g' cfjZos 5 . gq ;Dk|]if0fLo x'Gg .

o;} ;Gbe{df d}n] d]/f nlIft ;d"xaf/] klg s]xL n]Vg' kg]{ x'G5 . nlIft ;d"x eGgfn] d}n] d]/f] n]vgsf nlIft ;d"x eg]sf] x'F . logdf d]/f ;a} kf7sx¿ kb}{gg\ . d]/f x/]s n]vsf nflu leGgleGg nlIft ;d"xx¿ x'G5g\ . slxn] d k'/ftgjfbLnfO{ nIf u5'{ t slxn] gofF ju{nfO{ . slxn] p208 JolQmTjnfO{ t slxn] xfg]{ efUg]nfO{ . slxn] a['l4hLjLnfO{ t slxn] ;j{;fwf/0fnfO{ . Ps ju{ljz]ifsf kf7snfO{ csf]{ ju{ljz]ifsf c;DalGwt kf7sx¿nfO{ d]/f] ljifo ;Dk]|if0fLo x'Fb}g . -d efiff jf jqmjfSo u7gsf] dfq s'/f ub}{5}g, ljrf/ jf ljifosf] ;d]t s'/f ub}{5' . _

d]/f] n]vgsf nlIft ;d"x lzlIft ju{x¿ 5g\ . h;n] d]/f] n]vgnfO{ k9\g ;Sb5g\ jf a'‰g ;Sb5g\ . n]vgsf] nrstf / j}rfl/s k|wfgtfsf] :t/nfO{ pFwf] ug]{ jf pFef] ug]{ eGg] s'/f] d ltg} nlIft ;d"xsf] :t/nfO{ x]/]/ sfod ug]{ ub{5' . d ltg} nlIft ;d"xsf ljrf/, k|tLs efiff jf Jojxf/nfO{ lnP/ n]Vb5' . ToxL sf/0fn] xf] ls s'g} n]v Ps ju{nfO{ ;Dk|]io x'g ;S5 eg] km]l/ csf]{ n]v x'Gg . cyf{t\ Pp6} JolQm slxn] nlIft ;d"xdf k5{ slxn] kb}{g . ;a} ljifout km/s kb{5g\ .

d s'g …jfbLÚ 5' <

Pp6f ;fyLn] dnfO{ eg]sf] 5— tkfO{+ n]vdf …k]6L a'h'{jfÚ x'g'x'G5 . csf{n] lau|]sf] dfcf]jfbL, s;}n] of}gjfbL .

d s]sf] k]6L a'h'{jf jf dfcf]jfbL jf of}gjfbL < cfˆgfcfˆgf cfFvfn] ;fyLx¿n] x]5{g\ dnfO{ . h;n] h:tf] b[li6sf]0f /fV5g\ ToxL cfFvfn] c¿nfO{ x]5{g\ . oL ;a} ;fyLx¿ dnfO{ ;fDojfbL ;DemG5g\ / af6f] la/fPsf]df b'Mv dfg]/ ;sf{li6s sd]G6x¿ lbG5g\ .

j:t'tM d}n] o:tf] s'g} 3f]if0ff u/]sf] 5}g ls d s'g jfbL x'F . d s] n]V5'– tkfO{+x¿s} ;fd' 5 . slxn] s]df lkm6 xf]nf slxn] s]df . o;f] x]bf{ tkfO{+n] k"jf{u|x /fVg'ePsf] 5 eg] dnfO{ cjZo} Pp6f ckl/kSj JolQmTjsf] ¿kdf kfpg'x'g]5 . lsgeg] d s'g} klg k|]mddf Ps5Q cg'zfl;t eP/ a;]sf] 5}g . k|]mdxLgtf g} d]/f] l;4fGt jf afFRg] z}nL xf] . dnfO{ tkfO{+ ;f]Wg'x'G5 eg] d]/f] hjfkm x'G5– d o:tf] s'g} jfbL x}g t/ k|ltjfbL . ljleGg d"Nox¿n] dnfO{ lk6\5g\– ltgsf] lj?4 k|ltjfbL . tkfO{+n] k]6L a'h'{jf eg]/ dnfO{ lxsf{pg'eof] eg] d ToxfF g} k|ltjfbL . xf]Og eg] c¿ avtdf zf]lift, zfl;t, blnt, sdhf]/ ju{sf] tkm{af6 d'2f a9fpg] JolQm– Pp6f jfbL . JolQmjfbL eg]sf] x}g– Tof] tNnf] ju{sf] ;d"xjfbL .


k|ultzLntfsf] cjwf/0ff / d]/f] kl/slNkt ;dfh

s]xL 7fpFx¿df d cfkm"nfO{ k|ultzLn egfpFb} cfPsf] 5' . dfly klg k|ultzLntfnfO{ t/ntfsf] cjwf/0ff;Fu pkdfo'Qm agfPF . ;Lldt ;f]rfO /fVg]x¿sf lbdfudf em§} s] kg{ ;S5 eg] d sDo'lgHdsf s'/f ub}{5' . o;f] lsg x'G5 g]kfndf sDo'lgi6x¿nfO{ k|ultzLn elgG5 t/ d}n] eg]sf] k|ultzLntf Tof] ;Lldt 3]/fleq c6fpFb}g . o;/L ;Lldt ;f]rfO /flvof] eg] …k|ultÚ eGg] zAbnfO{ g} xfdLn] ;Lldt agfp5f}F . s;}n] cfkm"nfO{ k|ultzLn eG5 eg] pm j}1flgs ljrf/wf/f /fVg] k|ultkydf nfu]sf] JolQm eg]/ a'‰g' k5{ . sDo'lgi6 eg]/ xf]Og .

k|ultzLntf Pp6f j}1flgs wf/0ff xf] . ?9Ldf clNemg] ;dfh ;w}F ultxLg /xG5 . To:tf] ;dfhn] cfˆgf ?9Lx¿df JolQmx¿sf] klxrfg vf]Hg l;sfpF5 . To;tf ?9Lut d"Nox¿af6 zfl;t / zf]lift tL ;b:ox¿ dfu{bz{gxLg eP/ ?9Lx¿d} clNem/x]sf x'G5g\ . pgLx¿sf] d'Vo p2]Zo ;dfhsf] lgod kfng ub}{ ;dfhs} d"Nox¿sf] nflu zxLb x'g' xf] . ?9LeGbf k/ pgLx¿ ;f]Rg ;Qm}gg\ . ;f]Rg kfpFb}gg\ . ;f]Rg' Pp6f c;fdflhs k|lqmof dflgG5 . kfk dflgG5 t/ To;sf] lj?4 Pp6f k|ultzLn ;dfh k|To]s gofF s'/fsf] nflu v'Nnf x'G5 . p;sf] x]g]{, a'‰g] t/Lsf j:t'k/s x'G5 . j:t'nfO{, d"NonfO{ To;}sf] :jefjdf /fv]/ j:t'ut k|df0fx¿af6 Jojl:yt k|0ffnLdf x]b{5 . Jojl:yt k|0ffnLdf /x]/ :jfefljs r/0fsf] nflu k|of]u ub{5 / k|of]ul;4 s'/fx¿nfO{ cfufdL kfOnfsf] nflu e¥ofË agfpF5 . p;sf] k|To]s cfwf/ 7f]; / k|of]ul;4 x'G5 . p;sf] nflu ;w}F cufl8 a9\g] 7fpFx¿ x'G5g\ . s'g} ;Ldf x'Gg . To;}n] o;nfO{ k|ultzLn ;dfh elgG5 . d}n] To;}nfO{ k|ultzLn ;dfh eg]sf] x'F . of] cjwf/0ff /fVg] jf o;/L ;f]Rg] k|To]s JolQmnfO{ d k|ultzLn eG5' . h;leq sDo'lgi6 x'g ;Sg] ;a} ljrf/sx¿ klg kb{5g\ .

ca /Xof] d sDo'lgi6 x'F ls x'OFg < d}n] :ki6 eg]sf] 5'– dfS;{sf] c/fhstfjfbaf6 lgs} k|efljt ePsf] 5' . dfS;{nfO{ ;fDojfbLeGbf klg c/fhstfjfbL eGg' pko'Qm x'G5 . pgsf] kl/slNkt j}1flgs ;dfh k"0f{tM c/fhstfjfbdf cfwfl/t 5 . ;dfhjfb jf ;fDojfb pgsf] c/fhstfjfbsf] af6f] xf] . c/fhstfjfbsf] k|;Ë cfpFbf d dfS;{eGbf klg afs'lggnfO{ Hofbf cfkm" glhs kfpF5' . pgsf] c/fhstfjfbdf …;f;gÚ s'g} txdf x'Gg . d c/fhstfjfbsf] ;dy{s x'F . d o:tf] ;dfhsf] sNkgf ub{5'– hxfF JolQmn] jf ju{n] s;}sf] zf]if0f / s;}dfly ;f;g ub}{g . ;a} ;fwgx¿sf] a/fa/ pkef]u ldnLh'nL ub{5g\ . ;a} gful/ssf] xs / ef]u ;dfg /xG5 . To;sf nflu ;a} cg'zfl;t /xG5g\ .

d"No / d"Nolj/f]w M

d]/f dfGotf / d"Noaf/]df klg s]xL e|d km}lnPsf 5g\ . ;fyLx¿n] of] a'em]sf 5g\ ls d ;a} :yflkt dfGotf / d"Nox¿sf] lj/f]wdf 5' t/ To;f] xf]Og . dfGotf / d"No s] xf] < ;fyLx¿n] ;j{k|yd ToxL a'‰g' h?/L 5 . of] j:t'tM ;flxlTos k|Zg x}g . Pp6f ;fdflhs k|Zg xf] . Pp6f ;dfhdf k'lhg] d"No csf]{ ;dfhdf k'lhg} k5{ eGg] 5}g . 3[l0ft klg x'g ;S5 . To:t} Pp6f ju{sf] ;fdflhs d"No csf]{ ju{df j]cyL{ jf 3[l0ft x'g ;S5 . pbfx/0fsf] nflu ;dfhjfbL Joj:yfdf k"FhLjfbL d"Nox¿ Pp6f zlQmjfbL d"Nosf] ¿kdf 3[l0ft 5 / k"FhLjfbL Joj:yfdf ;dfhjfbL d"No h]n h:t} 3[l0ft 5 . w]/} k/ ghfcf}F . xfdLx¿s} ;dfhdf /x]sf b'O{ wdf{jnDjL af}4x¿ / zfQmx¿nfO{ lnpF . af}4x¿sf] d"n dGq clx+;f 5 eg] zfQmx¿sf] sd{ kz'jnLdf lgwf{l/t 5 . cem glhs cfpF– tfufwf/L hfltn] ;'Fu'/ 5'g l3gfpF5g\ / csf{ vfn] klg 5g\– To;nfO{ dL7f] df;'sf] ¿kdf lnG5g\ . To:t} Pp6} ju{sf JolQmx¿aLr klg cfˆg} j}olQms d"Nox¿df km/s x'g ;S5g\ . Pp6fn] eGg ;S5– pTs[i6 /ª /ftf] xf], csf]{n] gLnf] . ;a} cfˆgf cfˆg} d"Nodf afFR5g\ . ;f]xL :jLs[t d"No cg'¿k cfˆgf hLjgk4lt sfod /fVb5g\ . ;a} d"Nox¿ ;a} 7fpF, ;a} ju{, ;a} ;do / kl/l:yltdf Ps5q ;dfg /xFb}gg\ . To;nfO{ ju{n] agfpF5 . cfjZostf cg'¿k kl/jt{g ub{5 . km/s olt xf]– tL ju{df r]tgf 5 jf 5}g < r]tgzLn ju{ d"Nox¿af6 zfl;t / zf]lift x'Fb}gg\ . ha ls r]tgxLg ju{ tL d"Nox¿af6 zflift / zf]lift x'G5g\ .

d"Nox¿sf] k|;Ëdf d]/f] dfGotf oxL xf] ls Tof] dfG5] xf] / ;dofGt/df cfˆgf] cfjZostf cg'¿k ePg eg] dfG5]x¿n] g} abNg ;S5g\ . d"No afFRg] ;fwg xf] . nIo jf ;fWo xf]Og . Tof] xfd|f] af6f] xf] . zf;s xf]Og . d]/f] ;flxTodf, d]/f ljrf/x¿df oxL wf/0ffx¿ cleJoQm x'G5g\ . oxL l;4fGtdf d :jfefljs ag]/ n]V5' / dnfO{ yfxf 5 ls d"Nox¿af6 kf]if kfpg] ju{x¿nfO{ d]/f] d"No lj/f]w ckr x'G5 . oxfF o:tf ju{ klg 5g\ hf] Tolt r]tgzLn 5}gg\ / :yflkt hLjg k4ltdf afFlr/xg pgLx¿nfO{ ;lhnf] x'G5 . csf]{ kl/jlt{t hLjg k4ltdf afFRg sNkgf;Dd ug{ ;Qm}gg\, Tof] kmfObfhgs g} lsg gxf];\ . of] s:tf] eg] afx'gnfO{ sfdLsf] bfloTTj lbg' jf sfdLnfO{ afx'gsf] bfloTTj lbg' h:t} x'G5 . Tolt pu| pbfx/0f glnpF . csf]{ ;fwf/0f pbfx/0f lnpF– Pp6f gf]s/nfO{ x]/ afa' Û ;dfhjfbL cy{Joj:yfdf dflns / gf]s/ a/fa/ x'G5g\ . ToxfF dflns / gf]s/ g} x'Gg eGbf Tof] gf]s/ v';L x'g] x}g ls ;'Gb}df 8/fpg] x'g ;S5 . b'a} dflns / gf]s/nfO{ d]/f] ljrf/ ckr x'G5 . csf]{ ju{sf] d"NonfO{ :jLsfg{ jf gofF d"Nox¿ :yfkgf ug{' eg]sf] hLjgk4lt g} kl/jt{g ug'{x'G5 . dfG5] eGg] hftnfO{ Pp6f af6f]df cEo:t ePkl5 csf]{df cEo:t x'g ;do nfU5 . Tof] d}n] d]/f ljrf/x¿sf] lj/f]lwsf nflu dfq eg]sf] xf]Og . d]/} nflu klg nfu" x'G5 . d ;a} d]/f j}rfl/s lj/f]wLx¿sf sd{nfO{ a'‰5' / pgLx¿ lj?4 Tolt pu| 5'OFg . d s'g} ju{sf] lj/f]wdf 5}g . lx+;|s, zf;s / zf]ifs d"Nox¿sf] lj/f]wdf 5' .


of}gjfbsf] k|Zg / d]/f] e"F8Ljfb M

oxL cf7÷bz jif{cl3 of}gnfO{ crfSnL clZnn elgg] ahf/sf] efp lyof] . s]xL ;fyLx¿ crfSnL g} of}gnfO{ kf]gf]{u|fkmLsf] ¿kdf NofpFy] . pgLx¿ vfg] klg ToxL, nfpg] klg ToxL / ;fdflhs Jojxf/ klg ToxL dfGy] . pgLx¿sf] kIfdf dnfO{ af]Ng' lyPg / 5}g t/ of}g Pp6f s'07f eP/ s'g} kfqsf] dfgl;s ljsf;df afwf kb{5 eg] of}g ;fdflhs, JolQmut, cfly{s jf wfld{s d"Nodf ;dflji6 5 eg] / To; ljifodf s;}n] n]Vb5 eg] To;nfO{ cZnLn dflGbgF . d}n] To;/L w]/} n]v]sf] t 5}g t/ n]Vg ;S5' .

of}g Pp6f zf/Ll/s cfjZostfnfO{ slxNo} gsfg{ ;lsGg . o; ;TonfO{ xfd|f] ;dfh / ;+:s[ltsf] Oltxf;n] ;Fw} :jLsf¥of] . oyf:yfg lbof] . of] xfd|f] ;fdflhs kl/l:yltdf slxNo} 3[l0ft jf cZnLn lyPg . xfd|f] wd{, k/Dk/f, ?9L jf cy{Joj:yfdf of] ;Fw} cfˆg} kf/fsf] ;Ddflgt lx;fadf ;dflji6 5 . o;n] slxNo} ZnLn jf cZnLntfsf] s;Ldf d"Nos[t x'g' k/]g . a¿ ;dfhut :jf:Yodf, ;dfhsf] :jf:Yo ljifodf ;Fw} ;Ddflgt :yfg kfof] . kfPsf] 5 . ;flxTonfO{ ;dfhsf] P]gf eGg] ;flxlTos k/Dk/fdf afFRg] xfdL cfh lsg cfˆgf] cg'xf/ x]g{ jf cfˆgf] :j¿knfO{ x]g{ q:t 5f}F < d t eG5'– of] Pp6f ljsf/ xf] . xfdLdf of}gljs[lt cfPsf] 5 . To;}n] cfˆgf] :j¿knfO{ x]g{ / b]vfpg 8/fpFb}5f}F .

tkfO{+ s:tf] kf7s x'g'x'G5 dnfO{ yfxf 5}g . olb tkfO{+ klg of}gnfO{ ljs[lt eg]/} lng'x'G5 eg] d]/f oL x/kmx¿sf] nlIft kf7s tkfO{+ g} x''g'x'G5 . d tkfO{+nfO{ tkfO{+s} cg'xf/ b]vfpg rfxG5' . tkfO{+nfO{ hLjgsf] cl:tTTj s;/L k|fKt eof] < tkfO{+ of] ;+;f/df s;/L cfpg'eof] < s] tkfO{+sf af–cfdfdf ;dfud ePg . pgLx¿n] tkfO{+x¿nfO{ hGdfpg ;dfud u/]sf x'g\ ls of}g;'vsf nflu < of] ;a ;f]Rbf s] tkfO{+nfO{ ljs[ltsf] cg'e"lt x'G5 < cZnLn nfU5 < tkfO{+ slxn]b]lv lsg lnË jf of]gL jf b'a}sf Psfwf/nfO{ k"hf ub}{ x'g'x'G5 < slxn]b]lv of}gfs[ltx¿nfO{ dlGb/sf ;+/Ifs dfGb} x'g'x'G5 < uxgf agfpFb} x'g'x'G5 < tkfO{+sf] elQmefjdf tL …of}gÚ stf, s;/L ;dflji6 5g\ < tkfO{+nfO{ slxNo} nHhf, 3[0ff jf cZnLntfsf] cg'e"lt eof] <

tkfO{+n] tkfO{+sf 5f]/f5f]/L, efOalxgL, jf ldqx¿sf ljjfxdf pko'Qm hf]8Lsf] rrf{ ug'{eof] ls ePg < Tof] pko'Qmtf ljrf/ s]sf cfwf/df ug'{eof] < To;df cfo'ljz]if, :jf:Yoljz]ifsf s'/f ug'{eof] ls ePg < o;/L s'/f ubf{ slxNo} tkfO{+nfO{ tL ;asf k5fl8 of}g ;dflji6 5 eGg] nfUof] ls nfu]g <

ljjfxeGbf tkfO{+ s] a'‰g'x'G5 < wd{zf:qn] ljjfxnfO{ s;/L kl/eflift u/sf] 5 < tkfO{+ ljjfxsf] cfjZostfnfO{ s;/L k'i6L ug'{x'G5 < tkfO{+nfO{ ;Gtfgsf] rfxgf eof] ls ePg < ;dfhnfO{ gful/ssf] cfjZostf 5 ls 5}g < Tof] ;Gtfgsf] rfxgf k5fl8 of}g 5 ls 5}g < Pp6L cfOdfO{n] aRrf lbg ;lsg eg] csf]{ ljx] lsg ul/G5 < oL ;asf] k5fl8 s] 5 <

s] tkfO{+n] ufO{j:t' kfNg'ePsf] 5 < j:t'n] /fFuf], uf]? jf af]sf vf]Hof] eG5f}F ls eGb}gf}F < xfdL htflt/ ;fF9] 5 Tot} xfd|f] kf]yL j:t' nfG5f}F ls nfb}gf}F <

:jfefljs 5– d}n] of}gljifosf k|Zgx¿ p7fpFbf p7fpFb} tkfO{+sf] hjfkm ;fdflhs 5 . cfly{s 5 / x'g' k5{ . tkfO{+sf] hjfkm ;fdflhs 5 eg] ;flxTodf Tof] ljifo cfpFbf tkfO{+n] lsg gfs v'DRofpg] < of xfdLdf ljsf/ pTkGg ePsf] 5 < ;'–;+:s[t x'g] 9f]Fudf xfdL o;f] u5f}{+ . o:tf x'Fb}5f}F . xfd|f ljrf/x¿ jf:tljs w/ftndf v'§f 6]Sb}gg\ . xfdL k/Dk/fdf cfˆgf v'§f /fVb5f}F . k/Dk/fnfO{ cfsf;lt/ pEofpF5f}F / xfdL pFwf] d'G6f] eP/ cfˆgf] ultnfO{ dfb}{5f}F . xfdLdf b[li6e|d ePsf] 5 . cyf{t xfd|f] b[li6 k/Dk/fut rZdfaf6 kl/isf/ u/]/ NofPsf 5f}F . xfdL To; rZdfaf6 oyfl:ylt x]b}{gf}F . To;af6 cy{ nfpF5f}F . xfd|f] ;+:sf/n] To;nfO{ cZnLn ;fljt ub{5 . lj8Dagf t of] 5 ls xfdL k/Dk/fsf] gfddf h] klg :jLsf5f}{+ / gofF s'/fnfO{ hlxn] klg c:jLsf/ u5f}{ . of] a'‰g ;Ifd 5}gf}F ls s'g} klg k/Dk/fsf] k5fl8 Oltxf; s] 5 < jf:tljstf s] 5 <

eGg'xf]nf of}g;DaGwdf xfd|f] k/Dk/fsf] Oltxf; s] 5 < d}n] dflyb]lv g} Oª\lut ub}{5'– o;nfO{ ;fdflhs k/Dk/fdf ;Ddflgt :yfg k|fKt 5 . aLrdf xfdL ;';Eo x'g] 9f]Fudf cgy{ ub}{5f}F .

of}g Pp6f k|fs[lts If'wfnfO{ xfd|f j}lbs ;+:s[lt, h;n] ;w}F k|s[ltsf] k"hf ub{5g\ n] slxNo} gsf/]gg\ . o;nfO{ ;Ddflgt u/]/ ;dfhnfO{ :jf:Yo, ;Gt'ng / ult lbPsf 5g\ . o;nfO{ wfld{s, ;+:sf/ut d"Nos[t u/]sf 5g\ . of}gfËnfO{ pj{/tfsf] k|tLs dfg]/ k"hf u/]sf 5g\ .

tkfO{+ zf:q1ftf x'g'x'G5 eg] tkfO{+nfO{ yfxf x'g'k5{– ;dfhnfO{ lg/Gt/tf k|bfg ug{, of]Uo gful/s pTkfbg ug{ ljjfx Pp6f ;fdflhs ;+:yfnfO{ ;+:sf/sf ¿kdf dfGotf k|bfg ul/Psf] 5 . ljjfxsf w]/} p2]ZodWo] Pp6f p2]ZonfO{ …/ltÚ klg elgPsf] 5 . ;fdfhaf6 dfGotfk|fKt lx;fadf sfdsf] k"lt{ ug{ / dfgl;s hLjgdf ;Gt'ng agfpg'nfO{ g} /ltlqmof elgPsf] 5 . o;nfO{ st{Josf] ¿kdf cËLs[t ul/Psf] 5 .

dxfef/tdf elgPsf] 5– 5f]/f] ghGdfpg] k'?if cwfld{s xf] . of]Uo 5f]/f] kfpg] x]t'df …uef{wfgÚ ;+:sf/ ;d]tsf] Joj:yf ePsf] 5 . dg':d[ltsf] k"j{ lddf+;fdf :ki6 n]lvPsf] 5– æh'g sd{af6 :qLdf cfˆgf] jLh :yflkt ul/G5 To;nfO{ …uef{wfgÚ elgG5 .Æ o; ;+:sf/sf nflu wd{zf:qdf pko'Qm ;dosf] lgwf{/0f klg ul/Psf] 5 . h:t}– Ct':gfgsf] rf}yf] /fqLb]lv ;f]x|f}F /fqL;Dd uef{wfgsf] nflu pko'Qm ;do elgPsf] 5 . o;df klg jf]wfofgn] cw{/fqLsf] ;donfO{ clws pko'Qm eg]sf] 5 . dg':d[ltn] k'qsf] nflu ;d/fqL b'O{n] efu nfUg]_ / k'qLsf] nflu ljifd/fqL -b'O{n] efu gnfUg]_ lbgdf ;dfud ug]{ lgb{]z u/]sf] 5 . cf7f}F, rf}yf}F / tL;f}F /fqL jlh{t 5g\ .

oL OToflb s'/fnfO{ s] tkfO{+ gsfg{ ;Sg'x'G5 < of]Uo 5f]/fsf] nflu ;d/fqL 5fg]/ ;dfud ug]{ syf n]lvof] eg] tkfO{+ s] eGg'x'G5 < zf:qn] dfGotf lbPsf] ;dfhdf :yflkt dfGotfleqsf s'/f n]lvof] eg] tkfO{+ s] eGg'x'G5 < cZnLn < ======= ;flxTonfO{ ;dfhsf] P]gfsf ¿kdf dfGg'x'G5 eg] of] ;fdflhs dfGotfnfO{ tkfO{+ s;/L gsfg'{ x'G5 < s;/L cZnLn eGg'x'G5 < x]gf]{;\ tkfO{+sf] x]/fOnfO{ cZnLn eGg' kg]{ x'G5 . Tof] syf;Dd Pp6f ;fdflhs k|Zg lyof] t/ tkfO{+n] kmf]xf]/L 9Ën] x]l/lbP/ Tof] kmf]xf]/L x'g k'Ub5 . tkfO{+ dlGb/sf 6'F8fnx¿df b]lvg] of}gfs[ltnfO{ uDeL/¿kn] x]g'{x'G5 eg] tL uDeL/ s'/f x'G5g\ . xfF:g nfUg'eof] eg] cZnLn x'G5g\ . cZnLn tL 6'F8fn x'G5g\ ls tkfO{+sf] ;f]rfO <

af}4 / lxGb" ;dfhdf jfddfuL{x¿aLr k~r …dÚ sf/–k"hf k|rlnt 5 . h;df …d}y'gÚ klg ;dflji6 5 . o;nfO{ of}lus ;fwgfsf ¿kdf lnOG5 . o; ;fwgfaf6 JolQm cå}tsf] l:yltdf k'Ub5, hxfF pm k|]d, 3[0ff, ZnLn, cZnLn, >]i7, cwdsf] lj/f]wfefif jf e]befj k/ z"Gosf] l:yltdf k'Ub5 .

of]usf] ;fydf sfd (Sex) sf] ld>0f tGqdfuL{x¿n] o; ljrf/n] u/] ls ;fws tyf ;flwsfsf aLr b'a}df of] cg'e"lt gxf];\ ls pgLx¿df s'g} lnËe]b 5 . zfQm wd{n] cfˆgf pRrsf]6Lsf ;fwsx¿nfO{ eGb5 ls ltdL Tof] l:yltdf cfO;s]sf 5f} hxfF gf/L ;dfud ca s'g} bf; -aGwg_ /x]sf] 5}g . pbfQLs[t cfgGbsf] k|tLs ePsf] 5 . ltdL of] efjn] ;dfud u/ ls k|To]s k'?ifdf lzj / k|To]s gf/Ldf lzjf -kfj{tL_ k|R5Gg 5, hxfF g/gf/L ;dfud x'G5 ToxfF lzjzlQm ;dfug ul//x]sf x'G5g\ . zfQm ;fwsx¿n] Sex nfO{ kljq sd{ dfg]sf 5g\ . d oL zf:qx¿sf] b'xfO o; sf/0fn] lbFb}5' ls zf:qLo cfwf/sf gfddf zf:qnfO{ ga'‰g] 9f]FuLx¿n] ;dfhdf cg]sg b'/fu|xx¿ km}nfO/x]sf 5g\ . pgLx¿nfO{ of] b]vfpg rfx]sf] 5' ls pgLx¿sf dof{bf / d"Nox¿ s'af6f]df nfu]sf 5g\ . ;du|df d]/f] egfO xf] Sex, Sex s} nflu n]lvPdf jf dgf]/~hgsf nflu n]lvPdf d]/f] dfGotf To;sf] lj?4df 5 . ;'Gb/ km"n, k/Lx¿;Fusf] ;o/, /f]dfG;, k|]d / dL7f–dL7f dxËf vfgfx¿sf af/]df n]v]/ h;/L c;Ifd, u/La, sdhf]/ ju{nfO{ 3f]FRg], Joª\Uo lbg] /rgfx¿df d]/f] lj/f]w 5 . To;/L g} To:tf] Sex nfO{ jf;gf, Jolerf/ jf kf]gf]{u|fkmLsf] ¿kdf jf hLjgsf] Psdfq ;To jf ;Dk"0f{tfsf ¿kdf k|:t't ePsf /rgfx¿df d]/f] lj/f]w 5 .

d]/f n]vx¿df Sex 5}g d elGbg t/ ToxL d]/f] dfGotfleqsf] dof{bfleq /x]sf x'G5g\ . d To;/L /fV5' . ;'Ggf];\, Pp6f s'NnL lbge/ sfd gkfP/ ;fdn Nofpg ;Qm}g . clg b'a} nf]Ug]:jf:gL ef]sf x'G5g\ t/ b'a}hgf /ftsf] cFWof/f]df of}gleq 8'a'NsL df/]/ ;Dk"0f{ cfˆgf lbgel/sf kL8fnfO{ la;{g vf]H5g\ . d o;nfO{ cfˆgf] ljifo dfG5' . sd;]sd ef]s / lbgel/sf] ;ª\3if{nfO{ la;f{pg] Pp6f dfWofdsf] ¿kdf pgLx¿ o;nfO{ k|of]u u5{g\ . pgLx¿sf] Tof] ;'vnfO{ cZnLn eg]/ cGofo ulb{g . p;sf] Tof] :jtGqtfnfO{ xgg ulb{{g .

dnfO{ yfxf 5– g]kfnL hutdf, ;flxTodf d]/f] of}gljifos k|j[lQ / wf/0ffx¿af/] cg]sg e|dk"0f{ wf/0ffx¿ km}lnPsf 5g\ . j:t'tM c:jLs[t hdftsf] z'?jftsf] k"jf{4{{df o:tf] x'g uof] / kl5;Dd o:t} eO/Xof] . w]/} g]kfnsf ;flxlTos ;fyLx¿ k9\gdf sd, ;Demg, a'‰g / lrGtgdf k5fl8 lyP / 5g\ / xNnf a];L . xNnf u¥of], ToxL xNnf 3'dlkm/ u/]/ ljs[t¿kdf cfkm";Dd cfOk'U5g\ . clg pgnfO{ gofF s'/f] kfPF eGg] nfU5 . km]l/ To;}dfly ykyfk u¥of] clg km]l/ xNnfsf] qmd . o;/L cfˆg} ljs[t xNnfsf] k|ltkmn cfˆgf] lbdfudf kms]{/ cfPsf] yfxf kfpFb}gg\ . o:t} eof] d]/f] af/]df klg .

@)@(÷)#) ;fnlt/sf] s'/f xf] . o:tf xNnf kfl/hftn] klg ;'Gg' eP5 . klxnf] e]6df g} pxfFn] a'‰g rfxg'eof]– …tkfO{+n] ;flxTo ;+:yfgsf] uf]i7Ldf w]/} cZnLn s'/f af]Ng'eof] eGg] s'/f ;'G5' . s] ;fFRrf] xf] <Ú

d}n] pxfFnfO{ oyfl:ylt j0f{g u/]sf] lyPF . s] eg] ;flxTo ;+:yfgsf] uf]i7L a;Gtk'/sf] sn]hdf ePsf] lyof] . To;a]nf tTsflng Ps8]dLsf s'nklt, pks'nklt tyf ;b:ox¿ ;d]t jl/i7 ;flxlTosx¿sf] pkl:ylt lyof] . d}n] vfnL Pp6} d'2fdf cfˆgf eGg'x¿ k]z u/]y]F . Tof] s] eg]– ToxfF kl/is[t ;flxTosf] cfjZostfaf/] kl/rrf{ ul/Fb} lyof] / lSni6 ;flxTosf] lj/f]w . pg} JolQmn] ;fwf/0f hgtfn] a'‰g] kl/is[t ;flxTosf] dfu u/]sf lyP / ;flxTodf of}gsf] lj/f]w u/]sf lyP . pgn] o;f]eGbf w]/} rf]l6 lnË, of]gL / ;Def]u eGg] zAbx¿ k|of]u u/]sf lyP . ;a} d'Uw lyP pgsf] k|jrgdf . d}n] vfnL Pp6f ;fgf] xfFs lbPsf] lyPF . Tof] s] eg]– ;fwf/0f hgtfn] a'‰g] ;/n ;flxTo rfxg] JolQmn] lsg lnË, of]gL / ;Def]u h:tf ca'em zAbx¿sf] k|of]u u/]sf] < s] ;fwf/0f hgtfn] tL zAbx¿ a'‰5g\ < of] s] lxkf]qm];L xf] < ToxL eGg cfjZostf lyof] eg] lsg kbf{df a;]/ eGg] < cf]R5\ofgsf s'/f ug]{n] cfR5\ofgs} efiff k|of]u ug{ lsg g;s]sf < hgtfsf] cfjZostfsf] ljrf/ ug]{ pQm k|jQmfnfO{ d}n] eg]sf] lyP– hgtfnfO{ clxn] 7"nf] j0f{dfnfsf] cfjZostf 5 . tkfO{+ xfd|f] af}l4s efif0f xf]Og . oxL s'/f] d}n] kfl/hftnfO{ oyfl:ylt, oyfy{df j0f{g ubf{ pxfFnfO{ d]/f] cleJolQm cZnLn nfu]g .

d}n] cfˆgf] of}gaf/]sf wf/0ff k6sk6s u/L w]/} n]vx¿df k|:t't u/]sf] 5' . s;n] k9] / s;n] a'em] < o;kN6 of}gaf/]df k|Zg /fv]/ k/z' k|wfgn] 7"nf] u'0f nufpg'ePsf] 5 .

5f]6f] u/L d}n] of}g;DaGwdf eGg' k5{– d of}gjfbL x}g . d e"F8LjfbL x'F . d k|mfo8jfbL x}g . o+'u -Jung_ jfbL x'F . k|mfo8n] dfG5]sf ;Dk"0f{ clek|]/s zlQm of}gnfO{ dfg]sf 5g\ eg] o'+un] …afRg] OR5fÚ nfO{ dfg]sf 5g\ . d klg To;} eG5' . dfG5] hLljt hGt' xf] / k|yd cfjZostf hLljt /xg' xf] . hLljt /xg p;nfO{ pmhf{ rflxG5 . pmhf{ vfgfaf6 k|fKt x'G5 . vfgfsf] ;DaGw …vfg'Ú jf …e"F8LÚ ;Fu 5 . of}g;Fu 5}g . of}gsf] ;DaGw k|hgg jf j+zj[l4;Fu 5 . j+zj[l4 jf k|hggsf nflu ta g} dfG5] ;Ifd x'G5 ha p hLljt 5, p;df pmhf{ 5 / t[Kt 5 . To;}n] of}geGbf klxn] …vfgfÚ cfpF5 dfG5]sf] hLjgdf . dfG5]sf] ;Dk"0f{ lqmofsnfk, ultljlw of}gaf6 xf]Og e"F8Laf6 ;~rflnt 5 . d of}gjfbL xf]Og . e"F8LjfbL x'F .







d ;flxlTos ls ljrf/s ls b'a} <

d of] dfGb5' ls d]/f w]/}h;f] n]vx¿ ljrf/k|wfg x'g k'Ub5g\ . sf/0f s] eg] d k|s[ltsf ;f}Gbo{nfO{ x]/]/ rlst x'Gg . sNkgfzLntf x'g ;"of]{bosf] ;fy;fy} d}n] ;"of{:tnfO{ klg b]v]sf] 5' . hLjgsf jf:tlstf / lg:;f/tfnfO{ w]/} glhsaf6 b]v]sf] 5' . x]g{ l;s]sf] 5' . o;} xbdf d sNkgfZfLn x'Gg . lrGtnzLn x'G5' . lrGtg eg]sf] ts{k"0f{ x'G5 / ts{xLg s'/fnfO{ xfdL …sfNklgsÚ eGb5f}F . lrGtgsf] k|s[of s'g} ;d:ofaf6 z'? x'G5 / sNkgf eg]sf] o;} km";{bdf a;]/ ug]{ s'/f x'G5 . lrGtgsf] cfwf/ jf:tljs w/ftn x'G5 / sNkgf cfsf;df p8\g klg ;S5 . lrGtg Pp6f ;d:of ;dfwfg ug{ s'g} lglZrt lbzfdf nfUb5 / sNkgfsf] s'g} lglZrt uf]/]6f] x'Gg . lrGtg ;d:of ;dfwfg ug{ Ps kl5 csf]{ k|oTgx¿ ub{5 / q'6L eP q'6L ;'wfb}{ cufl8 a9\g] qmddf nfUb5 t/ sNkgfn] o:tf] k|oTg ub}{g . o;f] eg]/ sNkgfdf k"0f{tM ts{ x'Fb}g, nIo x'Fb}g / Pp6f syfsf/ cjf:tljs w/ftndf a;]/ syf n]V5 eg]sf] klg xf]Og .

o;/L lgbLvf]hL ug{ nfluof] eg] lrGtg / sNkgfdf e]b Nofpg Hofb} ufx|f] s'/f] x'G5 . t/ of] Pp6f jf:tljstf xf] ls lrGtg / sNkgf aLr e]b 5 / Tof] e]b d}n] dfly eg]sf s'/fx¿n] w]/} dfqfdf :ki6 ub{5 . ToxL e]bsf cfwf/df eGb5'–

d]/f] lrGtg sljTjaf6 cufl8 al9;s]sf] 5 . ;fob d slj x}g . ;flxlTos x}g . To;eGbf a9L d ;fob ljrf/s x'F . d ljrf/nfO{ k|tLsx¿sf dfWofdaf6 k|:t't u5'{ . To; lx;fadf dfq d]/f] ;flxlTos x'g] k|of; /xG5 t/ jf:tljstfrflxF s] xf] eg] d]/f] lrGtgn], ts{x¿n] d]/f] ;flxlTos sd{nfO{ lslr;s]sf] 5 . d k|ydtM ljrf/s x'F . bf];|f]df ;flxlTos . To;}n] d b'a} x'F .

d]/f] ;flxToleqsf j}rfl/s kIfnfO{ s;}s;}n] sf]/f eGbf /x]5g\ eGg] klg k/z' k|wfgHo"sf] n]vaf6 a'em]sf] 5' . d]/f] j}rfl/s kIfnfO{ a'lemlbP/ sf]/f ;Demg' x'g] aGw'x¿nfO{ To; j}rfl/s If]qdf pqg cfXjfg ub{5' . cfˆgf ljrf/x¿nfO{ ;fyLx¿sf] b]gaf6 kl/isf/ ug{ rfxG5' .


d]/f ;flxTo

Ps rf]l6 jf;'b]j lqkf7Ln] eGg'ePsf] 5– ætkfO{+sf] cfˆg} cnu t/Lsf 5 .Æ d]/f] cn ck|f]rsf] af/]df 8f= bof/fd ;Dej klg a]nf df}sfdf s'/f ug'{x'G5 . To:t} jf;' l/dfn ofqLn] klg d]/f] :yfg cnUu b]Vg'x'G5 . cle ;'j]bLn] @@÷@# ;fnlt/ w/fgd} eGg'ePsf] lyof]– æltd|f] rfnf cf]9f/df a:g] PSnf] wfdLsf] 5 .Æ k/z' k|wfgn] d]/f] ;qf}F cg'xf/df x]bf{ ToxL b]Vg'ePsf] 5 . ljifout, efiffut, z}nLut OToflbdf .

d ;a};Fu ;xdt 5' . lj/f]w 5}g . d]/f cfˆgf kL8f 5g\ . kL8fnfO{ d PSn}n] ef]U5' / d]/f] ef]Ug] kf/f cfˆg} 5 . :jefjtM d]/f] /ª 9Ë d]/f] cfˆg} kf/fdf 5 . slxn]sfxLF b'Mv nfU5 d lsg ;fyLx¿sf aLr ayfgdf ;dfg b]lvOGg t/ b'Mvn] d xtf]T;fxL 5'OgF . uj{ lng l;s]sf] 5' . s;d]sd cfˆg} kf/fdf afFRg . cfˆgf] l;Ëf] cl:tTTj / kl/rodf ;Gt'i6 5' . w]/} s'/fx¿sf c;Gt'i6Lx¿aLr oxL ;Gt'i6Lsf ;xf/fn] ;flxTodf afFr]sf] 5' . cufl8 a9\b}5' .

t/ ;fob ToxL sf/0f xf] ls Tolt cufl8 5'OFg hlt x'g' kYof]{ . em08} *÷!) jif{ aLrdf oxfF ;fyLx¿ ;fd' kl/gF . ;fyLx¿sf] ;Ëtaf6 k|]/0ff ldN5 / n]V5' eg]sf] s'/f t'?Gt} n]lvxflnG5 . clg o;/L ;dfhdf cfˆgf] xflh/L b]lvG5 . rrf{df cfOG5 / cufl8 al9G5 . jf:tjdf ;d:of d]/f] ;flxTosf] lyPg . afFRg'sf] lyof] . d]/f] ;xf/fdf afFRg]x¿nfO{ arfpg'sf] lyof] . o; h;sf] zlQm p;sf] elQm w/ftndf cfkm"nfO{ sfod /fVg w]/} ;ª\3if{ ug'{ kbf]{/x]5 . cfˆgf] OR5f, dfGotf / cfbz{sf df]xx¿df afFRg ufx|f] kbf]{ /x]5 . ;a em'7f ;fljt x'g] /x]5g\ tL df]xx¿ ha xfl/G5 / ef]s} ;'Tg' kg]{ l:ylt x'G5 . ;fFrf] b]v]F vfnL kl/>d . o; :yfkgfsf a]nfdf d}n] cs}{ ;flxTo n]v]F rfdn, n'uf / 3/ . oL /ut / kl;gfn] n]v]F . xf/]sf] / yfs]sf] cj:yfdf d}n] ;flxTo n]lvFg xf]Og n]v]F t/ yf]/} / hlt n]v]F 5f]6f] / l56f] clg d]/f] ahf/ cWoogsf] sdLn] ubf{ s;}s;}sf cfFvfdf v;|f] / efiffut cgfsif{0f .

k|1f–k|lti7fg, l6=eL= / /]l8of]df d]/f] bflvnL

k|1f–k|lti7fgsf uf]i7Lx¿df / l6=eL= df d lsg b]lvOGg < eGg] s]xL ;fyLx¿sf] k|Zg 5 . pgLx¿ eG5g\– st} d}n] oL ;+:yfx¿nfO{ -c:jLs[tjfbsf] k|;Ëdf_ c:jLsf/ t u/]sf] xf]Og < d lsg o:tf ;+:yfx¿df b]lvOGg eGg] s'/f klxnf] cWofod} :ki6 u/sf] 5' ls d To:t} ljifo n]V5' h'g o:tf ;+:yfx¿af6 w]/}h;f] x'Fb}gg\ / s]xL slxn]sfxLF :jLs[t x'g] vfndf n]vx¿ n]v]F eg] klg d]/f] sd ;Dks{ ePsf] / cfkm"nfO{ :jLsf/sf nflu cfu|x ug]{ afgL gePsf sf/0f k5fl8 kb{5' . o; lx;fadf d :ki6 x'g rfxG5' ls s;}k|lt d]/f] c;Gt'li6 5}g . lkm/fb 5}g . To;f] t /]l8of]n] d]/f ;f+:s[lts n]vx¿ lnO g} /x]sf 5g\ . l6=eL= n] Ps, b'O{j6f syfx¿df rnlrq agfpFb} g} 5 . d]/f g/d syfx?sf] Pp6f ;ª\sng g]=/f=k|=k= n] 5fKg t/v/ klg ub}{5 .

kf7s ;fyLx¿aLr :ki6 ug{ klg rfxG5' ls d slxF st} jl/i7 jf ljlzi6 jf dxfg\ b]lvgsf nflu n]lVbgF . s'g} st} k'/:sf/sf] nflu n]lVbg . d]/f] afnk':ts …kfgLsf] yf]kfÚ nfO{ cGt/f{li6«o afnsf]ifaf6 g]kfnsf] nflu ;jf]{Ts[i6 afnk':tssf] ¿kdf ;g\ !(*@ df k'/:s[t ul/Psf] lyof] t/ d}n] o;sf] nflu cfj]bg lbPsf] lyOg . cfPsf] k'/:sf/ lnPF / lnG5' t/ k'/:sf/sf] nflu eg]/ slxNo} n]lVbg .

k'/:sf/sf] nflu n]Vg' eg]sf] :yflkt dfGotfleq a;]/ snfx¿ ;[hgf ug]{ xf]8afhLdf pqg' xf] . d}n] :ki6 ul/;s]sf] 5' ls d tL dfGotfx¿s} lj?4df pq]/ n]V5' . o;}af6 :ki6 x'G5 ls d lsg g]=/f=k|=k= jf l6=eL= jf /]l8of]h:tf dfWofdx¿df cfkm"nfO{ bflvnf ulb{g .

JolQmut tj/df d oL ;+:yfx¿sf] lj/f]wL xf]Og . lj/f]w u/]/ s]xL xfl;n ug'{ klg 5}g . l;4fGtsf] s'/f] ub}{5' d . oL ;+:yfx¿sf] sfd g} ;Qf;Lg :jLs[t dfGotf / d"Nox¿leqsf cfbz{sf] ;+/If0f / k|j4{g ug'{ xf] . s'g} klg ;dfhdf o:tf cËx¿sf] h?/L kb{5 . oL lgsfox¿n] yf]qf dfGotfnfO{ dfq k|j4{g u5{g\ eGg] h:tf] c;Gtf]if ddf 5}g . lsgeg] d]/f] n8fOF yf]qf dfGotfx¿;Fu 5 . o:tf dfGotfx¿sf kfn]x¿ jf o:t} dfGotfsf efF8fx¿;Fu xf]Og . kfn] jf efF8f s'g} klg dfGotfnfO{ rflxG5 . d]/} dfGotfnfO{ klg rflxG5 .

To;}n] d]/f ;fyLx¿nfO{ hjfkm 5– d]/f] oL lgsfox¿df pkl:ylt x'g' jf gx'g'df …c:jLs[tjfbÚ ;Fu s'g} ;DaGw 5}g . jf]nfj6 cfP5 / EofPF5' eg] d hfG5' gq hfGg . To:t} d}n] n]v]sf s'/fx¿ pgLx¿ 5fKg ;S5g\ eg] d lbG5' t/ pgsf cfbz{sf efF8fdf lkm6 u/Lj/LrflxF n]Vg ?rfpGg . slt o:tf s'/f klg x'G5g\ ls d]/f ljrf/x¿ pgLx¿df lkm6 x'G5g\ . o;} xbdf slxn]sfxLF oL lgsfox¿af6 klg /rgfx¿ 5flkg] u5{g\ .

%= d]/f syf cf:yf


!= klxnf] s'/f t d s'g ljwfdf snd rnfpF5' :ki6 cfkm}FnfO{ g} nfUb}g . cfTdk/s cleJolQm n]V5' ;fyLx¿ eG5g\ …of] syf xf]Ú . cfˆgf] wf/0ff cs}{ 5 . 36gf To;df eP d To;nfO{ syf eG5' gq lgaGw / kB z}nLdf k|:t't u/]/ slxn]sfxLF To;nfO{ sljtf klg eG5' .


@= d cfˆgf cleJolQmx¿nfO{ 36gfx¿ lbP/ syf agfpg vf]Hb5' t/ s] nfUb5 eg] …syf n]Vg' eg]sf] 9fF6\g' xf]Ú . ;xh} 9fF6\g' ufx|f] s'/f xf] . cfTdk/s syf agfpFbf o:tf] nfU5 …d cfˆgf] s'/f n]Vb}5' / cfˆgf OdfGbf/Lx¿ k]z ubf{ 9F6fO x'g] 5}gÚ .


#= cfkm"nfO{ Pp6f cj:yfdf /fv]/ :jfefljs cg'e"t u/]/ n]Vg' eg]sf] Pp6f cg'e"ltsf] cleJolQm dfq xf] eGg] nfU5 . To;}n] d}n] n]v]sf syf 9F6fO jf kf7sx¿sf] ;do gi6 ug]{ s'/fx¿ cjZo} 5}gg\ Odfg;fy To:t} nfU5 . d}n] k|To]s n]v jf syf vfnL kf7sx¿sf] dgf]/~hgsf nflu n]v]sf] 5'Og . k|To]s syf jf sljtf k5fl8 d"Nox¿sf] j}1flgs ljZn]if0fx¿ 5g\ . ;w}F d}n] s]xL g s]xL 1ftJo s'/fx¿ n]v]sf] 5' .


$= klxnf] s'/f t d ;w}F lj3l6t d"Nox¿;fy n8\g] jf cleof]hg ug]{ syfx¿ n]V5' . slxn] d"Nox¿;Fu emD6G5' . slxn] xfb{5' . slxn] efU5' . ;w}F d"Nox¿s} syf n]Vb5' / cfkm"nfO{ jf d"NonfO{ cfkm"tkm{ jf d"Notkm{ cleof]hg ug]{ syfx¿ n]Vb5' . d]/f @) jif{b]lvsf ;a} ;flxlTos s[ltx¿ oltd} ;Lldt 5g\ .


%= o:tf] nfUb5– d}n] ;w}F OdfGbf/Lk"0f{ cleJolQmx¿ lbPsf] 5' . d}n] cfkm"nfO{ xhf/ jif{ klxn] jf kl5sf ;dodf To;a]nfsf d"Nox¿;Fusf] ;ª\3if{ jf cleof]hgsf cleJolQmx¿ k]z ul/;s]sf] 5' . Pp6f cj:yfnfO{ sNk]/ cfkm"nfO{ t/n agfP/ :jfefljs ¿kdf h] cg'e"t x'G5 To;sf] j:t'ut cleJolQm kf]v]sf] 5' . o;/L :jfefljs ePkl5 dnfO{ slxNo} ufx|f] ePg ls d cfˆgf] ;doeGbf cufl8 jf k5fl8sf syf n]Vb}5' . d ljZj:t 5'– xhf/ jif{ cufl8 jf k5fl8 klg kfgLsf] t/n :jefj Ps} x'G5 . Ps} lyof] / /xg] 5 .

^= ;/n / ;'rf? ePsf hLjgsf] kIfnfO{ d xQkQ 5'Gg . st} s'gfdf P]+h]? knfPsf dfG5]sf hLjgdf SofG;/ x'g k'u]sf ljifoj:t'nfO{ n]V5' . o:tf ljifox¿ To;} klg hl6n x'G5g\ . To;df klg cfd ;fwf/0f hgtfn] lognfO{ cfˆgf] lgolt dfg]/ :jLsf/ ul//x]sf x'gfn] Ps lsl;dn] ;j{;fwf/0fsf cfFvfdf cf]em]ndf k/]sf] x'G5 . To;}n] oL ckl/lrt 5g\ / To;}n] b'jf]{Wo klg 5g\ . pQm ljifox¿df kx'Fr gePsf kf7sx¿nfO{ o:tf syf, sljtf a'‰g cln sl7g g} k5{ . dnfO{ w]/}n] c;Gtf]if k|s6 u/]sf 5g\ ls d]/f s'/fx¿ a'lemGgg\ . d'Vo sf/0fx¿ log} x'g\ .


&= d}n] dfly eg]sf] 5'– ;w}F d Pp6} s'/fdf n]V5' Tof] xf] …d"NoÚ . d k'/ftgjfbLnfO{ kf}/fl0fs tyf nf]s ;f+:s[lts syfx¿ ljZn]if0f u/]/ nIo u5'{ . cfhsf lkF9LnfO{ cfhs} lj;ª\ultsf syfx¿ ljZn]if0f u/]/ nIo ub{5' / b'a{nnfO{ ef]lnsf] :j¿k b]vfpg cfhsf] l;F9Ldf pEofP/ ljZn]if0f u/]/ j}1flgs syfx¿ n]V5' . d]/f] tLg} kIfdf plQs} snd rN5g\ t/ lj1fg syf n]Vbf eg] Pp6f ufx|f] kb{5 . kf7sx¿nfO{ s;/L To;sf] kl/j]z a'emfpF < Pp6f 7"n} ;d:of x'G5 dnfO{ . syf Pp6f ;fgf] a'Fbfdf n]lvG5 t/ To;sf] kl/j]z eg] w]/} 7"nf] x'g hfG5 . cyf{t xhf/ jif{ k5fl8sf] Pp6f d"NonfO{ lnP/ n]Vb}5' eg] tTsfnLg ;dfh, ;dfh Joj:yf, lj1fgsf] pTsif{ OToflb Pp6} syfdf b]vfpg' kg]{ x'G5, h'g ;fgf] syfdf k|foM c;Dej g} x'G5 . To;}n] rfx]/ klg w]/} lj1fg syfx¿ n]Vg ;ls/x]sf] 5}g .


*= d]/f cf:yf j}1flgs x'g] qmddf /x]sf 5g\ . j}1flgs x'g] qmd g} :jfefljs x'g] qmd xf] . o;} qmddf gofF k'/fgf ;a} ljifonfO{ j}1flgs ljZn]if0f u/]/ k|:t't u/]sf] 5' .


(= d syfnfO{ ;Lldt :yfg jf kfq ljz]ifdf a]/]/ n]lVbg . To;}n] d]/f syfdf kfq / :yfgsf gfdx¿ kb}{gg\ . d]/f] ;'em 5 d]/f syf ;a} 7fpF, ;a} JolQmx¿df 3l6g] syf x'g\ . …askqÚ Pp6f 8Nn} pkGof; klg d}n] kfqx¿ / :yfg ljz]ifsf] gfd g/flvsg} n]lv;s]sf] 5' .


!)= To:t} 36gfx¿af/]df klg d]/f cfˆg} wf/0ffx¿ 5g\ . d]/f syfdf 36gfx¿ x'G5g\ . 36gf cfPsf x'G5g\ eg] klg cfˆgf s'/fx¿ kf]vfpg] Pp6f dfWofdsf] ¿kdf dfq k|of]u u/]sf] x'G5' . o:tf] lgs} g} sd dfqfdf ePsf] 5 . st} ;+:d/0fx¿ n]Vb}5' eg] a]Un} s'/f xf] . To:tf syfdf kfq / :yfg ljZf]ifsf gfd kg x'G5g\ t/ ;a} ;To . d sfNklgs gfd k|of]u ulb{g . d]/f oL s'/fx¿df ljz]if k|oTg /xG5 .

!!= slxn]sfxLF d ;fyLx¿sf] cg'/f]wdf pgLx¿sf] cfjZostf cg'¿k cfkm"n] n]Vg ;Sg] ljifodf klg n]Vb5' . slxn]sfxLF cfˆg} cfu|xn] cfkm"nfO{ afFw]/ klg n]V5' . cyf{t\ a];L kf7sx¿;Dd k'Ugsf] nflu ;aeGbf a];L 5flkg] klqsfx¿df lkm6 x'g g/dkf/fn] g/d ljifodf klg n]V5' .


!@= clxn];Dd d]/f b'O{j6f syf ;ª\u|xx¿ lgl:sPsf 5g\ . …k|nfkÚ / …sfnf] syfÚ . k|nfkdf @@ j6f / …sÚ sfnf] syfdf !^ j6f syfx¿ 5g\ . oL uGtLx¿ n]Vg'sf] sf/0f s]xL klg xf]Og . sltj6fdf s] s;/L n]v]F x]g{ vf]h]sf] 5' . …k|nfkÚ sf syfx¿ ;femf k|sfzgaf6 5flkPsf :jLs[t syfx¿ x'g\ . o;df )@! b]lv )#& ;Ddsf syfx¿ 5g\ . k|nfksf @@ j6f syfx¿ dWo] !^ j6f cfTdk/s syfx¿ 5g\ . o;df P3f/j6f syf t s'g} g s'g} ¿kdf ;To36gfd} cfwfl/t 5g\ . afFsL 5j6f dWo] @ j6f sfNklgs syf 5g\ hf] d}n] c:jLs[t cfGbf]ngeGbf klxn] n]v]F / c:jLs[t lrGtg o;df kb}{g\ . afFsL # j6f syfx¿ ;To36gfdf cfwfl/t dgf]ljZn]if0ffTds 5g\ . clGtd Pp6frflxF dxfef/tsfnLg syf xf] . h;nfO{ j}1flgs syf agfpg] k|of; u/]sf] 5' . o;f] eGbf @@ j6f syfx¿dWo] d}n] vfnL b'O{j6f syfdf 9fF6\g] sfd u/]sf] 5' / lognfO{ c:jLs[t lrGtg z'? x'g'eGbf cl3 )@! ;fnlt/ n]v]F . ;a} syfx¿ ldlta4 k|sflzt 5g\ .

sfnf] syfsf] syf k"0f{tM cs}{ 5 . oL !^ syfx¿ st} n/t/f]n] g5flkPsf c:jLs[t syfx¿ x'g\ . oL syfx¿ )@( ;fnb]lv )#^ ;fnleq n]lvPsf x'g\ . logdf tLgj6f wfld{s syf / Pp6f nf]ssyfsf] d"Nout ljZn]if0f ul/Psf] 5 . gf}j6f cfTdk/s syf 5g\ / b'O{j6f lgaGwfTds .

b'a} lstfasf #* j6} syfx¿df hDdf $ j6f ;+:d/0fsf syf afx]s afFsL #$ j6f syfdf :yfgsf] gfd 5}g . ;a} syfx¿ dWo] #% j6f syfdf kfqx¿sf] gfd pNn]v 5}g . o;kl5 n]lvPsf ;a} syfdf :yfg / kfqsf gfd 5}gg\ / l5§} k|sfzgdf cfpg] @ j6f pkGof;df 7fpF / kfqsf gfd st} pNn]v x'g] 5}gg\ .


!#= cfˆgf syfx¿sf] cf:yfaf/] n]Vbf d}n] …sÚ sfnf] syf e"ldsf k]z u/]F eg] d w]/} g} :ki6 x'g]5' . Tof] tn k|:t't 5 .


sfnf] syfsfaf/]eGbf eGg' kg]{ s'/f


!= …sÚ d]/f ;Dk"0f{ sygx¿df Pp6f k|tLsfTds k|ltlglw kfq xf] . oxL …sÚ dfkm{t d]/f j}rfl/s Controversy x¿ / eGg' kg]{ s'/fx¿ k|:t't 5g\ . d]/f] kLl8t …sÚ sf efiffx¿ s'g} 7fpFdf v;|f], ?i6 / ufnL ;'lgg]5g\ / s'g} 7fpFdf lj/f]w / s'g} 7fpFdf knfog . Pp6f kLl8t dgl:ylt af}nfP/ cg]s aS5 . To;df cf}krfl/stf ;'Gg kfpg'x'g] 5}g / Tof] asfOdf p;sf] s6'tfsf] syf ;ª\nUg x'G5 . d]/f] k|of; Tof] s6'tfsf] lrqkl§ 5 . o;dfkm{t d}n] s;}nfO{ lzIff lbg] tyf cfˆgf] /ª yf]kg]{ b'/fu|x /fv]sf] 5}g .


@= o;sf ;Dk"0f{ kfqx¿ cfhsf lj:yflkt kfqx¿ x'g\ . cfhsf] ;fdflhs dfGotfaf6 c:jLs[t kfqx¿ x'g\ . csf]{ zAbdf eGg' kbf{ 9f]FuL dfGotf / bDeL d"Nox¿sf pkh x'g\ . d]/f] snd To;}df s]lGb|t 5 .


#= ljwf of kl/j]zleq /x]/ d}n] s]xL n]v]sf] 5}g . Pp6f ljrf/ of kfqnfO{ h;/L k|:t't ug{ ;lhnf] k¥of] To;/L g} d}n] k|:t't u/]sf] 5' . oxfF ePsf ;Dk"0f{ OsfO{x¿ syf ljwfleq k5{g\ eGg] d]/f] s'g} x7 5}g t/ Pp6f cfu|xrflxF cjZo} 5 ls o;sf ;Dk"0f{ OsfO{x¿n] ;dli6¿kdf cjZo g} Pp6f syf elg/x]sf x'g]5g\ h;sf] /ª sfnf] 5 .


$= ;flxTo ;dfhsf] P]gf xf] eGg] k'/fgf] sygnfO{ dfGg'x'G5 eg] / o; …sÚ nfO{ ;flxTo egL dfGg'x'G5 eg] cyjf b'a} s'/f gdfg] klg o;n] ;dfhsf] sfnf] kIf b]vfO/x]sf] kfpg'x''g]5 .


%= sfnf]nfO{ ljb|f]x jf lj/f]wsf] ¿kdf lng'x'G5 eg] o; …sÚ n] To; kIf / To;leq a;]/ if8oGq ul//xg] ju{sf] lj/f]wdf sfnf] whf] b]vfO/x]sf] kfpg'x'g]5 .


^= sfnf]nfO{ cGwsf/sf] ¿kdf lng'x'G5 eg] …sÚ n] o;leqsf v'ª\vf/ lg;fr/x¿nfO{ tyf pgLx¿sf lx+;|s dfGotfnfO{ k|sfzdf Nofpg vf]h]sf] kfpg'x'g]5 .


&= sfnf]nfO{ Unexposed Film sf] ¿kdf lng'x'G5 eg] To; Unexposed Area df …sÚ n] Pp6f j}rfl/s lrq lbg vf]h]sf] kfpg'x'g]5 .


*= sfnf]nfO{ s'¿ksf] cy{df lng'x'G5 eg] …sÚ n] c:jLs[t dfGotf -s'¿ktf_ nfO{ :yfkgf ug{ vf]lh/x]sf] kfpg'x'g]5 .


(= Pp6f zf]lift, kLl8t / ?i6 n]Dofgsf cleJolQmnfO{ tkfO{+ ;'Ggf];\ . To;sf efiffdf aft}lkR5] kmnfgf] yf]s eGg] h:tf cg]s of}ghlgt zAbx¿ RofFl7Psf] cfjfhdf ;'Gg'x'g]5 cyjf xft agfP/ cfˆgf] c:jLs[lt hgfO/x]sf] b]Vg'x'g]5 . of] st} of}gcfzlQmsf] cZnLn cleJolQm egL tkfO{+ eGg ;Sg'x'Gg . o:tf zAbx¿sf] k|of]un] clejQmfnfO{ nfUb5– p;n] hgfpg vf]h]sf] c:jLs[lt leq}b]lv hlgof] t/ tkfO{+ dfGg'x'G5 p;sf] k|of]hgrflxF of}g x}g . dnfO{ klg nfU5 of}ghlgt jfSo jf l:yltx¿sf] k|of]un] cfkm"n] JoQm ug{ vf]h]sf c:jLs[ltx¿ leq}b]lv lwt d?~h]n elgof] . d]/f] ju{sf] ;dfhn] dnfO{ o:t} ;+:sf/ lbPsf] 5 . of}ghlgt zAbx¿ d]/f] ju{sf] lglDt c:jLs[ltsf] Pp6f dfWod xf] . cfˆgf] cleJolQmsf qmddf d}n] cfkm"nfO{ tkfO{+;fd' tyfslyt ;Eo, lzlIft, cfbz{ / pRrju{n] k|:t't ug]{ h:tf 9f]Fux¿ /r]sf] 5}g . cfˆgf] cleJolQmdf d OdfGbf/ 5' .


!)= cfˆgf] cleJolQmdf d OdfGbf/ 5' . d cfkm"k|lt OdfGbf/ 5' . :ki6 5' . d}n] cfkm"nfO{ 7u]sf] 5}g .


!!= of] slxNo} s;}df ;dlk{t 5}g . of] :yflkt d"Nox¿sf] lj?4 5 .


!@= o;k|lt tkfO{+sf] dfGotfnfO{ gklv{sg / tkfO{+sf] dfGotfsf] cfzf g/fvLsg …sÚ z'? x'G5 .


!#= d}n] ;dfhsNof0fsf] nflu egL jf ;flxTo ;]jfsf] nflu jf s;}nfO{ v';L kfg{ egL s]xL klg n]v]sf] 5}g .


!$= OToflb .


d syf lsg n]V5' <

d syf lsg n]V5' < of] s'/f klg rfvnfUbf] g} xf]nf . syf d slxn]sfxLF dw'ks{, ;dli6 / ul/dfdf w]/} kf7sx¿;Dd k'Ugsf] nflu 5fK5' . kf7sx¿;fd' cfˆgf s'/fx¿ lnP/ k'Ug dnfO{ 7"n} nf]e x'G5 / oL klqsfx¿ w]/} dfqfdf 5flkG5g\ . b'O{ s'/f 5g\ logdf . oL b]zsf s'gfsfKrfdf k'U5g\ / kfl/>lds klg lbG5g\ . d]/f] nflu sfkmL 7"nf] Incentive 5 . oL cj:yfafx]s c¿ cj:yfdf klg d syf n]V5' . o:t} s'g} a]nf c¿ ;fyL cfpF5g\ / syf rflxof] eG5g\ clg n]V5' . o:tf ;fyL cfpFbf cs}{ rfv / hf]; x'G5 . ;fRr} eGg] xf] eg] o:t} ;fyLx¿dfq d]/f nflu pko'Qm x'G5g\ h;n] d]/f …c:jLs[tÚ syfx¿ 5fKg ;S5g\ . d ;w}F kf7sx¿sf ;dIf afFRg rfxG5' / ljz]if cfˆgf ljrf/;Fu t/ ToxfF g} ufx|f] 5 . h;n] cfdkf7s;Dd dnfO{ k'¥ofpg ;S5 p;n] d]/f] ljrf/ / dfGotf af]Sg ;Qm}g / h;n] d]/f] ljrf/ / dfGotfnfO{ af]Sg ;S5 p;n] dnfO{ cfd kf7s;Dd k'¥ofpg ;Qm}g . 7"n} lj8Dagf 5 . t}klg d n]V5' . n]Vg] qmd hf/L g} 5 / b'a}vfn] klqsfnfO{ dfWofd agfpF5' .


^= c:jLs[t hdft;DaGwL la;{g gx'g] tYox¿

k|ydtM c:jLs[t hdftnfO{ xfdLn] slxNo} ;Lldt JolQmx¿df dfq ;Lldt /fv]gf}F . z'?jftb]lv g} xfd|f] egfO lyof] ls c:jLs[t hdft ;+;f/el/sf ;Dk"0f{ zflift / zf]lift ju{x¿ x'g\ . Tof] zf;g / zf]if0f /fhgLlts / cfly{s dfq geO{ ;Dk"0f{ k/Dk/fut d"No / dfGotfx¿af6 xf] . log} zf]if0f / zf;g lj?4sf] n8fOF g} xfd|f] c:jLs[t cfGbf]ngsf] z'?jft lyof] .

o;/L eGbfv]l/ xfd|f] cfGbf]ng s'g} gofF cfGbf]ng lyPg . g]kfnL ;flxTodf c:jLs[t ljifo ePsf]n] dfq o;n] 7"n]f xËfdf dRrfof] .

o;sf] yfngLaf/] eGg] xf] eg] o; c:jLs[t ljifodf a;]/ cufl8b]lv g} ;flxlTosx¿n] n]Vg] ul//x]sf] lyP . xfdLn] s'g} gofF s'/f n]v]sf lyPgf}F . xfdLn] a; Pp6f gfd lbof}F . ToxL g} Landmark x'g uof] . Pp6f ;ª\ul7t cfGbf]ngsf] ¿kdf kl/lrt x'g uof] . xfd|f] tkm{af6 z'?jft ..dGq.. % / ;~hLjgL lyof] . kl5 /]iff– $ / lIflth -@)@*_ klg ;fd]n eof] . ToxL a]nflt/ o:t} ljb|f]xsf cfjfhx¿ ..dGq.. -!, @, # / $_ lrTsf/, lau'n, k|ltIff, /]iff -!, @ / #_ tGg]/L, ;'gfv/L, lIflth, b}nf] cflb klqsfn] cfˆgfcfˆgf kf/fn] lbFb} lyP . JolQmut ¿kdf o; If]qdf ;;Qm n]vsx¿– /d]z >]i7, z}n]Gb| ;fsf/, k/z' k|wfg, s'df/ g]kfn, k'is/ nf]xgL, w|'jrGb| uf}td, xl/ clwsf/L, gjLg k|sfz hË, c~hL/ k|wfg kLl8t, k|sfz k|]dL, sgs åLk, ;f=lj= 7fs'/, hubLz l3ld/], efpkGyL, ljgf]b bLlIft, dg' a|fhfsL, k|]d gf/fo0f k|]dL, hut /~hg, xl/z aDhg, jfz' zzL, df]xg l3ld/], vLnWjh yfkf, vu]Gb| ;ª\u|f}nf, g]kfn e"if0f Gof}kfg], kfl/hft, d~h'n, OGb| /fhe08f/L, df]xg zdz]/ yfkf cflb lyP / d klg To;df ;fd]n lyPF .

c:jLs[t hdftsf] k|yd 3f]if0ff …;~hLjgLÚ ;fdlos syf ;ª\sng )@^ af6 eof] . o;sf ;Dkfbs g]kfn e"if0f Gof}kfg] x'g'xGYof] / cltly ;Dkfbs d lyPF . o;df z}n]Gb| ;fsf/, /d]z >]i7, sljtf/fd, k/z' k|wfg, xl/z aDhg / jf;' zzLsf ^ j6f syf k|sflzt lyP . ;Dkfbsåf/f k|:t't ljrf/–5fndf c:jLs[t ;flxTosf] 3f]if0ff o;/L lbOPsf] 5 M—

ædfG5] ;'Gb/ dfq 5}g . s'¿k klg 5 . dfG5] ;a} u'0fL dfq 5}gg\ . ca u'0fL klg 5g\ . dfG5] n'n] klg 5 . nË8] klg 5 . rf]/ klg 5 . Homosexual / Passive klg 5 . km]l/ cToGt} sfd's jLo{jfg\ klg 5 .Æ

æ;dfhaf6 jlxis[t dfG5]x¿ cfhsf gofF syfx¿sf gfos–gflosf x'g cfOk'u]sf 5g\ . lxhf]sf syfsf gfosx¿ cfh cfˆgf /fd|f cg'xf/, ¿k / u'0fx¿;lxt 9'Ëfsf b]jtf eO;s]sf 5g\ / lxhf]sf vngfosx¿ cfhsf syfx¿df b]jtfsf cf}tf/ eO/x]sf 5g\ .Æ

æcfhsf gofF syfsf/x¿af6 dfG5]sf leq kL8fx¿, dd{x¿, ljs[ltx¿ tyf dfgjLo ;dj]bgf, cGt/åGåx¿ tyf lj;d c;ª\ultx¿ 66\sf/f] af]n]sf 5g\ . cfbz{ tyf ;:tf] efj'stfsf] cf]9\gLnfO{ cfuf] nufP/ cfhsf gofF syfx¿n] ;fFrf] tyf cfoflds leqL cleJolQm lbP/ cfhsf] dfG5]sf] ;fFrf] tyf ;To s'/fnfO{ :jLsf/ u/]/ ;d:t ;+:ff/sf k|ltlglw aGg k'¥ofPsf] 5 .Æ

…;~hLjgLÚ sf] o; 3f]if0ffkl5 To; ;dodf lgs} txNsf dlrof] . kqklqsfx¿n] w]/} rf;f] /fv] . s;}n] logsf s'/f ;'Gg' k5{ eg] t s;}n] logLx¿ c;fdflhs tTTj x'g\ v]b\g' k5{, em'08\ofpg' k5{ cflb eg] . w]/}h;f]n] a'‰b} ga'emL l6s6 s6fpg] tkm{ g} hf]8 u/] . o;} k|;ª\udf jf;' zzL, /d]z >]i7, k/z' k|wfg / xl/zn] cfkm" hdftleq gk/]sf] :ki6Ls/0f klg lbP .

;fob xfdLn] olt 3f]if0ffaf6 dfq of] :ki6 ug{ ;s]sf lyPgf}F ls hdft eg]sf] s'g} ;Lldt ;b:ox¿dfq xf]Og clkt' To;/L g} ;f]Rg] ;d:t ljrf/s, n]vs, nufot ;fwf/0f ;a} zfl;t / zf]lift, xfg]{, efUg], ldlrg], lkl;g], ljjz eP/ rf]g]{, a]Odfg x'g' kg]{ k':tf g} o; hdftleq kb{5g\ . o; s'/fnfO{ d}n] …;~hLjgLÚ–@ -)@^_ df ;DkfbsLodf :ki6 u/]F . ;a} c;Gtf]ifL ljb|f]xL n]vsx¿ c6fpg ;lsG5 eGg] ePkl5 c~hL/ k|wfg kLl8t, sgs åLk, k|sfz k|]dL, ;fs]t ljxf/L 7fs'/, k|]dgf/fo0f k|]dL / k'is/ nf]xgL o;df cfP / c:jLs[t ;flxTonfO{ c¿ a9L :ki6 ug{ nfu] . To;a]nf;Dd ;fsf/ ef]hk'/d} lyP . ;~hLjgL– @ sf] ;Dkfbs d lyPF / k'is/ nf]xgL cltly ;Dkfbs lyP . o; cÍn] ;Dkfbsx¿nfO{ c~rnfwL; sfof{no;Dd w]/}rf]l6 wfpg afWo u/fPsf] lyof] . ;fsf/ sf7df8f}F kms]{kl5 o; cfGbf]ngleq c¿ n]vsx¿— gjLg k|sfz hË zfx, hut /~hg, efpkGyL, sfzLgfy tdf]6, df]xg zdz]/ yfkf, OGb|/fh e08f/L, lji0f'nfn >]i7 cflb klg ;dfj]z eP . ;fsf/sf] lkmlt{kl5 ..dGq.. sf] )@& df kfFrf}F cÍ;fy k'gM k|sfzg z'? eof] . o;df ePsf k"0f{jt\ af]8{ lgb]{zs, cGj]ifs, ;DkfbsnfO{ vf/]h u/L o;nfO{ c:jLs[t ;flxTosf] d'vkqsf] ¿kdf kl/0ft u¥of}F . o;df ;Dkfbs, k|sfzs xfdLx¿ -;fsf/ / d_ /Xof}F .

..dGq.. % kl5 ..dGq.. ^, )@* df c:jLs[t ;flxTosf] ljz]if ;ª\sngsf] ¿kdf Nofof}F . o;df ;fsf/, /d]z, c~hL/, efpkGyL / d]/f syf sljtf / n]vx¿ ;Ílnt 5g\ . kl5 o;}nfO{ …lj:yflkt cg'xf/x¿Ú eGg] gfdfs/0f u/L lstfaL ;+:s/0f klg lgsfNof}F .

o; cfGbf]ngnfO{ pu| ¿kdf lj/f]w ug]{x¿df efg' -)@^ ls/0f !# h]7_ lyof] . o;sf] ;fdlos rrf{df >L k|;fbn] c:jLs[t hdftnfO{ rf/ kGgf;Dd kmf]xf]/L ufnL dfq lbPsf lyP . h;df c:jLs[t hdftnfO{ c/fli6«o, c;fdflhs, cfw'lgs /fIf;, hËaxfb'/, af}l4s Hofgdf/f, cfw'lgs c5't, lrD6f lnP/ lxF8\g] gfuf–n'y/ lsË ufGwL, eLd;]g yfkf, nf]hg ju{ bDktL / Uoflnlnof]sf] xTof/f, e|i6frf/L, /fi6«b|f]xL, g]kfnsf] zflGtk"0f{ k//fi6« gLltsf] l/k' o'4vf]/, dfgj lgld{t eJo pBf]u wGbf, snf ;+:s[lt, ;flxTo=== ==== ==== cflbnfO{ 89]nf] nufpg] 9'Ë] o'usf 6f]nL, v'Nnf ;8sdf d}y'g ug]{, c/fhstfjfbL, /fIf;, xfd|f] b]znfO{ 3f]8f r9\g vf]Hg], ljb]zL cultsf b'u{lGwt ;f;, KofG6d} kmf]xf]/ u/]/ lxF8\g], cfFvfdf lrk|f, gªdf kmf]xf]/ /fvL l3p, eft vfg vf]Hg] g]kfnL lxKkL, a;Gtk'/df /ftf]lbg ufO{ vf]hL lxF8\g] a;fxf cflb h:tf gfdx¿ lbOPsf] / o; hdftnfO{ ;a} ldn]/ u7]dËndf kf]8]nfO{ em}F gf}/Ë bn]/ gs{6sf] la6fdfly r9fP/ l3;fb}{ lji0f'dtL / wf]jLvf]nf s6fOlbg' k/]sf] 5 eGg] cfjfh p7fOPsf] lyof] .

o; cfGbf]ngnfO{ k|xf/ ug]{x¿df s'df/ hf];L -cleJolQm, x]dGt cÍ, )@*, jif{ @_, cf/tL ;fKtflxs )@&, lvnWjh yfkf -lrTsf/, efb| )@^_, lvn axfb'/ efj's lyP eg] lzi6 kf/fdf lj/f]w ug]{df dw'ks{, cleJolQm, /rgf, ¿k/]vf cflb lyP .

;+od;fy ;'Gg] jf cfu|x ug]{x¿df ;dLIff ;fKtflxs jif{ !!, cÍ !$, !(&), b}nf] )@&÷)@*, k|tLIff )@*, tGg]/L )@@, cleJolQm )@*, ;'gfv/L )@&÷)@* ljZjb"t ;fDtflxs cflb lyP . oL klqsfx¿n] c:jLs[t ;flxTosf/x¿nfO{ cleJolQmsf] cj;/ klg lbPsf lyP . ;fdlos ;Íng /]iff -c~hL/ k|wfgåf/f ;Dkflbt_ n] c:jLs[t ;flxTosf] nflu d~r agfPsf] lyof] . o; cfGbf]ngdf ;ª\nUg ljleGg n]vsx¿sf 3f]if0ff o; k|sf/ 5g\ . h;nfO{ Oltxf;n] la;{g ldNb}g .


efpkGyLsf] 3f]if0ff M

æ:jLs[ltssf nflu ;flxlTos cfGbf]ng rnfpg' d]/f] nflu c:jLsfo{ 5 . lsgeg] olb xfdLn] :jLs[ltsf nflu n]V5f}F eg] xfdLn] cfˆgf k"j{hx¿sf] bfFhf]df k'Ug rfxg] hdsf]{ dfq ul//x]sf x'g]5f}F . To:tf] geOsg lgif]w n]vg cyjf c:jLs[t n]vg gofF ;flxlTos w/ftnsf] vf]h jf pb\3f6g x'g' k5{ .Æ

lgif]w n]vgaf/] :ki6 ub}{ …a'bLÚ ;+sngsf] ;DkfbsLo—

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æxfdL eG5f}F ;8ssL /08L / ;f]N6L xf]6nsL /08Lsf] OHht Pp6} xf] . xfdL t Pp6} 7fG5f}F . k};f geP OHhtsf] cjd"Nog x'G5 eGg] ljrf/ pxfFx¿ lng'x'G5 . xfdLx¿ k};fn] OHht lsGb}gf}F . x/]s dfG5]sf] OHht u5f}{+ . ;f]N6Ldf cd's xfpefp k|bz{g ug]{ /08L / k]6Ldf a;]/ yf]qf] n'ufdf u|fxs 8fSg] nf6L /08L xfd|f]nflu Pp6} xf] . ltgLx¿sf] lgolt Pp6} xf] . b'a} k};fsf nflu cfˆgf of]gL a]lr/x]5g\ . ;EotfnfO{ cfˆgf qm"/ sd{x¿sf ;fy lhofpg] 7]Ssf ;Qfjfnfx¿ g} lnpmg\ . of] ;Eotfsf] o:t} k};flrs d"NofÍg u5{ eg] xfdL of] ;EotfnfO{ klg c:jLsf/ u5f{}+ . o;sf c:jfefljs s'/fx¿nfO{ c:jLsf/ u5f}{+ . o;nfO{ pgLx¿n] g} arfpmg\ .

lsgeg] xfdLnfO{ :ki6 yfxf 5 :jfefljstfeGbf k/ dfG5] slxNo} hfg ;Sg] 5}g . of] c:jfefljstf pgLx¿s} 7]Ssfdf /xf];\ . xfdLnfO{ rflxPg .

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æd :jfefljs hLjgofkgeGbf cfhsf] cf}krfl/stf / s[lqdtfsf] lj/f]w gu/L :jLs[t x'g ;lSbgF . === === === tkfO{+n] c:jLs[t hdft 9'Ë]o'usf] 6f]nL x'g\ eGg'ePsf] /x]5 . === === === o'uaf]wsf] ku/L u'y]/ leq s'Ss'/n] em}F cfxf/f / ;Def]u ;'F£b} aflx/ ;Gof;L x'g'eGbf cfkm"k|lt ljZjf; u/]/ cfˆgf] s'/f v'n:t eGg] of] o'usf dfG5] xf}F . To;nfO{ rfx] 9'Ë]o'u eGgf];\ jf cGo s'g} .Æ

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:jLs[t hdft cfw'lgs /fIf; x'g\ . h;sf] dfgl;s w/ftnsf] u'Dah klg c7f/f}F ztfAbLsf] jf:t'snf eP/ ctoj 3/df ;hfpg nfos eO;s]sf] 5 . === === === tL :jLs[t hdftsf] d lj/f]wL 5' . ctM ;flxTo, ;ËLt / snfsf] pTyfgsf] nflu pGd'Qm eO n]vg ;]jf ug{ vf]Hg]x¿sf] cfˆgf] d'8, kIf / dgl:ylt ldNg] df]rf{ x'G5 . Tof] rfx] :jLs[tleq} lsg lt/:s[t xf];\ . pm cfkm}F :yfg cf]u6\5 . cfˆg} :yfg /fVb5 . === === === pmdfq sf]/f hLjgjfbL aGg xf]Og, hLjgleqsf] s6';To lrGg cufl8 a9\5 . c:jLs[tsf] d klg hDhdfpFbf] kIf cFufN5' .Æ

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æd e8\ls/x]sf] 5' cfhsn– slxn] of] uNnL slxn] p uNnL . d}n] cfˆgf] sf/fuf/af6 5'6\sf/f lnPsf] 5' . cyjf egf}F 5'6\sf/f kfPsf] 5' ;anfO{ df/]/, Tofu]/ . cyjf d]/f] lglDt pgLx¿ 5}gg\– clg ltgLx¿ 5}gg\ dk|lt . o;/L d}n]— pgLx¿n] 5f]8kq u/]sf 5f}F Pscsf{df . ca d}n] cfˆg} ;+;f/ v8f u/]sf] 5' . d]/f] ;+;f/sf] xtf{stf{ sf]xL 5}gg\ . sf]xL eOlbpmg\ of] klg s'g} h?/t 5}g . d cfkm}F cg'¿k rlNbPsf] 5' . cfkm" cg'¿k /xLlbg klg Hofb} dHhf x'Fbf] /x]5 . cfhsfn dnfO{ s;};Fu ;/f]sf/ 5 em}F nfUb}g . hf] ;/f]sf/ lnG5g\ pgLx¿n] d cg'¿k eOlbg' k5{ . d]/f] ;+;f/df dflg; afFR5 . slxNo} db}{g . g t ToxfF bf; afFR5 g t dflns . d]/f] ;+;f/df Pp6} s'/f afFR5 Tof] xf] dflg; / dfgjtf . o;}n] d cfkm}F afFlrlbPsf] 5' . PSnf] cj:yfdf afFr]/ klg cfkm" g} ;Dk"0f{ 5' em}F nfUb5 .Æ

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æxfd|f] afFRg'sf] cy{ lxhf]sf] h:tf] xf]Og . ca a]Un} eO;s]sf] 5 . xfd|f] x]g'{sf] b[li6 lxhf]sf]eGbf leGg eO;s]sf] 5 / xfd|f] lxF8\g'sf] cy{ klg cs}{ eO;s]sf] 5 . xfdL s;}sf] k'/fgf] lIflth / ;+:sf/leq sbflk afFRg ;Qm}gf}F / xfdL s;}sf] dfGotf :jLsf/]/ afFRg klg ?rfpGgf}F . of] xfd|f] c7f]6, wf/0ff (Firm Determitation) 5 . cfh xfdL h] 5f}F / hxfF kfOtfnf 6]ls/x]sf 5f}F Tof] xfd|f] jt{dfg xf] / jt{dfg eGg' Tof] xfd|f] afFRg] cf:yf xf] . xfdLnfO{ of] klg ljZjf; 5 ls xfdL lsl~rt ;Lldt 3]/f -Limit Circle_ / yf]qf] cfsf; -Old Horizon_ leq /dfpg ;Sb}gf}F . sf/0f xfdL cfˆg} ;fdYo{tfdf afFRg rfxG5f}F . o;}n] xfdL afFRg cfˆg} lIflth pEofpg rfxG5f}F . o;sf] nflu ;w}F xfdL ;ª\3if{zLn x'g]5f}F .

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æc:jLs[t hdft g]kfnL ;flxTosf] Pp6f Movement xf] . gofF k|of]u ljrf/sf] ljZn]if0ffTds cfbfgk|bfg, dfgl;s 3ftk|lt3ftaf6 pTkGg ePsf] ljs[lt / s'07f, hLjgsf] jf:tljs qmdaf6 pTkGg ePsf] dgf]bzfnfO{ :jtGq / snfTds cleJolQmåf/f aflx/ Nofpg rfxG5 . ;fFu'/f k/Dk/fsf JolQm / JolQmsf :jtGq af}l4s r]tgfnfO{ sf]Rg vf]Hg] tL af}l4stfxLg JolQmaf6 cdn]v u/fpg vf]Hgsf] nflu g} c:jLs[t hdftsf] hGd ePsf] xf] .

k|To]s ;flxTosf] l;h{gf ug{sf] nflu :j:y k/Dk/fsf] cfjZostf k5{ . To;sf] nflu b]zsf] cfly{s, /fhgLlts, ;fdflhs, JolQmsf rl/qx¿ / dgf]bzfnfO{ /fd|/L gs]nfO{sg ;'v} 5}g . ha ;flxTosf/n] To:tf tTTjx¿sf] 5fgaLg ug{ yfN5, To;a]nf p;dfly s7f]/ k|xf/ kg{ yfN5 . hLjgsf] qmd ;/n 5}g . To;}n] x/]s kl/l:ylt / jftfj/0fl;t 86]/ d'sfljnf ug{ ;Sg]n] g} hLjgsf] jf:tljs kl/ron] eljiodf cfpg] c¿x¿nfO{ Pp6f af6f] tof/ kfl/lbPsf] x'G5 .

…c:jLs[t hdftÚ Pp6f af}l4s r]tgf ePsf ljrf/s -vf; u/]/ cWoogzLn / dggzLn_ x¿nfO{ dfq dxTj lbG5 . s'g} af}l4stf gePsf] / sf]/f cx+df nfu]/ a'l4hLjL aGg vf]Hg]x¿l;t o;sf] s'g} dxTj 5}g . cfhsf] o'u of] ljz]iftfnfO{ a'em]/ cf -vf; u/]/ cWoogzLn / dggzLn_ x¿nfO{ dfq dxTj lbG5 . s'g} af}l4stf gePsf] / sf]/f cx+df nfu]/ a'l4hLjL aGg vf]Hg]x¿l;t o;sf] s'g} dxTj 5}g . cfhsf] o'u of] ljz]iftfnfO{ a'em]/ cfˆgf] k/Dk/f / jftfj/0fdf /x]/ l;h{gf ul/Psf] ;flxTonfO{ g} o;n] sb/ u5{ . To;}n] xfdLn] ;flxTonfO{ b'O{ efudf afF8]sf 5f}F– :jLs[t / c:jLs[t . :jLs[t ;flxTon] yf]qf] cfbz{ / k/Dk/fdfq sfod u5{ . To:tf] ;flxTon] zfZjt efjgfnfO{ gi6 kf/L lbPsf] x'G5 t/ c:jLs[t hdftn] hLjgsf] zfZjt kIfnfO{ cËfn]sf] x'G5 . hLjgdf 36sf ljleGg 36gfn] dflg;sf] dlit:sdf k|efj kf/]sf] x'G5 . To; ;TonfO{ dflg;n] kmfNg vf]Hb}df kmflnG5 / < To;}n] c:jLs[t hdftn] tL 9f]FuLx¿sf] ljrf/, l;4fGt / Jojxf/dfly ljb|f]x u5{ .

…c:jLs[t hdftÚ Pp6f :j:y lrGtg k|0ffnLsf] k|fb'ef{j u/fpg vf]H5 . dflg;leqsf ljleGg If0fnfO{ s]nfP/ p;leqsf] dgf]bzfnfO{ snfTds cleJolQmåf/f ;a}sf] ;fd' /fVg rfxG5 . ha ;flxTosf] dfWofdåf/f xfdL s]xL s'/f k|s6 ug{ yfN5f}F To;a]nf cfbz{jfbL k/Dk/fsf] bf;Tjn] lylrPsfx¿ cfˆgf] cNk1fgsf] cf8df c¿nfO{ lu/fP/ cfˆgf] ljåtf b]vfpg vf]H5g\ . To;}n] tL tyfslyt ;flxTosf/ egfpFbfx¿n] …c:jLs[t hdftÚ nfO{ ljleGg b[li6n] x]g'{ :jfefljs} xf] . ha af}l4stf r/d ;Ldfdf k'U5 To;a]nf dfGotf / cfbz{sf] s'g} cl:tTj /xFb}g .

vf; u/]/ …c:jLs[t hdftÚ nfO{ s;}n] cZnLn ;flxTo n]Vg] eg]/ ufnL u/]sf 5g\ t/ s;}n] hgtflGqs efjgfnfO{ lu/fpgsf] nflu n]Vg] eg]/ c/fli6«o eg]/ ;d]t ufnL u/]sf 5g\ . ltgLx¿sf] af/]df xfdLnfO{ s]jn olQ eGg' 5 ls ljb]zL bnfnsf] cf8df /x]/ cfˆgf] cl:tTj u'dfP/ cfkm" /fi6«jfbL aGg' c¿nfO{rflxF c/fli6«o eGg' slt;Dd eGg ;'xfpF5 < Tof] t pgLx¿s} klqsf / ;flxTon] atfOlbO;s]sf] 5 . ca csf{y/L b]z, sfn, kl/l:ylt ;'xfpFbf] ;flxTosf] dfu ug]{x¿n] slt dfqfdf To:tf] ;flxTosf] l;h{gf u/]sf 5g\ . Tof] xfd|f]cufl8 /flvlbP :jLsf/ ug]{ lyof}F . n]Vbf c:jLs[t ;flxTo n]Vg] clg 7"nf] efu vfgnfO{ rflxF :jLs[t ;flxTo n]Vg' k5{ eg]/ lrRofpg] oL bf]wf/]x¿l;t klg o;n] d'sfljnf u5{ .

cGTodf olQ eGg' 5– …c:jLs[t hdftÚ s'g} /fhgLlts cv8fnfO{ dxTj lbFb}g . k"0f{ /fi6«jfbL ag]/ cfˆgf] b]zleqsf] k/Dk/f, jftfj/0f / laleGg g}lts, cg}lts, of}gljs[lt cflbnfO{ vf]tn]/ snfTds cleJolQmåf/f rl/qsf] lgdf{0f u/]/ jf:tljs hLjgsf] kl/ro lbg vf]H5 . ;flxTosf/sf] cfˆgf] :jtGq cl:tTj x'G5 . To; cl:tTjnfO{ lu/fpg vf]Hg] k|To]s JolQml;t o;n] af}l4s ljb|f]x eg] cjZo u5{ .Æ

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c:jLs[t ;flxTo :ki6 jf c:ki6 ¿kdf dfG5]nfO{ sdhf]/, gk'Ë;s / O{Zj/j[Q agfO/x]sf] k/Dk/fnfo{ klg c:jLsf/ u5{ . To;}n] cfbz{tfnfO{ klg c:jLs[t ;flxTo c:jLsf/ u5{ . cfbz{n] s;}sf] k]6 eb}{g . k]6 ge/]kl5 dfG5]nfO{ Tofu / tk:of laNs'n cgu{n k|nfk dfq nfU5 . j]tgef]uL a'l4hLjLx¿ ;f]N6Ldf dxËf] /S;L lkP/ jf efif0f u/]sf] a]nf 7"N7"nf cfbz{ 5fF6\b5g\ . af]nL lkR5] Tofu cf]sN5g\ / ;fy;fy} lhGbuLsf] oyfy{tfnfO{ g} pgLx¿ ;dft]sf] bfjf u5{g\ .

c:jLs[t ;flxTo ;dfh /rgf / eljionfO{ c:jLsf/ u5{ . ;'Gb/, ;'sf]dn cfbz}sf] :yfgdf s'¿k jt{dfgsf] pR5[ª\vntf :jLsf/ u5{ of] . of] jt{dfg klg xf] / k|j[TofTds oyfy{ klg . t;y{ c:jLs[t ;flxTonfO{ Ps e2f, s'¿k, 3[l0ft kfqsf] cfFvfaf6 x]g'{k5{ .

c:jLs[t ;flxTo lr/Gtg ctLtsf] :jKt b]vb}g / x]b}{g klg . k/Dk/fsf] eonfO{ 5fgjLg u5{ tyf -;aeGbf dxTjk"0f{_ s'¿k jt{dfgnfO{ xfd|f] ;fd' snfsf] dfWofdaf6 k]z ub{5 . xfdl o;}n] o;nfO{ c:jLs[t ;flxTo eG5f}F .

dg'io r]tgzLn 5 / :jo+nfO{ pm ljZn]if0f ub}{ hfG5 . lg/Gt/ cfkm"af6 5'6\b} hfg' xf]Og / gfOsf] l;nl;nfdf cfufdL …xf]OgTTjÚ sf] lgldQ a9\g' p;sf] lgolt xf] . c:jLs[t ;flxTo ;f/f …xf]OgTTjÚ sf] klg cfufdL ljnogsf] e"ldsf xf] . t;y{ c:jLs[t ;flxTo cl:tTTjsf] pq/bfoLsf] ;flxTo xf] . o;sf] nIo z"Gotfdf xf]Og, cl:tTTjsf] kf/:kl/s ;DaGwdf kl/lIft xf] . p;sf] PsflGtstf ef]u ;fd'lxs lgolt;Fu a4 5 / To;}df pm j/0fsf] nflu :jtGq 5 . c:jLls[t ;fxlTo tof] :jtGqtfsf] cleJolQm xf] h;df p;sf kf7sx¿sf] klg Subjectivity lglxt 5 .

…c:jLs[t hdftÚ eg]/ o;n] s]jn k/Dk/f, cfbz{tf, j]tgef]uL a'l4hLjL of hfuL/sf] lgldQ bf; ;flxTo n]Vg]x¿sf] lj?4 cfkm"nfo{ 5'§} /fVg / lrgfpg dfq /fv]sf] xf] .Æ

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!= æ;flxTonfO{ d}n] oxfF 7"nf xf]6nx¿df b]v]sf] 5' . /S;L / bfdL r'/f]x¿sf] g;fleq b]v]sf] 5' . e"uf]nkfs{ / /Tgkfs{df km'n]sf] km"nsf] ;f}Gbo{dfly ;'sf]dn p8fg el//fv]sf] b]v]sf] 5' . d slxNo} tL ;flxTox¿sf] ;Dd'v x'g ;lsgF .

æd Pp6f lg/Lx JolQm ;dfhsf] lgldQ s]xL lbg ;lQmgF . ;dfhn] dnfO{ cg]sf}F dfGotf, dof{bf / lgodx¿ agfP/ lsrf]ln/x]5 . d]/f] :jtGqk|]dL, :jfledfgL JolQmTj b'v]/ lrRofpF5, s/fpF5 / ;w}F cfˆgf] cl:tTTjsf] lglDt ljb|f]x ul//xG5 . d}n] ;dfhdf afFRg} sxfF kfPsf] 5' / d ;dfhsf] nflu s]xL lbg ;S5' . d t xb{d ;dfhk|lt g} ljb|f]x ul//x]5' .

ef]sf] x'g', la/fdL k/]/ km'6kfydf nl8/xg', csf{sf] k};fn] k]6 eg'{, s8f d]x]gt ug'{, wgL / zlQmaf6 lkl6Og', rf]/L ug'{, 8s}tL ug'{, Hofg dfg'{, wgL / zlQmnfO{ oyf;So lk6\g', efUg', n'Sg' h:tf lbgel/sf ;ª\3if{x¿af6 yfs]/ a]n'sLkv d]/f] lkF9L ;w}F rfpl/Fb} uO/x]sf] cg'xf/ :jf:gL / 5f]/f5f]/L ;fd' k'¥ofpF5 . pm 5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ ;D;'DofpF5 . h] h:tf] 5 vfG5 . 5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ v'jfpF5 . gk'u] s]xL vfFb}g / cGTodf cf]R5\ofgdf cfˆgf] a'l9ofsf] cFufnf]leq lbgel/sf ;a} s6'tfx¿nfO{ lal;{lbG5 .

oxL bLgrof{ d]/f] lkF9Lsf] n]vgljifo xf] . ;flxTo s] xf] < Tof] stf 5 < xfdL To;nfO{ x]b}{gf}F / cfFvf lrDn]/ cfˆgf cleJolQm kf]V5f}F . d}n] ;flxTo n]V5' eg]/ s]xL n]v]sf] 5}g . ;flxTosf] nflu eg]/ klg s]xL n]v]sf] 5}g / ;flxTosf] nflu ;flxTo eg]/ s]xL s'/fsf] ;Dkfbg u/]sf] 5'OgF .

qm'4, c:yL/ / clgof]lht d]/f] lkF9Ln] :yflkt ;flxTosf] zflAbs cy{, kl/j]z / ljwfsf] xTof ul/;s]sf] 5 .

d cfhsf] dfG5]sf] t]l/h x'F– cf8Da/xLg gfËf], s'¿k, :jefjxLg, å]ifxLg, c;Dk[t, cg'zf;gxLg, 5f8f, ;dfhb|f]xL, k|ltlqmofjfbL, 8/5]?jf, eu'jf, :jfyL{, / cjflG5t . d]/f] cfˆg} :jfy{ 5 / cfˆg} lsl;dsf] dfGotf 5 . d cfˆgf n]vx¿df oxL ptf5'{ .Æ

..dGq.. ^, )@* lj:yflkt cg'xf/x¿


@= æxfd|f] lkF9Lsf] ;flxTo Pp6f l;Ëf] dfG5] xf] . xfdL dfG5]nfO{ dfGotf, dof{bf, cf}krfl/stf cflb s[lqdtf / 9f]Fux¿af6 gËØfpg rfxG5f}F . Tof] dfG5] g} xfd|f] n'ufljxLg gfËf] dfG5] xf] . Tof] gfËf] dfG5] dfq g} oyfy{ ;flxTo xf] / Tof] oyfy{tf xfd|f] gfËf]jfb xf] . gfËf]jfb oyfy{ ;flxTonfO{ x]g]{ jf lvRg] dfWofd xf] . cem kmf]s; xf] . of] kmf]s; s'g} k|efj / bz{gxLg :jfefljs 5 . bz{gxLgtf of :jfefljstf g} o;sf] bz{g xf] .

of] kmf]s; :jefjjfbsf] b[li6sf]0f xf] . :jefjjfbdf of}g cfkm}F cfˆg} :yfgel/ cfˆg} lsl;dn] dxTjk"0f{ 5 . g t of] cZnLn of cjf~5gLo g} 5, g t hLjgsf] ;Dk"0f{tf g} .Æ

..dGq.. ^, )@*


#= d hGdgf;fy d]/f ;ª\3if{x¿ z'? x'G5g\ . dnfO{ hah{:tL cfhsf dfG5]x¿n] cfkm"n] leb}{ cfPsf, cf]9\b} cfPsf yf]qf dfGotfx¿ cf]9fP . o;df s6\sl6Psf don, plS;/x]sf] uGw / ;NanfO/x]sf h'd|fx¿lj?4 d}n] w]/} ;ª\3if{x¿ ug'{ k¥of] . d eG5' ca d gfË} afFR5' . gfË} /x]/ l:yltx¿ ef]U5' . gfË} /x]/ 3fd, kfgL, hf8f]nfO{ lhT5' . lhTg] cEof; u5'{ . n'ufdf km]l/ don hD5 . kl;gf blËG5 . h'd|f k5{ .

d]/f c:jLs[ltnfO{ jf:tljs of :jfefljstfdflysf] hf]8 eGg ;Sg'x'G5 . ePg, cem hf]8 lbP/ eGg ;lsG5 …gfËf]kg dflysf] hf]8Ú . cyf{t\ d]/f] gfËf]kg g} d]/f] c:jLs[lt xf] .

..dGq.. %, )@&


$= 3f]if0ffkq– k9\g'xf];\ . o;} k':tssf] æ:jefjjfbL lrGtgÆ cWofodf .


%= askq M :jefjjfb– k9\g'xf];\ . o;} k':tssf] æ :jefjjfbL lrGtgÆ df .



&= d]/f …t/ntfÚ / t/n -tf_ jfbL;Fusf] ljjfb

k/z' k|wfgHo"n] cGt/jftf{ lng' xFbf dnfO{ t/njfbaf/] k|Zg ug'{ePsf] lyof] . d}n] cfkm"n] t/ntfsf wf/0ff d]/f cfˆgf …:jefjjfbÚ df @)÷@@ jif{ klxn] g} k|o'Qm eO;s]sf] s'/f eg]sf] lyPF / k|df0fx¿ dfUg'ePsf] x'Fbf ;f]sf k|df0fx¿ klg lbPsf] lyPF . -x]g'{xf];\— cleJolQm, jif{ !(, k"0ff{Í %^, )$%_ of] s'/f kl9;s]kl5 t/njfbL ;fyLx¿ d;Fu ljjfbdf plqP . s;}n] xfdLaLrsf] ;dtf jf leGgtfaf/] k|Zg u/] eg] s;}n] >]o lng vf]h]sf] eg]/ ufnL klg u/] . st} sljtf/fsf] t/ntf sDo'lgi6 t/ntf / cfˆgf] eg] k|hftGqjfbL t/ntf klg eGg vf]h] . logdf sf]xL ?i6 eP/ emlD6P eg] sf]xLrflxF lzi6 eP/ daf6 s]xL a'‰g] k|of; ug]{ klg b]lvP . o; ;DaGwdf d}n] cfˆgf dfGotfx¿ k]z ug'{ kg]{ pQ/bfloTTj ;Dem]sf] 5' .

k|ydtM oxL eGg rfxG5' ls d]/f bfjLsf pQ/ t/njfbL ;fyLx?n] clxn];Dd lbg'ePsf] 5}g . oyfzSo o;af6 ts]{/ hfg vf]Hg'ePsf] 5 . d}n] d]/f] bfjL pxfFx¿ ;dIf dfq /fv]sf] xf]Og . o; ˆnf]/df :ki6 /fv]sf] 5' . o; bfjLsf] pQ/ pxfFx¿n] dnfO{ xf]Og o; ˆnf]/df pkl:yt ;a} ;flxlTos tyf kf7sx¿nfO{ lbg' k5{ . d]/f] ;'em 5, pxfFx¿ o;} c07;07 as]/, ufnLunf}h dfq u/]/ pDsg ;Sg'x'Gg . pxfFx¿n] ;f]Rg' k5{ ls xfdL h] u5f}{+ Oltxf;sf kfgfdf 5flkg]5g\ / xfdL k5fl8 jiff}{+jif{sf kf7sx¿ 5g\ . pxfFx¿n] a'‰g' k5{ ls k|df0fk"0f{ ljjfbn] pxfFx¿leqsf] ljåtf b]lvg]5 . …:jLsf/f]lQmÚ n] pxfFx¿leqsf] dxfgtf . ufnLunf}h / e|fGt ts{x¿sf] sf/0f pxfFx¿n] cfkm"nfO{ …:jLsf/Ú sf] af6f]af6 emgemg 6f9f k'¥ofpg'ePsf] 5 . cfkm}FnfO{ cK7\of/f]df kfg'{ePsf] 5 . Pshgf ljof]uL a'9fyf]sL dfq x'g'x'G5 h;n] d]/f] bfjLk|lt ljåtfk"0f{ v'nfkg b]vfpg'ePsf] 5 . ljz]if, k"jf{4{sf ;Dkfbs dxf]bon] cfkm"nfO{ agfpg] 7fpF /fVg} ePsf] 5}g .

  • x]g'{xf];\ – k"jf{4{ !%, )$%


d]/f] t/ntfsf] wf/0ffaf/] o;} n]vsf] æ:jefjjfbL lrGtgÆ cGtu{t !* jif{ k'/fgf] æasjqÆ / æ3f]if0ffkqÆ af6 :ki6 u/]sf] s/f kf7sx¿ ;fd' k'gM k|:t't 5 . w]/} ;fyLx¿n] zÍf JolQm u/]sf 5g\ ls t/njfbLx¿n] log} s'/fx¿ k9]/ k|efljt eP/ …t/njfbÚ sf] ;[hgf ug{ nfu]sf 5g\ . To;/L g} zÍf ug]{ 7fpF cjZo g} 5 . Tof] o; sf/0fn] ls t/njfbLx¿ d]/f k|df0fx¿nfO{ b]v]sf] gb]Vo} ug{ rfxg'x'G5 . pxfFx¿eGbf klxn] g} d}n] o;df snd rnfPsf] s'/fdf af]Ng} ;Sg'x'Gg . af]Ng} kg]{ l:ylt k/]sf] x'Fbf s]xL af]Ng'ePsf] 5 eg] klg tfls{s / k|df0fsf s'/fx¿ ug'{ePsf] 5}g . pN6} dnfO{ g} pxfFx?n] l;h]{sf] t/njfbsf] >]o lng vf]h]sf] egL cfˆgf] d'vkq k"jf{4{sf] ;DkfbsLodf ufnL 5fKg'ePsf] 5 . ;DkfbsLodf 5flkPsf] To; ufnLnfO{ d}n] ;Dk"0f{ t/njfbLx¿s} ufnL ddfly k/]sf] a'em]sf] 5' . ctM ;a} t/njfbL -;Dkfbs dfq xf]Og === lzi6 b]lvg'ePsf ljof]uL a'9fyf]sL ;d]t_ n] hjfkmb]xL x'g' kg]{ 5 .

d}n] d]/f] :jefjjfbleq k/]sf] t/ntfsf] wf/0ff ;fdfGo lj1fgdf k9fOg] Water finds its own level / cy{zf:qsf] gubnfO{ High Lequidity ePsf] k"FhLsf] ¿kdf lng] cjwf/0ffaf6 k|]l/t eP/ ;flxTodf k|of]u u/]sf] x'F eg]/ af/Daf/ eGb} cfPsf] 5' . ca cfP/ csf]{ gofF k|df0f æslj rSsf s'Dxfn]sf]Æ klg k|:t't ub}{5' . h'g d}n] )@@ ;fndf n]v]Fy] / e"uf]nsf] ækfgLsf] rqmÆ af6 k|l/t eP/ n]v]Fy] . kfgLsf] oxL rlqmo ultzLntfaf6 k|efljt eP/ d}n] )#* ;fndf ækfgLsf] yf]kfÆ eGg] afnpkGof; klg n]v]F . o;sf] bf];|f] ;+:s/0f ;d]t ;femfn] 5flk;Sof] .

o;/L k"j{:yflkt l;4fGt jf dfGotfaf6 k|efljt eP/ n]Vg' eg]sf] dfly p7\g] r]i6f dfGb5' . ;a} l;4fGt Ps}rf]l6 dfly cfpFb}gg\ . ;a}sf s]xL g s]xL cfwf/ x'G5g\ . Pp6f qmd x'G5 . k|To]s qmddf gofF l;4fGtsf] :yfg x'G5 . l;4fGt j]Qfn] of] k'li6 ug{ ;Sg' k5{ ls clGtd qmd s] lyof] / To;df pgsf yk of]ubfg s] 5g\ < t/ntfsf] Tof] wf/0ffnfO{ k"j{:yflkt Pp6f wf/0ff dfg]/ dfly pSn]/ d}n] …:jefjjfbÚ n]Vg] sf]lz; u/]sf] x'F . hf] d}n] dfly g} eg]sf] 5' / km]l/ eG5'– dfS;{, afs'lgg, cu:6 sfD6sf j}1flgstfaf6 / rfjf{ssf] ef}ltsjfbL l;4fGt clg jfddfuL{ zfQm bz{gaf6 k|efljt eP/ / logLx¿s} j}1flgs cfwf/dfly …:jefjjfbÚ n]v]sf] x'F .

d}n] slxNo} …:jefjjfbÚ nfO{ d]/f] z'4 cfˆgf] dfq l;4fGt eg]sf] 5}g / o;jfbsf ;Dk"0f{ OF6fx¿ d}n] g} l;h]{sf] klg eg]sf] 5}g .

t/njfbL ;fyLx¿n] æsljtf/fdsf] t/ntfjfb / xfdLx¿sf] t/njfbdf cfwf/e"t km/s 5g\Æ eg]sf 5g\ .Æ æsljtf/fd dfS;{jfbaf6 k|efljt 5 xfdL k|hftGqjfbL xf}FÆ eGg] u/]sf] klg ;'g]sf] 5' . 5fk]sf] yfxf 5}g . To:t} Pp6f klqsfdf æPp6f tyfslyt sDo'lgi6n] t/njfb d]/f] l;4fGt xf] eGg] xf:of:kb s'/f ub{}5Æ eGg] h:tf Joª\Uo u/]sf] klg kfPF . o;} k|;Ëdf k"jf{4{ !% df of] klg elgPsf] kfPsf] 5' ls …t/njfbLx¿ /fhgLlt lg/k]If 5g\ / sljtf/fdrflxF ;flxTonfO{ /fhgLlts xltof/ agfpg] JolQm xf]Ú eGg] h:tf ;DkfbsLo 5fk]sf 5g\ .

o;df d]/f] egfO 5 æt/ntfÆ eg]sf] t/ntf xf] / o;sf] cy{ sDo'lgi6 jf k|hftGqjfbLx¿nfO{ km/s x'Fb}g . Pp6f s'NnLn] x]/f];\ jf ;fx'hLn] x]?g\ ;a}nfO{ kfgL kfgL g} b}lvG5 . lrlgof xf];\ ls clk|msg, nf6f] xf];\ ls k|f]km];/, uf]jf{rf]e xf];\ ls hh{ a';, ;a}nfO{ kfgL kfgL g} b]lvG5 . of] s;}nfO{ psfn] au]sf] t s;}nfO{ cf]/fnf] au]sf] b]lvg] x'Gg . kfgLsf] æt/ntfÆ jf æultzLntfÆ /;fTdstf, jfik jf 7f]; ¿k, cfsf/xLgtf, /ªxLgtf h]eGbf klg ;a}n] Ps}rf]l6 ToxL s'/f a'‰5g\ . a]Un} a'‰b}gg\ . of] Pp6f ;/n, :jfefljs, k|fs[lts s'/fnfO{ /fhgLlts /ªdf pN6f];'N6f] kfg'{ dnfO{ a'l4dfgL nfUb}g . of] /fhgLlts lg/k]IfjfbLx¿sf] h:tf] rfn ePg < dnfO{ t o; lg/k]Iftfleq /fggLlts uGw :ki6 cfPsf] efg x'G5 .

/fhgLlts lg/k]Iftfsf] s'/f jf ;flxTonfO{ /fhgLlts xltof/ agfpg] s'/f hxfF;Dd cfpF5 tof] s'/f t/ntfleq d}n] x'n]sf] 5}g . d]/f] :jefjjfbL lrGtg Pp6f ;fdflhs lrGtg ePsf] :ki6 u/]sf] 5' . ;fdflhs lrGtg ePsf] gftfdf ;dfhsf ;a} cËx¿ o;sf ljifoj:t'df kb{5g\ . h;df /fhgLlt klg kb{5 t/ :jefjjfbL lrGtg :jefj}n] cfly{s w/ftndf plePsf] x'Fbf /fhgLlt bf];|f] qmddf cfpF5 . bf];|f] qmddf /x]sf] ljifoj:t'sf] nflu d}n] ;flxTonfO{ xltof/ agfPsf] 5}g . ;fxlTo ;dfhsf] æP]gfÆ eg]/ dfGg'x'G5 eg] To; P]gfdf /fhgLlt t b]lvG5 g} t/ /fhgLltsf nflu d}n] ;flxTonfO{ pkof]u u/]sf] 5}g . d]/f s[ltx¿ tkfO{+x¿ ;fd' aL; jif{b]lv 5g\ . 9fF6]sf] eP ;dfTgf];\ . h;/L d 8fS6/ xf]Og / OlGhlgo/ xf]Og To;/L g} /fhgLlt1 klg xf]Og . h;/L d}n] 8fS6/L u/]sf] 5}g To;/L g} d}n] /fhgLlt u/]sf] 5}g . h;/L dnfO{ d]/f 3fF6Ldf :6]y]:sf]k em'l08Psf] b]Vg'x'Gg To;/L g} d]/f] ;flxTosf] @$ jif]{ Oltxf;df -)@@ b]lv cfh )$^ ;Dd_ /fhgLlts efif0f u/]sf] b]Vg'x'g] 5}g . /fhgLlts n]v n]v]sf] kfpg'x'g] 5}g . h'n';df nfu]sf] b]Vg'x'g] 5}g . r'gfj k|rf/df lxF8]sf] b]Vg'x'g] 5}g . h]n k/]sf] b]Vg'x'g] 5}g . s'g} ;ª\3, ;+:yfdf nfu]sf] b]Vg'x'g] 5}g / tSdf;Sdf kfPsf] b]Vg'x'g] 5}g . ljåfg dfG5]x¿n] lagfk|df0f c07;07 aSb}gg\ . af]nL ;s]kl5 k|dfl0ft ug]{ bfloTj klg lng'k5{ . t/ntfjfbLx¿n] s] cfwf/df dnfO{ æ/fhgLlt1Æ, æ/fhgLlts u'08fÆ, æ/fhg]tfÆ, æ/fhgLltkLl8tÆ, jf æ/fhgLltzf:qLÆ dfg] dnfO{ cfZro{ nfu]sf] 5 .


t/nafbLsf] d'vkq k"jf{4{sf ;DkfbsHo"n] o;f] eGg'ePsf] 5–

æt/ntf / ult t/ntfjfbsf cg]sf}F a'Fbfx¿ dWo]sf x'g\ . t/ntfjfbn] kbfy{sf] txdf o;sf tLg} ¿knfO{ dfGbfdfGb} t/ntfnfO{ ljz]if dxTjk"0f{ 7fGb5 hals c:jLs[t ;flxTosf/ dxf]borflxF kbfy{sf afFsL b'O{ ¿k— 7f]; / jfkmnfO{ dfGg'x'Gg .Æ

-s_ klxn] t oxL eg5' ls o; plQmn] d}n] pxfFx¿eGbf klxn] g} c:jLs[t ;flxTodf æt/ntfÆ sf] wf/0ff k|lt:yfkg ul/;s]sf] 5' eGg] dfGotf lbOPsf] 5 .

-v_ bf];|f] of] ls d}n] eg]sf] æt/ntfÆ / æultÆ g} pxfFx¿sf] æt/ntfÆ / æultÆ xf] eGg] klg pxfFx¿ dfGg'x'G5 .

-u_ t];|f] of] ls t/ntfsf tLg} ¿knfO{ dfGbfdfGb} t/ntfnfO{ ljz]if dxTj lbg'x'G5 . d}n] klg :jefjjfbsf] d'Vo¿kdf æt/ntfÆ /fv]sf] 5' . d]/} s'/f bf]xf]l/Psf] :ki6 5 .

-3_ ca olt nfdf ldNg] s'/fx¿ eGb} pxfFn] eGg'ePsf] 5 ls d t/ntfsf cGo b'O{ ¿k– 7f]; / jfkmnfO{ dflGbgF . pxfFn] s] k|df0fn] o;f] eGg'eof] d}n] a'em]sf] 5'OgF . ;fob olt leGgtf b]vfpFbf pxfx¿sf t/ntf / d}n] JofVofPsf] t/ntfdf km/s b]lvg cfpF5 eg]/ dfq o;/L n]Vg'eof] t/ d]/f] t/ntfleq oL ;a} j:t'ut :j¿k / leGgtf k|i6 ePsf] k]z 5 æslj rSsf s'Dxfn]sf]Æ df .

d}n] eg]sf] 5' æ slj aflkmG5 tfkdf . p7\5 ;u/df . p8\5 xfjfdf . ablnG5 afbndf . ?G5 zLtdf . hD5 lxpFdf . kUnG5 lxdgbLdfÆ cflb cflb .

of] s'/f d}n] pxfFx¿sf] )$% df k|sflzt k"jf{4{ !% k9]/ n]v]sf] xf]Og . )@@ ;fndf @$ jif{ cufl8 g} n]v]sf] lyPF . x]g'{ æ:jfefjjfbL lrGtgÆ o;} k':tsdf . To:t}, ækfgLsf] yf]kfÆ afn pkGof;df klg oL ;a} j:t'ut kl/jt{g -t/n, jfkm / 7f];_ nfO{ k]z u/]sf] 5' )#^ ;fndf .

pk/f]Qm s, v, u / 3 sf a'Fbfx¿n] k'li6 ub{5g\ ls k"jf{4{sf] ;DkfbsLodf pNn]v ePsf ;a} s'/f d}n] klxn] g} egL ;s]sf] 5' / ;DkfbsHo" cfˆg} zAbx¿;Fu kqmfp kg'{ePsf] 5 . )$) ;fnb]lv )$%÷)$^ ;fn;Dd pxfFn] oL s'/fx¿nfO{ lsg n'sfP/ /fVg'eof] < lsg st} pNn]v ug'{ePg < ls eGg' k¥of] pxfFx¿n] c:jLs[t hdftnfO{ a'‰g'ePs} lyPg jf o;af/] yfx} lyPg .

d c¿ k|df0fx¿sf ;fy klg 5f]6s/Ldf ljZn]if0f ug{ rfxG5' . oL ;a}n] k'li6 ug]{ 5g\ ls t/njfbLx¿n] eg]sf ;a}h;f] s'/fx¿ d]/} sygsf em08} k'gJof{Vof dfq ePsf 5g\ .

t/njfbLx¿sf t/ntfjfbsf d'Vo a'Fbfx¿ 3f]if0ffkq !, @ / kl5 cfPsf] :ki6Ls/0f / JofVofx¿n] oxL :ki6 ub{5 ls t/njfb æt/ntfÆ s} u'0fx¿sf cfwf/df l;4flGts[t ul/Psf] 5 . h;df ;"qut lgDg s'/fx¿ 5g\—


!= ultzLntfsf] ZffZjttf

@= 7f];, t/n / jfliko ¿k

#= b|j0fzLntf, kf/blz{tf

$= cfsf/xLgtf

%= hLjGttf

^= hLjg / snfaLrsf] kf/:kl/s ultzLn ;DaGw

&= /;fTdstf

*= c/fhstf

(= efiffut t/ntf

ca k9\g'xf];\ o;} k':tsdf k'gM k|sflzt d]/f] æ:jefjjfbÆ, æasjqÆ, ..dGq.. ^, cl:tTTj, bfhL{lnË, )@*, æslj rSsf s'Dxfn]sf]Æ, efg' %, ls/0f !# )@@ .Æ 3f]if0ffkqÆ gofF uf]/]6f], )@& / ækfgLsf] yf]kfÆ afn pkGof; )#^ . oL tLg}j6f d]/f s[ltx¿n] dflysf ;a} s'/fx¿ -h;nfO{ t/njfbLx¿n] ^ jif{ nufP/ k]z ub{}5g\_ nfO{ EofPsf 5g\ .

-s_ æaskqÆ :jefjjfbdf elgPsf s]xL cª\zx¿, hf] æk"jf{4{Æ n] klg k|sflzt u/]Yof] tn k|:t't 5 . logdf sf]i7sleq t/njfbLx¿sf dfly pNn]lvt ;"qx¿sf gDa/ t'ngfsf nflu k|:t't 5g\ .

o; asjqaf6 d}n] :ki6 u/]sf] 5' ls d]/f] vf]hL hLjgsf] 5 . -% / ^_ o:tf] hLjg hf] t/n ultzLn -!_, :jR5 /ªxLg -#_ cfsf/xLg -$_ x'G5 . lj8Dagf of] 5 ls xfd|f] kfgLTTj aflkmP/ -@_ hfFb}5 / b]z, lgod, ;Qf dfq afFr]sf] 5f}F . :jfefljstf x/fPsf] 5 -c/fhstf_ xfd|f] /ª wldnf] 5 -kf/blz{tf #_ .

-v_ æslj rSsf s'Dxfn]sf]Æ df eg]sf] 5'— aflkmG5 tfkdf -@_ hD5 lxpFdf -@_ kUnG5 lxdgbLdf -@ / #_ ?G5 zLtdf -& / #_ k:5 wtL{df -&_ .

-u_ æ3f]if0ffkqÆ eg]sf] 5'– -dfGotfnfO{ t/n ¿kdf lnP/_ d}n] cfˆgf dfGotfsf efF8fdf xftdf lnP/ gfËf] e"OFF :jfefljstfdf vGofPF . efF8f cg'¿k :yflkt dfGotfx¿ cfsf/nfO{ c:jLsf/]/ :jfefljs cfofdx¿df :jtGq eP -!, $, %, ^ / *_ .

-3_ ækfgLsf] yf]kfÆ kfgLsf] hLjgsyf xf] . h;df o;sf ;Dk"0f{ ef}lts, ef}uf]lns, /;folgs, cfly{s, :jf:Yo, dfgjLo, ;fdflhs kIfx¿sf syf ufFl;Psf 5g\ . Pp6f yf]kf ;fu/af6 aflkmP/ jfkm, lxpF, jiff{, zLt, cl;gf, e]n, gbL, vf]nf, em/gf aG5 . /;fTds eP/ dfgj z/L/, jg:klt z/L/, e"ue{leq ofqf ub{5 . n]af]/]6«Ldf /;fogsf] sDkf]lh;gaf6 gofF hGd lnG5 . st} hD5 . dfG5]åf/f s'nf] nfU5 . 3§ rnfpF5 . lah'nL lgsfN5 . dfG5]s} b'Jo{jxf/af6 b"lift x'G5 . hghLjgnfO{ c:j:Yo kf5{ . cf}ifwL jf kmf]x/ ;fydf af]Sb5 . jfliks/0faf6 z'4 klg x'G5 .

logdf -! b]lv * sf_ ultzLntf, 7f];, t/n, jfik ¿k, b|j0fzLntf, kf/blz{tf, cfsf/xLgtf, c/fhstf, hLjGttf / /;fTdstf ;a} kb{5g\ . oL t/njfbLx¿sf a'Fbf afx]s ;fob kl5 JofVofgdf cfpg] a'Fbfx¿– -!)_ dfG5]åf/f jfik, t/ntf / ultzLntfsf] dfg lxtsf] nflu pkof]u -!!_ logsf /;folgs ljZn]if0f -!@_ cfly{s dxQf -!#_ ;fj{hlgs :jf:Yo -!$_ jxgzLntf, w"ns0f, ls6f0f' -!%_ 3'ngzLntf -!^_ z'l4s[t x'g] u'0f -!&_ jfkmsf] ;ª\s'lrt x'g] / ljikmf]6g x'g] u'0f -!*_ t/ntfdf aflx/L tTTjsf] k|efj cflb ;dfj]z 5g\ -!(_ To:t}– 7f]; :yL/ /xG5 eGg] pxfFx¿sf] unt wf/0ffnfO{ ;Rofpg] a'Fbf klg ;dfj]z 5g\ . -s'g} klg j:t' :yL/ 5}g . x/]s j:t' s]Gb|fsif{0f jf u'?TTjfsif{0faf6 k|efljt x'G5 / To;tkm{ cfslif{t eP/ ultzLn x'G5 . hlt j:t' 7f]; 5 plt sd ultzLn x'g] dfq xf] . _

hxfF;Dd efiffdf t/ntfsf -(_ s'/fx¿ cfpF5g\ . ;a} ;flxTosf/x¿sf] oxL bfjL x'G5 ls pgLx¿ ;/;, j:t'ut / :jfefljs eP/ n]V5g\ . d]/f c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿ o;} lstfadf k9\g'xf];\— efiff / ;Dk|]if0fLotfsf k|;Ëdf oxL eg]sf] 5' ls d efiffdf :jfefljs / ;/n 5' . nIo ;d"xcg'ut efiffx¿ k|of]u ub{5' . :jfefljstf eg]sf] t/ntf eg]/ JofVof ub}{ g} 5' . ctM efiffdf :jfefljstf eg]sf] d]/f] l;4fGtdf t/ntf xf] .

dfly k|:t't !, @ / # g+= sf a'Fbfx¿ n]v / sljtfsf s]xL cª\zx¿ dfq x'g\ . logsf k"0f{¿k o;} lstfadf æ:jefjjfbL lrGtgÆ df k9\g'xf];\ . ;fy} ækfgLsf] yf]kfÆ pkGof; ePsf] x'Fbf o;df k|:t't ug{ c;Dej 5 . aflx/ k9\g cg'/f]w 5 . ;femf k|sfzgsf lstfa bf]sfgdf kfOG5 .

ca t/njfbL ;fyLx¿n] lgdf{0f u/]sf -<_ l;4fGtnfO{ d]/f] eg]/ d}n] >]o lng vf]h]sf] eGg] cf/f]ksf] hjfkmdf ;fwf/0f lx;fan] d oL s'/fx¿ ;f]Wg rfxG5'— æd}n] lbPsf k|df0fx¿sf] ljZn]if0fk"0f{ v08g lsg ug'{ePg < lsg k'li6 ug'{ePg ls d}n] oL k|df0fx¿ pxfFx¿n]eGbf kl5 n]v]/ k]z u/]sf] x'F . pxfFx¿sf] t/ntfjfb s;/L /fhgLlt lg/k]If jf k|hftGqjfbL eof] / d]/f]rflxF s;/L dfS;{jfbL jf ;fDojfbL < pxfFx¿sf] t/ntfjfb k"0f{tM df}lns xf] eg] s'g cfwf/df daf6 leGg eP/ df}lns x'g k'u]sf] 5 < d}n pxfFx¿eGbf @)÷@@ jif{ cufl8 n]lv;s]sf / 5kfO;s]sf s'/f bf]xf]l/Psf] b]Vbf jf k'gJof{Vof ePsf] b]Vbf >]o lng vf]h]sf] eGg] cf/f]k s;n] nufpg ;'xfpF5 d}n] ls pxfFx¿n] <Æ OToflb .

:ki6 5 t/njfbLx¿n] d]/f w]/} a'Fbfx¿s} k'gJof{Vof u/]sf 5g\ / cem} w]/} a'Fbfx¿df JofVof x'g afFsL 5g\ . d}n] pxfFx¿sf s'/fdf To:tf] >]o lng vf]h]sf] klg 5}g . d}n] t egL g} ;s]F Tof] wf/0ff d}n] klg ;fgf sIffb]lv g} oqtqaf6 lnPsf] x'F . d]/f] egfO t s]jn oxL xf] ls o; wf/0ffdf t/njfbLeGbf @)÷@@ jif{ cufl8 g} d}n] kfOnf rfn]sf] x'F / dfd'nL n]v, sljtfdf dfq k|of]u gu/]/ cf]krfl/stfsf ;fy 3f]if0ffx¿df k|of]u u/]sf] x'F . hf] d]/f] ;Dk"0f{ dfGotfsf] l;4fGt xf] . kf7sx¿n] ;fIf lbpmg\ k|df0fx¿ k]z 5g\ .

;f]lwPsf] 5 cfh %÷^ jif{b]lv t/njfbsf] oqf] xf]xNnf eO/fVbf d lsg r'k nfu]/ a;]F < of] s:tf] k|Zg xf] < s] d}n] cfh;Dd gaf]Ngfn] d]/f] t/ntfdflysf] k|dfl0fstf 36]/ hfG5 ls o;f] eGg vf]lhPsf] xf] ls d oltsf nfdf] ;do;Dd oL k|df0fx¿ 5nk"0f{ ¿kn] tof/ ug{ nfu]y]F . d}n] r'k nfUb}df ;To s'/f n'Sb}g . d}n] ;flxToaf6 ;Gof;} lnPsf] eP klg Tof] Oltxf;df lznfn]v ePsf] 5 . d]/f] egfO lyof] / 5– d g]kfnL ;flxTosf] cWoogzLntfk|lt pbfl;g 5' . Oltxf; < g]kfnL ;flxTosf] Oltxf;df c¿ s]xL 5}g— xNnf dfq 5 . ;'g]sf] e/df xNnf ul/G5 . cWoogsf nflu 7fpF x'Gg . xfdLdf cWoog x'g] u/]sf] eP d]/f 3f]if0ffx¿ kl9Gy] / To;df k|o'Qm Psdfq / k|d'v pkdf æt/ntfÆ sf] cjwf/0ffsf] ;Demgf x'g'kYof]{ . o; ;Gbe{df s'g} klg ;dfnf]rs jf ;flxlTos ;+:yf jf lgsfox¿nfO{ aRg] 7fpF 5}g . lsgeg] pgLx¿ klxn] æc:jLs[t hdftÆ sf ;flxTo / dfGotfaf/]sf] 5nkmndf ;dfj]z lyP / cfh t/njfbLsf] xf]xNnf af/]df klg 5nkmn ub}{5g\ . cem} klg c:jLs[t hdftsf] cfGbf]ng af/]df ljZjljBfndf k9fOG5 / g]kfn /fhsLo k|1f—k|lti7fgsf ;flxlTos e]nfx¿df k|;Ëx¿ /flvg] ul/G5 . oxL t/njfbLx¿s} xf]xNnf ;DaGwdf klg c:jLs[t hdftaf/] klg rrf{ rln/x]sf] b]Vb}5' . t s] a'em]/ o;/L rrf{ eO/x]5 <

t/njfbs} k|;Ëdf Ps 7fpFdf df]xg sf]O/fnfHo"n] æ;flxTonfO{ o;/L n]Vg' k5{ eGg] jfbsf] cfGbf]ngdf k:6fPsf pb\3f]if0fdWo] lnFbfrflxF t];|f] cfofd / t/njfb x'g\ eGg sl7gfO gknf{Æ eGg'ePsf] /x]5 . of] ;fx|} lrQ ga'‰bf] s'/f] nfUof] . ;Qfåf/f ;+/If0f k|fKt cfGbf]ngx¿n] dfq km}ng] df}sf kfpF5g\ . xfd|f] cfGbf]ng t Pp6f ljb|f]x lyof] . o:tf] ljb|f]xnfO{ zlQmåf/f bafOG5 . km:6fpg] df}sf lbOb}g . c:jLs[t hdftsf] ;Dk"0f{ n8fOF ;flxTo o:tf] x'g' k5{ eGg] af/]df g} lyof] -x]g'{xf];\ o;} k':tssf] cWofo M æc:jLs[t hdftsf s]xL n]vsx¿sf] 3f]if0ffÆ_ . o;/L eg]sf], af]n]sf] dfq xf]Og xfdLn] u/]sf klg 5f}F . xfdLn] sfuhdf dfq ;flxTo n]v]gf}F . ;8sdf a'6 kfln; u/]/ a|;x¿n] a'6df n]Vof}F . xfd|f] ;xeflutf ;8sdf sljtf sf]/]/ / ufP/ lxF8\g]x¿;Fu klg lyof] . xfd|f ljrf/x¿n] c~rnfwLzsf] sfof{nodf hfg] af6f]x¿df ;flxTo /r] . xfd|f] ;xeflutf la/fdL, n]vs, snfsf/ ;fyLx¿sf nflu ;8sdf rGbf a6'Ng v'§fx¿n] sljtf /Rg]x¿sf ;fydf klg lyof] . /Ëd~rdf l6s6 a]r]/ sljtf ufpg] / b]p;Ldf ;flxTo /Rg]sf dfemdf klg lyof] . slt t o:tf lqmofsnfkdf ;+of]hg x'g ;d]t k'u]sf lyP . oL ;a la;{g' gx'g] s'/f x'g\ .

c:jLs[t hdft afx]s /fNkmfx¿n] ufpFufpF;Dd uP/ hgtfx¿ dfem :j/x¿n] sljtf u/] . a'6 kfln;, ;8s sljtf qmflGt, / ;8s gf6s h:tf ;flxlTos cleofgx¿n] ;flxTosf] k7fIf]k abn]/ b]vfP . oL ;a la;{g gx'g] s'/f x'g\ . cdn]v, gjo'jf n]vgn] To:t} cfˆg} kf/fn] of]ubfg lbPsf 5g\ . oL ;a};a} la;{g gx'g] s'/fx¿ x'g\ . ljz]ifu/L cfw'lgs sljtfsf cu|h elgg] sljHo"af6 o:tf s'/fx¿ la;{g' gx'g] nfUb5 . t];|f] cfofdaf6 Ps}rf]l6 t/njfbLnfO{ dfq To;/L dfGotf lbFbf hfgLhfgL larsf cfGbf]ngx¿nfO{ dxTj glbg vf]h]s]f a'lemG5 . of] t ;Qfwf/L Ps]8]dL jf ;Qfl;t ;~rf/dfWofdsf] h:tf] sfd eof] . o:tf]n] pxfFsf] JolQmTjdf g} c;/ kfg]{ s'/f x'g cfpF5 . ljz]if o; cj:yfdf ls !_ t/njfbLx¿sf] t/njfbeGbf !* jif{ cl3 g} c:jLs[t hdftsf n]vsaf6 cfˆgf n]v / c:jLs[t 3f]if0ffkqdf of] t/ntfsf] wf/0ff :yflkt eO;s]s]f 5 / @_ ToxL c:jLs[t hdftnfO{ km8\s]/ pxfFn] t];|f] cfofdaf6 t/njfbnfO{ b]Vg'eof] . #_ ;fy}, o; cj:yfdf ls /fNkmf, a'6 kfln;, ;8s sljtf qmflGtn] sfuhaf6 ;8s / ufpFx¿df ;flxTonfO{ cf]/fn]sf 5g\ . $_ ;fy} o; cj:yfdf ls t/njfbLx¿ cem} l;4fGt lgdf{0fsf qmddf g} 5g\ . %_ ghGd]sf] l;4fGtnfO{ qmdzM k]z ug]{ cj:yfdf dfq 5g\ / ^_ cGTodf o; cj:yfdf ls t/njfbLx¿ lgdf{0f ug]{ w'gdf cem} cNdlnPsf 5g\ ha ls l;4fGtnfO{ j:t'ut tYox¿, k"j{ :yflkt l;4fGtx¿ / ;"rgfx¿ dy]/ dfq k|fKt ul/G5 . hf] k|dfl0fs x'g' h?/L 5 / k|of]ul;4 klg x'g'kb{5 .

k"jf{4{sf] ;DkfbsLodf of] elgPsf] 5 ls æt/njfbL b[li6sf]0f;DaGwL JofVof qmdzM ub}{ nlug] 5 . l;4fGtlgdf{0f s]6fs]6Lsf] v]n xf]Og . o;tkm{ ljåfgx¿n] ;f]lrlbg' k5{ .Æ oL zAbaf6 of] a'lemG5 ls pxfFx¿ cem} lgdf{0fs]f qmddf x'g'x'G5 . k"0f{tM :j¿kdf gcfPsf] s'g} klg l;4fGtnfO{ s'g} klg ljåfgn] æs]6fs]6Lsf] v]nÆ g7fgL s;/L xfjfdf dfGotf lbg] s;/L a'lemlbg] < Tof]eGbf klg d'ne"t k|Zg t of] 5 ls l;4fGt lgdf{0f ul/Gg . ljleGg 7f]; tYonfO{ dy]/ gf}gL lgsfn]/ l;4fGtsf] æk|flKtÆ x'G5 . pxfFx¿ lgdf{0fsf] qmddf x'g'x'G5 eg] pxfFx¿ unt af6f]df x'g'x'G5 .Æ


cGTodf kf7sx¿nfO{ af]wfy{


!_ d]/f] æt/ntfÆ kfgLsf] :jfefljs cfofddf aUg] :jfefljs ultzLntf xf] . :jfefljs cfofddf aUg] l;4fGtnfO{ g} d}n] æ:jefjjfbÆ eg]sf] x'F . of] l;4fGt hLjg k4ltdf klg nfu" x'G5 / ;fdflhs k|0ffnLdf klg nfu" x'G5 .

@_ kfgL u'?TTjfsif{0fsf] k|fs[lts lgodaf6 k|efljt 5 . To:t} hLjg / ;dfh klg vfBsf pknAwL, e"uf]n / jftfj/0f cflb k|fs[lts tYox¿af6, k|36gfx¿af6 k|efljt 5 .

#_ kfgLdf hlt a9L t/ntf 5 Tolt g} a9L ultzLntf x'G5 . To:t} s'g} klg hLjg jf ;dfh k|fs[lts lgodk|lt hlt a9L t/n 5 Tolt g} a9L ultzLn x'G5 .

$_ k|fs[lts lgod lj?4 kfgLsf] ultzLntfnfO{ Manupulate ug{ vf]lhof] eg] o;sf] ultzLntfdf cj/f]w cfpF5 . of] cjf:tljstf xf] .

%_ k|fs[lts lgod pkof]u u/]/ ultzLntf xfl;n ug'{ Pp6f j}1flgstf xf] . j}1flgstf x'g' eg]sf] ultzLn x'g' xf] . a9Ldf a9L t/n x'g' xf] . of] :jfefljstf xf] .

^_ hlt a9L j}1flgs xf]OG5 Tolt a9L ultzLn xf]OG5 . a9Ldf a9L ultzLn x'g' eg]sf] t/n x'g' xf] . :jfefljs x'g xf] . j}1flgs x'g' xf] . oxL j}1flgs x'g] jf t/n jf ultzLn x'g] k|s[ofnfO{ d}n] :jefjjfb eg]sf] x'F .

&_ :jefjjfbL lrGtg jf t/ntfsf] cjwf/0ff hLjgf]kof]uL, ;dfhf]kof]uL j}1flgs lrGtg s'g} gLltut lrGtg xf]Og . :jefjut lrGtg xf] . of] l;4fGtdf d}n] )@@ b]lv n]Vb}5' / )@& ;fndf æ:jefjjfbÆ gfdfs/0f u/L c:jLs[t hdftdf cfˆgf] ;ª\nUgtfsf] æ3f]if0ffÆ df k]z u/]sf] 5' .

g]kfnL ;flxTosf ljåfg ;fyLx¿n] of] ;a a'lemlbpmg\ . k|df0fsf cfwf/df ljZn]if0f u?g\ . k"jf{u|x g/fvL j:t'ut cWoog u?g\ . xfdL sf] sxfF 5f}F < cWoogsf nflu Reference o; k|sf/ 5g\—

!_ æslj rSsf s'Dxfn]sf]Æ— efg', ls/0f %, )@@

@_ æ3f]if0ffkqÆ— gofF uf]/]6f], )@&

#_ æaskqÆ— ..dGq.. ^, cl:tTTj bfhL{lnË / lj:yflkt cg'xf/x¿ )@*

$_ ækfgLsf] yf]kfÆ— afn pkGof; )#*

%_ æaskqÆ— c:jLs[t pkGof; )$^

ctM t/njfbL ;fyLx¿;Fu klg cfu|x 5 ;dod} Ps 7fpF l;pgfn] bz 7fpF kmf6\gaf6 hf]ufpg ;lsG5 . ts{sf nflu dfq jf lhTgsf nflu dfq ljjfb gp7fcf}F . Ps em"7 n'sfpg ;of}F em"7 af]Ng' kg]{ x'G5 . of] a'emf}F .


*= d]/f] ;flxlTos ofqf

d]/f ;flxlTos dfGotfx¿af/] n]Vbf dnfO{ nfU5 d}n] d]/f ;flxlTos ofqfaf/] klg s]xL n]Vg' k5{ . Pp6f nf]e cjZo} hfu]sf] 5 ls oL s'/fsf] klg k~hLs/0f xf];\ .


-s_ n]vgsf k|of;x¿

cf]vN9'Ëf hGd 3/ xf] d]/f] . l;l4r/0f >]i7 hGd]sf] 7fpF . ToxfFsf] h'g jftfj/0fn] l;l4r/0fh:tf] o'usljnfO{ hGdfof] To; jftfj/0fn] c¿ cf}Fnfdf uGg k'Ug] klg slj jf ;flxTosf/ hGdfPsf] 5}g .

d]/f] ;flxlTos ofqfsf] h/fdf ;fob d]/f] gfrufg h:tf snfIf]qdf k|j]zsf] 7"nf] dxTj 5 . g]jf/x¿sf] ufpF7fpF, cfˆgf ;+:s[ltcg'¿k gfrufg x'Gy] . ToxfF ;fngL ebf} dxLgfdf Pp6f gf6s x'GYof] . wfld{s gf6sx¿ n]lvGy] / b]vfOGy] . rfv'{sf nIdLk|;fb kf]v/]n / d]/} :s'nsf u'? hLjgfy sf]O/fnf b'O{hgf x'g'x'GYof] h;n] ahf/sf g]jf/x¿sf cfu|xdf gf6s n]v]/ lbg'x'GYof] . tL gf6sx¿df d ;}nL -s]6L_ eP/ ufpFy], gfRy]F . ToxfF, Tof] a]nfdf uLtx¿ ;a} lxGbL lkmNdsf x'Gy] . s'g} lxGbLd} x'Gy] t s'g} cg'jfb ePsf klg x'Gy] .

;ft sIfflt/ k9\b} lyPF— ha g]kfnLdf uLt n]Vg lsg ;lsPg < eGg] k|Zg ddf plAhof] . d}n] o;} Pp6f uLt n]v]F . /fd|/L yfxf 5}g s] n]v]Fy] . ^÷& hgf ;fyLx¿ a6'n]/ ;'gfPsf] dfq ;Demgf 5 . bf];|f] uLt Tof] a]nf n]v]F ha :j= >L % dx]Gb|sf] ;jf/L )!# ;fndf cf]vN9'Ëfdf ePsf] lyof] . o;df xfd|f] :s'nnfO{ Inter College agfpg] / kl5 Degree College agfpg] dfu /fv]sf] lyPF . dfq b'O{j6f uLt / sljtfx¿ k|:t't lyP To;a]nf . xfd|f u'? hLjgfy sf]O/fnfsf] / d]/f] . >L % af6 :s'nsf] k|ult / o;sf] eljioaf/] s]xL syg ePsf] lyof] . dnfO{rflxF nfUof] ls ;/sf/af6 d]/} sljtfsf] k|To'Q/ ePsf] lyof] . cfh ;Dembf xfF:5' t/ klg Tof] d]/f nflu ax'd"No k|]/0ff lyof] . To;kl5 csf]{ sljtf )!% ;fndf !! jif{sf] pd]/df ;+;bLo r'gfjsf] a]nf sfª\u|]; pDd]bjf/ k]zns'df/ kf]v/]nnfO{ ef]6 dfUg n]v]F . sfª\u|];sf] sfof{no d]/} 3/df lyof] . r'gfj k|rf/sf nflu sf7df8f}Faf6 cg]s krf{x¿ / u|fdf]kmf]gsf /]s8{ klg cfPsf lyP . ToxfF Cyclostyle Mechine klg lyof] . u|fdf]kmf]g / krf{sf sljtf / uLtx¿n] d]/f] uLlt x[bo prfNof] / Cyclo df slkx¿ agfpg] nf]e klg hufof] . ===== To;kl5 Pp6f ef]6 dfUg] uLt n]v]F . clxn] ;Demgf 5}g s] n]v]F t/ ToxL uLt d}n] sfª\u|];s} Xof08 dfOs lnP/ ahf/el/ ufP/ klg lxF8] . s;}nfO{ yfxf ePg of] uLt s;n] n]Vof] < ;fob k]zn jf d]/f a'af -hf] tTsfnLg lhNnf sfª\u|]; sf]iffWoIf x'g'x'GYof]_ nfO{ yfxf x'g ;SYof] t/ d}n] pxfFx¿nfO{ slxNo} ;'gfOg . ufnL kfpg] 8/ x'GYof] . lsgeg] d}n] ljgfcg'dlt Cyclostyle k|of]u u/]sf] lyPF .

ca )!& ;fn cfof] . hlxn] d]/f] ;flxlTos ofqfsf] yfngL lbuf]¿kdf z'? eof] . eLdk|;fb >]i7 -eLdbfO_ sf7df8f}Faf6 k9fO ;s]/ cf]vN9'Ëf cfpg'eof] . pxfF sljtf n]Vg'x'GYof] / g]kfnLdf pxfFsf] ljz]if bVvn lyof] . pxfFn] xfdLnfO{ cf7 Snf;b]lv g} P;= Pn= ;L= sf g]kfnL lstfax¿ a9fpg nfUg'eof] . pxfFs} lzIffaf6 d]/f] efiff ;'wf/ eof] / pxfFs} b]vfl;sL u/]/ leqleq} sljtf n]Vg nfu]F . 5Gbdf sljtf n]Vy]F t/ slxn]sfxLF eLdbfOsf] b]vfl;sL u/]/ 5GbxLg sljtf klg n]Vg] uy]{F . d sljtf s;}nfO{ ;'gfpFlbgy] . tL sljtfx¿ cfh;Dd klg ;+/lIft 5g\ . ;aeGbf k'/fgf] ;+/lIft sljtf sfnsf] af/]df 5 . hf] o; k|sf/ 5–

P sfn tF cln k/ x6\

dfgj hLjgdf afwgkf/

tF k|j]z gu/ dfgjsf cfz] ejgdf

k|f0f kv]?nfO{ gp8f kjgdf .

—)!&, r}q, -pd]/ !# jif{_


 

csf]{ 5Gbdf n]lvPsf] sljtf o:tf] 5—


kx]Fnf, xl/of, kfpnf gofF

zf]ef ¿vdf, k|s[ltsf bof

agdf kG5Lsf ;fydf

aifGt k|s[ltsf ufydf

kG5Lx¿sf ;ËLtdf,

kjgsf dGbdGb tfndf

kft / zfvf a[Ifsf],

lyPF g[To x]g{ d a;]sf] .

lyPg sf]xL d]/f ;fydf

lyof] pxL n]vgL sfkL xftdf

rNof] emf]Fs sljtf agfpg]

ai;Gtjxf/sf] /; kf]vfpg]

sfnf afbn lgd{n uugdf

s/fO bf}l8/x]Yof] kjgdf

l5g} e/df jiff{ eof] htfttf

d]/f efj sljtfsf] eflug\ stfstf .

-)!*, cfiff9, pd]/ !$ jif{_





 


eLdbfOn] :s'ndf b'O{dlxg] leQ]klqsf ;~rfng u/fpg'eof] t/ dnfO{ To; klqsfdf n]v jf sljtf k7fpg] cfF6 k6Ss} cfPg .

oxfFlg/ d}n] eGg' kg]{ x'G5 ls afNosfndf d]/f] JolQmTj zfGt / nHhfn' lyof] . ;a}n] …nf6fÚ eGy] . x'g klg d ;w}F Snf;df r'Tyf] x'Gy]F / ;a}n] x]Ky] . lzIfsx¿df gh/df klg d To:t} af]wf] / nf6f] lyPF . o;/L ;a}af6 x]lkPsfn] dnfO{ cfˆgf] sljtf k|sfzgfy{ k]z ug{ slxNo} cfF6 ePg .

Pslbg rGbg] vf]nf g'xfpg uPsf] lyPF . ;fydf b]j/fh 9sfn x'g'x'GYof]— ;+:s[tsf] zf:qL . sfª\u|];sf dfGo g]tf . pxfFn] agdf/fnfO{ b]vfP/ eGg'eof]— o;sf slt gfdx¿ 5g\ < b'a}n] uGg nfUof}F— …sfnf] emf/Ú, …?lbnf]Ú, …;ft;fn] emf/Ú OToflb . To;kl5 o;sf u'0fx¿ avfg ug{ nfUof}F . s'/} s'/fdf pxfFn] eGg'eof]– …n o;dfly lgaGw n]Vg ;S5f} <Ú n]Vgdf rfv t 5Fb} lyof] . Pp6f lgx'Fdfq rflxPsf] lyof] / ljifo klg kfOxfn]F . ;fFemd} n]v]/ b]vfPF . v';L x'g'eof] pxfF . zf:qL dfG5]sf] v';L JoQm u/fOn] dnfO{ hf]; a9fof] . To;kl5 nhfOnhfO, 8/fO8/fO eLdbfOnfO{ lbPF Tof] . jwfOsf;fy pxfFn] leQfdf 6fFl;lbg'eof] . csf]{ 7"nf] k|]/0ff lyof] of] d]/f nflu . To;kl5 sljtf klg b]vfPF . Tof] klg 6fFl;of] . sIffdf Pp6L ;xkf7L s]6L lyOg\ h;n] d]/f oL k|of;x¿nfO{ d'Qms07n] k|;+;f ul/g\ . dnfO{ c¿ hf]; a9]/ uof] . d c¿ hf];n] sljtfx¿ n]Vg nfu]F .

gf}F sIff -)!* ;fn_ df k9\bf w]/} sljtfx¿ n]v]F . ;Fu} syfx¿ klg n]v]F . s]xL …h'gls/LÚ x:tlnlvt klqsfdf klg k|sflzt eP . cfh eGg' k5{ . d]/f] ;flxTosf] yfngL cf]vN9'Ëfaf6 )!* ;fndf eof] / d]/f k|]/0ffsf ;|f]tx¿ h] hlt eP klg ;flxTodf psfNg] k|yd JolQm eLdk|;fb >]i7 g} x''g'x'GYof] .


-v_ afNosfnsf] cWoog, ljifout k|ToIfLs/0f / ltgsf k|efjx¿


afNosfnb]lv g} d nf]ssyfx¿lt/ cfs[i6 lyPF . bfh' gf/fo0fbf; >]i7 st} g st}af6 syfx¿ Nofpg] / xfdL s]6fs]6Lx¿nfO{ ;'gfpg] ug'{x'GYof] . ltg} syfx¿ ;'Gbf;'Gbf syfx¿df rfv a9\g nfUof] . kl5 :j:yfgLsyf klg ;'Gg nfu]F . st} k'/f0f elgb} lyof] eg] Totf klg cfs[i6 x'g nfu]F . ca olQ;Dd eof] ls /fdfo0f, dxfef/t, b]jLefujt\ / :j:yfgLsyfsf k':tsx¿ *, !) jif{s} pd]/df csf{sf 3/df n';'Ss 3';]/ k9\g] ePF . Tolt dfqn] gk'u]/ c¿ k9\g] s'/f kfOG5 ls eg]/ otfptf vf]Hbf bfsfglt/ klg cfs[i6 ePF . kl5 3/af6 k};f rf]/]/ tf]tfd}gf, xfQLdtfO, k|]dnx/L, u'njsfjnL cflb klg lsg]/ k9]F . d]/f] ljx] !# jif{sf] pd]/df eof] . olt ;fg} pd]/df ljx] x'g'sf] sf/0f klg syfk|ltsf] cfsif{0f g} x'g k'Uof] . kLkn8fF8] ;fx" kxndfgsf] hTyf d'2fsf] tfl/vdf cf]vN9'Ëf cfPsf] lyof] . pxfFsf] hTyfn] /ftsf] b'O{ ah];Dd dw'dfntLsf] syf eGof] . d}n] b'O{ah];Dd} hfuf a;]/ Tof] k"/} syf ;'g]F . aLraLrdf cfkm"nfO{ :ki6 gePsf s'/fx¿sf] :ki6Ls/0f klg vf]h]F . o;f] x'Fbf kxndfg;fx" daf6 lgSs} k|efljt x'g'eP5 / cfˆgL 5f]/L dnfO{ ljx] gu/L g5f]8\g] x'g'eP5 . kl5 5f]/Lsf] pd]/ d;Fu gldNg] ePsf] x'Fbf cfˆgL alxgLsf] ljx] u/fP/ 5f8\g'eof] . cfh pg} >LdtL rGb|fsf;fy lhGbuL latfpFb} 5' . d]/f] syf k|]dsf] k|tLs d]/L hLjg;fyLsf ¿kdf ;x–lhGbuL latfpFb} l5g\ d;Fu cfh .

d}n] ;fg} pd]/b]lv sljtf t n]v]F t/ dnfO{ yfxf 5}g dleq sljTj k|ltef lyof] ls lyPg . dnfO{ olt yfxf 5 d}n] sljtfx¿ b]vfl;sL u/]/ n]v]F . sljtfsf efjgf eg'F ls cfkm"leqsf pdËx¿ eg'F jf sNkgfsf] p8fg eg'F— To:tf] x'g' uYof]{ . dnfO{ nfU5 ;a} afnsx¿df Tof] x'G5 . ;fob Tof] d]/f] sljTj lyPg . sNkgfdfq lyof] . afn;'ne sNkgf . cf]vN9'Ëf, Pp6f ¿vf] 8fF8f], To;sf jl/k/L s]xL xl/of] jg . cfˆgf] 7fpF h:t} eP klg /fd|f] t nfU5 g} t/ l;l4r/0fsf] afn;'ne sljTjnfO{ 5'g] sljtfTds ;f}Gbo{ d k6Ss} ToxfF b]lVbgy]F . d]/f] cfnf]rs x[bo Tolta]nf hfu]sf] lyof] . d}n] l;l4r/0fsf ltg} jg, ntf, nltsf cf]vN9'Ëfdf vf]h]F . /f]zLvf]nf / Tof] tfdfsf]zL ToxfF vf]h]F . afnsx¿n] e]6\g], Eofpg], b]Vg] 7fpFx¿df tL s'/fx¿ st} lyPgg\ . a"9fkfsfnfO{ ;f]w]F . hjfkm kfPF– tL ;a cf]vN9'Ëfsf xf]Ogg\ . lu/L kmf]g]{ /f]zL cf]vN9'Ëfaf6 #÷$ lbg k/ -kgf}tL–b'Dhf_ cyf{t\ sf7df8f}Fs} 5]pdf ePsf] / ;'gsf]zL, tfdfsf]zL klg b'O{lbg k/ b'O{ gDa/df ePsf] tYo yfxf kfPF . ;a} sljHo"sf sf7df8f}F kmls{bf af6fsf :d[ltx¿ lyP xf]nfg\ . afNosfndf ef]u]sf cf]vN9'Ëfsf tYox¿ lyPgg\ tL . d]/f] afnx[bodf lrQ a'em]g . l;l4r/0fn] lsg 9fF6] < lsg pgn] Pslbg klg gnfUg] dgf]/d b"wsf]zLaf/] s]xL klg n]Vg ;s]gg\ < lsg cf]vN9'Ëfs} rGbg] vf]nf, tf/f]xfGg] rf}/, ?D6Lvf]nf, l;:g] vf]nf, 7f]6\g] vf]nf cflbsfaf/] n]v]gg\ <

cf]vN9'Ëfaf/] dL7f] sljtf k9\g kfpFbf cjZo} v';L nfUYof] t/ To; k5fl8sf em'7nfO{ u'g]/ gdL7f] nfUYof] . dnfO{ ;Fw} nfUYof]— l;l4r/0fn] nunu]af6 b]lvg] ;]tf lxdfnaf/] n]Vg' kYof]{ . tn'jfaf6 b]lvg] xl/of] b"wsf]zLsf] gfua]nLnfO{ sljtfdf x'Ng' kYof]{ . dnfO{ nfUYof]– l;l4r/0faf6 cGofo ePsf] 5 . tL ;'Gb/ / dgf]/d cf]vN9'Ëfsf ;Rrf b[iolglwnfO{ l;l4r/0fn] pk]Iff u/] . cf]vN9'Ëfsf gfddf pgn] cf]vN9'Ëfsf eGg st} gldNg] gfdx¿ x'n] . tLg}nfO{ dxTj lbP OToflb .

;fFlRr g} Tof] lxdfn / b"wsf]zLdf d]/f] plQs} nufj lyof] . cf]vN9'Ëfaf6 tL b'a} b]lvGgg\ t/ 306f e/ k/ nunu] / tn'jf k'u]kl5 oL b]lvG5g\ . d]/f cfFvf Tot} ndtGg x'Gy] . e"OFFdf 7]; nfUYof] . st} sfGnfaf6 v:g klg a]/ nfUb}gYof] / drflxF k"0f{tM log} b[Zodf cfslif{t eO/xGy] . dnfO{ nfU5– tL b'a}sf] ;f}Gbo{n] dnfO{ lvr]sf] lyPg . k|s[ltsf] cgf}7f] /x:on] lvr]sf] lyof] . lsg Tof] lxdfn ;]tf] x'g' kg]{ < ls Tof] gbL gLnf] x'g' kg]{ < a"9fkfsfx¿nfO{ k|s[ltsf o:tf /x:oaf/] ;f]Wg] uy]{ . cg]sg nf]ssyfx¿ ufFl;Psf x'Gy] pgLx¿sf hjfkmdf . dnfO{ /dfOnf] / rfvnfUbf] kIf Tof] x'GYof]— ha k|To]s lghL{j j:t'nfO{ hLljt j:t'sf ¿kdf syf xflnGYof] . ;aeGbf a9L rfvnfUbf] syf b"wsf]zLaf/] nfUYof] . eGy]– o; sf]zLdf b"w g} aUbYof] . s'g} nf]eL afx'gn] h'7f] xfnL lbPkl5 b"wsf]zL l/;fP/ kfgL eP/ aUg nflug\ . o;f] klg elgGYof]– b"wsf]zL clt g} lxtsf/L gbL x'g\ . pgn] cfˆgf tL/df wfgsf v]tx¿ agfpFb} / ;'Gtnfsf af]6x¿ nfpFb} uPsL lyOg\ . o;}n] logsf lsgf/fdf pAhfpzLn 6f/x¿ 5g\ / pgs} s[kfn] xfdL cfh k|;:t ;'Gtnf vfg klg kfO/x]sf 5f}F . OToflb syf ;'g]/ b"wsf]zLsf] Tof] sNof0fsf/L kIfnfO{ pgsf gfua]nL ¿kdf sNkGy]+ . To;}df 8'Ay]F . o;/L dnfO{ ulx/f], xl/of] kfgLn] ;fx|} g} cfs[i6 uYof]{ . kfgL dfly 5d5d lxF8\g] sNkgf x'GYof] . kfgLleq df5f eP/ kf}8g dg nfUYof] . dfemLn] em}F kf}8L v]Ng] /x/ x'GYof] ddf / cfh;Dd klg kfgL k|ltsf] cfsif{0f TolQs} 5 .

oL ;a afNosfnsf cf;lQmn] dnfO{ nf]s;flxTo, ;+f:s[lts ;flxTo / kfgL ;flxTo -tLg vfn] ;flxTo_ df NofOk'¥ofPsf] 5 .

oL tLg} vfn] s'/fx¿ @)÷@@ jif{b]lv s'g} g s'g} ¿kdf cfˆgf ;flxTodf x'n]/ n]Vb} cfPsf] 5' . d]/f] kfgL ;flxTonfO{ @@ ;fnb]lv syf, sljtf / pkGof;x¿df k|of]u ub}{ NofPsf] 5' . d]/f ;a} ;flxlTos lrGtg pxL kfgLsf] :j¿k;Fu ;DalGwt 5g\ . d}n] cfˆgf] ;flxToleqsf] bz{g g} kfgLsf] t/n k|s[ltaf6 lnPsf] 5' . h;nfO{ d …:jefjjfbÚ eGg] ub{5' . d;Fu b'O{j6f lstfanfO{ k'Ug] nf]ssyfx¿ ;ª\slnt 5g\ . h;nfO{ Pstfsf …Psfb]zsf syfx¿Ú eg]/ k|sflzt ug{ rfxGy] / $)÷%) j6f ;f+:s[lts n]vx¿ 5g\ hf] …s] lsg elgof] <Ú eGg] k':tsfsf/df kl5 cfpg] 5g\ .

afNosfsf s]xL c¿ s'/fx¿ klg 5g\ h;n] cfh d]/f] ;flxlTos JolQmTjdf c;/ kf/]sf] 5 . cf]vN9'Ëfsf] 7fpF kqklqsf cfpFb}gy] . Pp6f k':tsfno lyof]— ;u/dfyf k':tsfno . ToxfF em08} xhf/ yfg k':tsx¿ lyP . xfdLnfO{ k9fpg] u0f]znfn -sfhLbfO_ n] ToxfFsf rGb|sfGtf ;Gtlt NofpFb} k9]/ /dfOnf syfx¿ ;'gfpFy] . a8f] /f]rs nfUby] tL syfx¿ . To;}n] ubf{ k':tsfnokl§ cfs[i6 ePF . d p:tf] rNtfk"hf{ lyOgF . nHhfn' lyPF . ToxfFaf6 dfu]/ k9\g] cfF6 cfpFb}gYof] . s]xL ;fyLx¿n] ToxfFaf6 n}hfg nfu] kl5 pgLx¿af6 lnP/ k9\g nfu]F . klxnf] pkGof; …x'/Lsf] r/fÚ lyof] . cfh;Dd klg ;Demgf cfpF5— d Tof] k9]/ slt Jolyt ePsf] lyPF . b'O{ tLg lbg;Dd d]/f] dg 7]ufgdf lyPg . c¿ Ps, b'O{ lstfax¿ klg lyP h;n] dnfO{ plQs} Jolyt agfP . kl5 k':tsfnosf] ;b:o ag]/ nuftf/ lstfax¿ k9\g nfu]F . lxGbL lstfasf] nufj olt ;f/f] eof] ls Ps tfsf d lxGbLaf6} ;f]Rg nfUg] ePF / x]gf]{;\ g cfh d}n] n]v]sf syf sljtf jf n]vdf htftt} lxGbLsf] k|efj b]lvG5 .


-u_ w/fgdf pTsif{ sfn

@)!* ;fndf xfd|f] kl/jf/sf] a;f]af; w/fg ;¥of] . d]/f] k9fO{ w/fgd} x'g nfUof] . ToxfF d]/f ;fyL ljZj/fh hf]zL klg lyP . cf]vN9'Ëfdf pgsf a'af Gofoflw; eP/ cfpg'x'Fbf pgL klg cfPsf lyP / xfdLn] cf7f}F / gjf}F sIff;Fu} k9]sf] lyof}F . eLdbfOsf] k|]/0ffaf6 pgL klg syf sljtf n]Vg] ePsf lyP . w/fgdf pgLl;tsf] e]6n] d]/f] ;flxlTos rfvnfO{ oyfjt\ /fVgdf 7"nf] d2t k'¥ofof] . Pp6f sfstfnL s] kl/lbof] eg] pgsf bfO uf]kfn/fh hf]zL w/fgsf] ;flxlTos ;dfhsf clt g} k|ltli7t / ;s[o JolQm x'g'x'GYof] . w/fgsf d'Vod'Vo uf]i7Lx¿ pxfFs} g]t[TTjdf ;~rflnt x'Gy] . pxfFn] xfdL b'O{ efOx¿nfO{ x/]s uf]i7Ldf sljtf eGg] df}sf lbg nfUg'eof] .

w/fg :s'ndf klg To:t} /dfOnf] eof] . d k/]F …/fdaxfb'/Ú . …/fdaxfb'/Ú eGg] gfd olt JofKt /x]5 ls d]/} Snf;df c¿ rf/hgf /fdaxfb'/x¿ lyP . u'?n] …nf} /fdaxfb'/n] eGg]Ú eg]/ k|Zg ubf{ xfdL kfFrhgf Ps}rf}6L p7\Yof}F . d]/f] ;flxlTos ultljlwsf sf/0f u'?sf] ljz]if rfv ddfly x'GYof] / o; cj:yfdf …Tof] sljtf n]Vg] rflxF /fdÚ eg]/ dnfO{ Olª\ut ug'{x'GYof] . xF:of}nL x'GYof] Tof] a]nf t/ yfx} gkfO{ dnfO{ ;fyLx¿n] ;d]t …sljtf n]Vg] /fdÚ / kl5 …sljtf/fdÚ eg]/ eGg nfu] . d}n] Tof] gfd :jLsf/]F . uf]i7Lx¿df ToxL gfdn] pqg nfu]F .

To;kl5 d w/fgd} dx]Gb| sn]hdf g} k9\g nfu]F . o'lgogsf] r'gfj cfP5 . ToxfF sfª\u|];, k|f]u|]l;e -dfS;{jfb, n]lggjfb ;dy{sx¿nfO{ o;f] eGbf /x]5g\_ / csf]{ b'a};Fu gldNg] Joj:yfjfbL u|'kx¿ /x]5g\ . d]/f af sfª\u|]; x'g ePsf]n] of] sfª\u|]; xf] eg]/ dnfO{ sfª\u|];n] yfx} glbO{ ;flxTo Pj+ ;+:s[ltsf] ;lrjdf p7fO;s]5g\ . csf{lt/ uf]kfn bfO k|f]u|]l;e ePsf] gftfn] / pg}sf] glhssf] ;flxlTos efO ePsf] gftfn] dnfO{ k|f]u|]l;en] klg ;f]xL kbdf p7fpg cfF6]5g\ . ev{/} sn]hdf cfPsf] To:tf] /fhgLlt yfxf lyPg . d]/f] ;F:sf/df …sfª\u|];Ú lyof] t/ dnfO{ ;flxTodf 8f]¥ofpg] b'a} bfh'x¿ eLdbfO / uf]kfnbfO k|f]u|]l;e lyP . r'gfjsf] clGtd lbg;Dd d s] x'F < d}n] s] x'g] < kQ} lyPg . a'afn] s]xL x:tIf]k ug'{ePg . bfOx¿sf] k|efj / w/fgdf ljz]if dxTjk"0f{ ;dfh k|f]u|]l;ex¿sf] ePsf] / clegf/fo0f ;'j]bL -hf] To;} SofDk;df t];|f] jif{df k9\b} lyP_ klg ToxL Kofgnaf6 dxf;lrjsf nflu p7]sf] x'Fbf dnfO{ lgwf] ug{ ufx|f] k/]g .

cle ;'j]bL, ;f]daxfb'/ 3'dg / uf]kfn/fh hf]zLsf sf]lrËaf6 d}n] l5§} oL hDd} u|'k s] x'g\ / d}n] s] x'g' k5{ < eGg] s'/fsf] lgwf] lnPF . d u/La, blntju{sf] k|jQmf x'g k'u]F . stfstf oL s'/fx¿ d]/f cGt:s/0faf6 lkm6 eP/ uP / d k|f]u|]l;e u|'kdf k'u]F / ljhoL klg ePF . To;kl5 -;flxTo Pj+ ;f+:s[lts ;lrjsf x}l;otn] sn]h dfkm{t_ w]/} ;flxlTos uf]i7Lx¿ u/fPF . gf6s v]n]F . n]v]F . sn]hsf] klqsf ;Dkfbg u/]F . w]/} ;flxlTos / ;f+:s[lts sfdx¿ u/]F . b'O{ jif{;Dd ;fy;fy} sn]h /fhgLltdf klg ;DnUg ePF . h'n'; ul/of] . yfgf k'luof] OToflb eof] t/ Pp6f s'/f daf6 s] x'g ;s]g eg] d}n] d]/f c¿ k|f]u|]l;e ;fyLx¿n] em}F …sfn] 3tL{ / d'lvofsf] dfqÚ syf n]v]/ cfkm"nfO{ ;Lldt /fVg ;lsgF . lrlgofF / ?;Lx¿sf tf}/tl/sfdf ;fd|fHojfbL, sfuhL af3x¿sf] lj/f]w u/]/ n]Vg hflggF . d 5fq g]tfsf] ¿kdf t b]lvPF t/ k|ultzLn ;flxlTos dflgOg . k|f]u|]l;e ;flxlTosx¿af6 d lk5l8Psf] jf ghfGg] slj eP/ uPF . d}n] pgLx¿sf] ;fy lng] k|of; klg ul/gF . d]/f ;[hgfnfO{ d s'g} g]n / xTs8Ldf afFw]/ n]Vg ?rfpGgy]F . syf jf sljtfnfO{ lrqdf jf lrqnfO{ sljtfdf ptfg]{ cfˆgf] lghL ulx/f] rfv lyof] / /xGYof] . o;sf nflu dnfO{ snd / a|;x¿df k|;:t :jtGqtf rflxGYof] . Tolta]n}b]lv d ;flxTodf cg]sg k|of]ux¿ ub}{ lyPF . )@@ df æslj rSsf s'Dxfn]sf]Æ eGg] …u|flkms sljtfÚ n]v]F . dnfO{ nfU5, g]kfnL ;flxTodf of] Pp6f gd"gf g} 5 -o;} k':tsdf x]g'{;\_ . To:t} k|of]u d}n] syfx¿df æb'O{ dÆ eGg] syf n]v]/ u/]F . o;df Ps} syfdf b'O{ kfqx¿sf] syf cfTdk/s z}nLdf n]lvPsf] 5 . To:t} æsf]7f af]N5Æ eGg] syf n]v]F . h;df sf]7fsf] :s]rdfq k|:t't 5 . o;df sf]7fsf] j0f{gaf6} syf a'‰g' kg]{ x'G5 . oL b'a} d]/f syfx¿ æk|nfkÆ df ;ª\u|lxt 5g\ . b'a} syf k|of]usf nflu g]kfnL ;flxTodf gd"gf 5g\ . clxn];Dd o;/L syf n]lvPs} 5}g .

@)@) ;fnb]lv @)@% ;fn;Dd w/fgdf d}n] ufog, g[To, clego, afBafbg, ;ËLt / lrqsnflt/ lgSs} ;fwgf u/]F . oL ;a} ;fwgfsf 5fkx¿ d]/f] ;flxTodf k|;:t} kg{ uP . sljtfsf] uLlt :j¿k, sljtfleq ;ËLtsf] nx/, syfdf jf:t'snfsf] :yfg, d"t{ / cd"t{ lrqsf] 5fk, syf, sljtf b'a}df gf6sLotf OToflb–OToflb k|of]ux¿ ePsf 5g\ . ha d]/f] :j/n] ufognfO{ prfNg ;s]g, ha lrq tyf jf:t'snfn] k|sfzgsf] dfWofd kfpg ;s]gg\, ha clego / ;ËLtx¿n] km:6fpg] dfWofd kfPgg\ / ha xftd'v hf]g]{ ;d:of cfˆgf] 6fpsf]df cfof] ta d]/f] ;fy s]xL snf, ljwfx¿ /x]gg\ l;jfo ;flxTo . ;flxTodfq Pp6f ljwf xftdf /Xof] . hf] km";{bdf ug{ ;lsGYof] / h;n] k|sfzgsf dfWofdx¿ klg kfpFbYof] . ;fy;fy} h;af6 kfl/>lds kfpg] w]/yf]/ cj;/ klg k|fKt x'GYof] .


-3_ sf7df8f}Fdf ;ª\3if{

sf7df8f}Fdf )@^ ;fndf cfOof] . oxfF ;fsf/;Fu e]6 eof] . ;fsf/ / k/z'bfO b'a}nfO{ @)@! ;fndf ef]hk'/d} e6]y]F . ;fsf/nfO{ o;/L k'gM sf7df8f}Fdf e]6]kl5 d]/f] ;flxlTos ofqf sf7df8f}Fdf cl3 a9fpg c¿ ;lhnf] eof] . pgL ..dGq.. rnfpFb} /x]5g\ . pgn] ..dGq.. sf nflu syf dfu] . d}n] )@@ ;fndf n]v]sf] æsf]7f af]N5Æ lbPF . pgn] o;nfO{ :s]r eg]/ 5fk] . o;} qmddf k/z' k|wfg;Fu k'gM e]6 eof] . kl5 ;flxlTos rfvsf] sf/0f ;fsf/ / k/z'bfOn] hxfF 8]/f u/]sf lyP d klg ToxLF g} 8]/f ug{ k'u]F . k/z'bfO;Fu ;fob d}n] cf>o klg lnPsf] lyPF . 8]/f;Fu} dfq lnPsf] lyOg . d]/f] lx;fadf pxfF d]/f] ;+/Ifs x'g'x'GYof] . k/z'bfO / d]/faLr d"No, dfGotf / ljrf/x¿df :ki6 cnu af6f] eP tf klg dnfO{ pxfFsf] k|;:t ;fy /Xof] . pxfFsf] ;fyn] sf7df8f}Fdf w]/} ;flxlTos ;fyL;Dd k'Ug] af6f] kfPF / syf sljtfx¿ ;lhn} k|sflzt ug{ ;Dej eof] . d}n dfGg} k5{— pxfFsf] ;fy gkfPsf] eP cfh d]/f] of] ;flxlTos :yfg /xg] lyPg .

la:tf/} d]/f syf, sljtf n]Vg] k|of]ufTds z}nL / ;fsf/sf p208 ljb|f]xfTds cleJolQmn] stfstf ldqtf ufF:of] . xfdL Ps eof}F . ljrf/sf] cfbfgk|bfgn] xfdL b'a}nfO{ emg} :ki6 kf¥of] / Pslbg ;Nnfx u¥of}F— æc:jLs[t hdftÆ eg]/ xfd|f] cfˆg} klxrfg /fVg] . ;Nnfx t u¥of}F t/ ;fsf/ ef]hk'/ kms{g] eof] t/ xfdLn] sfo{qmd o;}aLrdf 5f]8\g rfx]gf}F . ef]hk'/df k|]; :yfkgf eO;s]sf] lyof] . ToxfFaf6} ;:tf]df æc:jLs[t ;flxToÆ eGg] klqsf c:jLs[t hdftsf] 3f]if0ffkq ;lxt lgsfNg] ;Nnfx u¥of}F . ;fsf/ ef]hk'/ k'u] t/ xfd|f] sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog x'g ;s]g . k"FhL a]u/ ef]hk'/ h:tf] 7fpFdf s;/L klqsf lgsfNg] < sf7df8f}Fdf t s]xL geP klg lj1fkg t kfOGYof] . d]/f] w}o{n] 7fpF 5f]8\of] . g]kfn e"if0f Gof}kfg]n] Pp6f klqsf æ;~hLjgLÆ lgsfNg] ePsf lyP . pgn] dnfO{ cltly ;Dkfbs /fv] . o;} klqsfdfkm{t d}n] æc:jLs[t ;flxToÆ ef]hk'/af6 cfpg] 3f]if0ff u/]F .Æ c:jLs[t ;flxToÆ s] < / æhdftÆ s] < w]/} eGg gkfpFb} cg]s df/x¿ kg{ nfu] . 7fpF7fpFdf :ki6Ls/0f lbg' kg]{ l:ylt cfof] . dnfO{ k'is/ nf]xgLsf] 7"nf] ;xof]u eof] . pgnfO{ æ;~hLjgL–@Æ df cltly ;Dkfbssf] ¿kdf lgDTofPF / cfkm" ;Dkfbs /x]F . To;kl5 æ;~hLjgL–@Æ sf] dfkm{t c:jLs[t hdftsf] kl/ro z'? eof] . sltn] a'em] sltn] a'em]gg\ . a'em]/ jf ga'em]/ klg lj/f]w cfPsf]cfo} eof] . o;} a]nf ;fsf/sf] klg lkmtL{ eof] . xfdLn] ;+o'Qm ¿kdf ..dGq.. % k'gM k|sflzt u¥of}F / o;dfkm{t c:jLs[t 3f]if0ffx¿ k|sflzt u¥of}F / nuQ} ..dGq.. ^ df kfFrhgf ;fyLx¿sf c:jLs[t ;flxTo klg k|sflzt u¥of}F .

 

 


-ª_ a'6 kfln; cleofgdf ;ª\nUgtf


o;} qmddf d}n] a'6 kfln; cleofgdf cfˆgf] ;ª\nUgtf klg k~hLs[t ug'{ kg]{ x'G5 . ;flxlTos cleofgx¿df c:jLs[t hdftkl5 a'6 kfln;sf] qmd b]lvPsf] 5 / o;n] lgs} g} k|lti7f klg kfof] . jf:tadf c:jLs[t hdftsf] h:tf] ;}4flGts ljb|f]x xfdLn] o;df ;f]r]sf klg lyPgf}F . ;fdflhs ;ª\sngsf] k|sfzg aGb ul/Psf] lyof] / klqsf btf{ ug{ xfd|f] k""FhLsf] IfdtfeGbf aflx/sf s'/f lyP . xfdL;Fu klqsf /x]gg\ / lstfa 5fKg ;Sg] klg s'g} cf}sft ePg . xfd|f] snddf 7Kkf nfu]sf] lyof] . To:t} kl/l:yltdf l56f], ;lhnf] / k|efjsf/L k|ltsf/ jf c;Gt'i6Lsf] k|bz{g ToxL x'g ;SYof]– æa'6 kfln;Æ . a'6 kfln; u/]/ sdfPsf] k};fn] lstfasf] k|sfzg . wf]jLwf/fsf] j/k/ ;fsf/, d / df]xg l3ld/] a:bYof}F .Æ hfu/0fÆ sf] clkm; Tot} lyof] . s'd'b, gf/fo0f 9sfn, ;Gtf]if e§/fO{ / efpkGyL klg a]nfa]nfdf cfpFy] / 5f]onf, slrnf / P]nfsf sfo{qmdx¿ glhs}sf] e§Ldf ub{y] . cfkm" k/]F glkpg] . glkpg] ePkl5 ;fy klg :jtM sd} x'g] /x]5 . o;} tfsf s'/} s'/fdf ;fyLx¿n] Young Writers Front -gj n]vg_ klg u7g u/]5g\— dnfO{ kQ} ePg .

Ps lbg ;fyLx¿ t]h v/]n -hfu/0fsf ;Dkfbs_ sf clkm;df cfOk'u] . Young Writers Front sf] ldl6Ë ug{ . d klg k'u]F . s'/}s'/fdf ;fyLx¿n] cfˆgf lstfax¿ k|sflzt x'g g;s]sf tLtf–dL7f k|;Ëx¿ lgsfn] . ;fdlos ;Íngsf] k|sfzgdf nfu]sf] k|ltaGw / ;femf / k|1f–k|lti7fgsf gLltx¿af6 jfSs ePsf s'g} Pshgf ;fyL ;Gtf]if jf gf/fo0f 9sfn jf df]xg, s'g}n] a'6 kfln; u/]/ lstfa lgsfNg] cfj]u kf]v] . l5§} g} ;a}sf] lbdfudf k;]5 . Ps} :j/df …xf]Ú …xf]Ú lgl:sof] . t'?Gt} ef]lnkN6} gofF ;8sdf a'6 kfln; ug]{ eOxfNof}F . d r'k lyPF . efpkGyLn] …s] ;f]r]sf] <Ú eg]/ sf]6\ofP . d}n] eg]F— …;f]r]/ ug'{ k5{ .Ú df]xgn] k|Zg /fVof]– …s] ;f]Rg' k5{ <Ú d}n] eg]F– …of]hgfj4 sfd u¥of}F eg] /fd|f] x'G5 xtf/ ug'{x'Gg .Ú ;fsf/n] :jLs[lt hgfof] . lszf]/ …em'q]Ú hlËof]– …ltdLx¿ ;'6–6fO nfpg] dfG5] a'6 kfln; ug{ ;Qm}gf} ==== xfdL t ef]ln u/]/} 5f8\5f}F .Ú d cjfs ePF . ;fsf/ cjfs eof] . cjfs x'g'sf] dtna c:jLs[lt lyPg . ;a} ;fyLx¿ 3/ kmls{P . …a'6 kfln;Ú ;f]em} a'6 kfln; u/]/ cy{ ;Íng ug]{ cleofg dfq lyPg . o;sf k5fl8 alnof] …c:jLs[tjfbÚ klg lyof] . slxF st} ulNt eP Oltxf;n] xfF;f] p8fpg ;SYof] . of] p5[ª\vn dflgg ;SYof] / ;/sf/sf cfFvfdf klg laemfpg] s'/f x'g ;SYof] . To;}n] of]hgfa4 sfd ug'{ Psbd} h?/L lyof] .

;fsf/, d / df]xg eP/ /ftel/ sfo{qmd agfof}F . o;nfO{ Publicize ug{ Psbd} h?/L lyof] . ;DalGwt lgsfox¿nfO{ xfFs k'¥ofpg k|rf/ klg x'g' h?/L lyof] . To;}n] xfdLn] krf{x¿ n]Vof}F .Æ æ;flxTosf nflu a'6 kfln;Æ ægj o'jf n]vgsf k':ts k|sfzgfy{ a'6 kfln;Æ OToflb . gf} ah] laxfg gofF ;8s k'Uof}F . of]hgf cg'¿k a'6 kfln; ug]{ s]6fx¿ b'O{j6f afs;, s]xL kfln; / a|;x¿ lbg el/sf] !). – ¿k}+ofF lbP/ ef8fdf lnof}F / dlxnf ;+u7gsf] laqmL e08f/sf] klZrd kl§ uof}F . ToxfF klxnf kf]i6/x¿ 6fF:of}F . tLghgfdf s]xL nHhf lyof] . z'? ug{ lgs} ufx|f] k¥of] . dfG5]x¿sf] eL8 a9\g nfUof] . eL8n] xfdLnfO{ g5f]k'~h]n kf]i6/ 6fF:g] Jo:ttfleq nfhnfO{ n'sfpg sf]l;; u¥of}F . cl3Nnf] lbg hf]l:;g] ;fyLx¿ cfOk'u]gg\ . t]h v/]nn] eL8 hDdf u/] . eL8n] /fd|} 5f]k]kl5 xfdLn] eL8af6 h'Qf dfUof}F . h'Qf cfpg nfu]kl5 xfdLnfO{ nfh nfUg 5f8\of] . s]xLIf0fd} sfzLgfy tdf]6, gf/fo0f 9sfn, w'|j ;fksf]6f, efpkGyL ub}{ ;fyLx¿ ylkP . ljZjgfy cfP t/ kl5 n';'Ss lxF8] . s'd'b cfP/ klg k/k/} efu]5 . lszf]/ em'q] h;n] oxL ug{ xfFs lbPsf] lyof] b]v} k/]g . hflu/ hfg] 8/ eP5 . ejfgL l3ld/], gu]Gb|/fh zdf{, g[k]Gb| k'?if / t]h v/]n eL8af6 u|fxs tfGg nfu] . o:t} k|]d s}bL / cfgGb hËnLn] klg s]xL ;fyLx? NofP / xfdL;Fu} a;]/ a'6 kfln; ug{ ;3fP . ck/fGx kl5 b]lvof]— xfd|f] a'6 kfln;sf] nfd @)÷@% hgfsf] eP5 . xfdLn] ;a} ;xof]uLx¿nfO{ lrg]gf}F . ;fFem ^M#) ah] xfdLn] p7\g] lgwf] lnof}F . w]/} cfP . xft ldnfP . wGojfb lbP . kmf]6f] lvr] / ltg}dWo] s]xL o:tf klg lyP h;n] ækm];gsf nflu a'6 kfln;Æ jf æ;:tf] gfdsf nflu a'6 kfln;Æ eGg] h:tf sd]G6 klg u/] .

k};f uGof}F hDdf @)( ¿k}+ofF $) k};f p7]5 . ef]ln kN6 o'lgel;{6Ldf a'6 kfln; ug]{ cfu|x o'lgel;{6Lsf ;fyLx¿n] u/] t/ ef]lnkN6 cfOTTjf/ lyof] / xfdL— ;fsf/, df]xg / d}n] ;do lbg ;s]gf}F . ef]lnkN6 ljwfyL{ ;fyLx¿n] o'lgel;{6Ldf ;fFRr} a'6 kfln; u/]5g\ / em08} kfFr;o ¿k}+ofF xfdLnfO{ a'emfpg NofP . ;f] hDdf /sd ? ;ft ;of a}sdf df]xg l3ld/] / w'|j ;fksf]6fsf] ;+o'Qm gfddf /fVof}F . b'O{ xhf/sf] cfjZostf lyof] . kl5 xfdLn] rflxFbf] /sd hDdf ug{ ;s]gf}F . cfh;Dd g} Tof] k};f a}+sd} 5 / xfd|f] lstfa cem} lg:sg ;s]sf] 5}g .

a'6 kfln; cleofg lgs} rrf{df cfof] . w]/} kqklqsfx¿n] n]v] . oL dWo] ck{0f, rrf{, /fi6«Wjlg -)#!, cflZjg !$_, k|lt1f -cflZjg !@_, ;do b}lgs, ;xL cfjfh b}lgsn] o; cleofgsf] ;/fxgf u/] . ;dLIffn] æ;8s af]N5 :tDeÆ df ;8ssf dtx¿ ;d]t k|sflzt u¥of] . ef/tsf] b}lgs cË|]hL æ6fOD; ckm Ol08ofÆ n] ;–;Ddfg va/ lbof] eg] lbgdfgn] æ;j{ >L lszf]/ g]kfn ;ª\nUg ePsf cleofgÆ eg]/ em"7f] ;dfrf/ klg 5fKof] . la/f6gu/af6 k|sflzt æsf]z]nLÆ dfq o:tf] klqsf b]lvof], h;n] To;a]nf b]lvPsf, ;'lgPsf / ;d:t dgu9Gt, gsf/fTds s'/fx¿ ;ª\sng u/L 5fKof] . l5§} g} xfdLn] dx;'; u¥of}F— o; cleofgaf/] s]xL k|sfzg ug'{k5{ . xfd|f;fydf t]h v/]n lyP . pgsf] klqsf æhfu/0fÆ jif{ @, cÍ #, )#! n] æa'6 kfln; kl/lzi6fÍÆ k|sflzt ul/lbof] . o;df xfdL ;a}h;f] a'6 kfln;]x¿sf cleJolQmx¿ 5flkPsf 5g\ .



-r_ afn ;flxTolt/ kbfk{0f

afn ;flxTok|ltsf] cfsif{0fsf] syf cs{} 5 . xfd|f kfnfdf To:tf sxL ;flxTo lyPgg\ . sf];{sf lstfa / bGTosyf l;jfo xfd|f kfnfdf s]6fs]6Ln] k9\g] s'/f lyPgg\ t/ d]/f 5f]/f5f]/Lsf kfnfdf w]/} nf]ssyfx¿n] lstfaL ¿k kfO;s]y] . ef/taf6 cfpg] sldsx¿ klg xfd|f afnsx¿sf nflu kf7\o;fdfu|L aGg k'u]sf] lyP . o; cj:yfdf d s] kfpFy] eg] afnsx¿nfO{ cfhsf] cfjZostfcg'¿k ;fdfhLs/0f ug]{ jf cfpFbf] ;f+;fl/s xfFslj?4 p7\g ;Ifd agfpg k|of;/t k':tsx¿ g]kfndf lyPgg\ . nf]ssyfx¿sf] ;+ufnf]n] s] ug{ ;S5 < To;}n] o;lt/ snd rnfpg] k|oTg u/]F . klxnf] k|of; æjg lagf;Æ sf] ;d:of ;DaGwdf lyof] . jg esfes gfl;Fb} lyof] / afnsx¿sf] ;+:sf/df oxL /xg] 8/ lyof] . afnsx¿s} slnnf] dl:tisdf ¿v /f]Kg] k|oTg u/]F— æjgb]jLÆ pkGof; n]v]/ . kl5 ækfgLsf] yf]kfÆ n]v]F . kfgLsf] ;Dk"0f{ j}1flgs, ;fdflhs, cfly{s / :jf:Yo kIfnfO{ lnP/ . l5§} cfpFb}5 æsldnfsf] syfÆ . æ;d"xdf sfd ug]{Æ / æ;fd'lxs anÆ ;DaGwdf n]lvPsf] 5 of] pkGof; . k"j{k|fylds sIffsf afnsx¿nfO{ x'g] vfnsf] k':ts clxn];Dd g]kfndf b]lvPsf] 5}g . o; tkm{ d]/f] k|oTg æh'h'xL/fÆ eGg] lrqsyfaf6 /x]sf] 5 . Tof] klg l5§} ahf/df cfpFb}5 .

 

 


d]/f] n]vg ljifodf of] Pp6f csf]{ If]q xf] . h;df d cfˆgf s'g} klg c:jLs[t dfGotfx¿ jf cGo dfGotfx¿nfO{ jsfnt ug]{ k|s/0fx¿ /fv]/ afnsx¿sf slnnf dl:tisdf ;dfhsf] Tof] ljeT;tf, Tof] c;Gt'i6L, Tof] ljjztf, Tof] lj;Ëlt / tL ljb|f]xx¿ x'n]/ ltgsf dgdl:tisdf ljrng Nofpg rfxGgF . pgLx¿sf] ;Dk"0f{ j}olQms JolQmTj lj3l6t x'g] vt/f x'G5 . afn;flxTosf] If]qdf dnfO{ ;d:of ePsf] kIf 5– k|sfzg / ljt/0f . cfkm}Fn] k|sfzg ug'{ xfdL h:tf n]vgx¿nfO{ ufx|f] 5 / :yflkt k|sfzgx¿ pgsf Joj:yfkgsf sdhf]/Lx¿n] ubf{ k|jfesf/L 5}gg\ . To;}n] s]xL xtf]T;flxt 5' .

-5_ ;f+:s[lts ;flxTodf kbfk{0f


afNosfnb]lv g} nf]ssyf tyf kf}/fl0fs syfx¿df cfsif{0f ePsf] s'/f dfly g} n]lv;s]sf] 5' . k|ydtM tL syfx¿ /dfOnf]sf nflu ;'Gg] uy]{F . kl5 uP/ tL leqsf ;Gb]zx¿ ljZn]if0f ug{ ;'Gg nfu]F . o; ljifon] olt;Dd dnfO{ cfslif{t u¥of] ls d}n] sd;{ k9\bfk9\b} ;+:s[lt g} k9\gsf nflu ljifo abn]F . d o;/L klxn] ;+:s[lt / kl5 ;dfhzf:qsf] ljBfyL{ x'g k'u]F . ;dfhzf:qLo cWoogn] d]/f] ;+f:s[lts rfvnfO{ c¿ ;Ifdtf k|bfg u/]sf] 5 / cfh ;a}h;f] d]/f d"Nout ljZn]if0fx¿df ltg} ;+f:s[lts, ;fdflhs d"Nox¿sf syf ;d]l6Psf x'G5g\ . of] t eof] d]/f] ;flxTodf d]/f ;fdflhs Pj+ ;f+:s[lts cWoogsf k|efjx¿ . csf]{lt/ d]/f ljz'4 ;f+:s[lts n]vx¿ klg ;dfgfGt/ ¿kdf k|:t't x'Fb}5g\ . d]/f] ;flxTodf c;Gt'i6sfn jf ;'if'Ktsfndf log} n]vx¿n] dnfO{ kf7s;Dd tfhf pEofO/fv] / cem} klg d o; If]qdf n]Vb}5' . of] If]q d]/f] k"0f{tM ljz'4 ;f+:s[lts 5 / j}1flgs ljZn]if0ffTs 5 . d]/f ;a} c:jLs[t lrGtgaf6 k/ 5 . logdf d]/f ljrf/ k|:km'6g x'Fb}gg\ . xfd|f ;Dk"0f{ d"Nox¿sf h/f log} ;+:s[ltsf Oltxf;df ufl8Psf 5g\ . log} ;+:s[ltsf j}1flgs ljZn]if0faf6 dfq xfd|f s'g d"No, s'g ljZjf; s;/L, s'g cfwf/df plAhP / cfh ltgsf] s'g ¿k 5 < eGg] s'/f :ki6 ug{ ;Dej x'G5 . d]/f ;f+:s[lts n]vx¿n] d]/f ;flxToleqsf d"No lj/f]wsf 6«]G8 t ;dfTb}gg\ t/ d]/f] ;flxTo;Fu o:tf] ljZn]if0fsf] leqL cufw ;DaGw 5 .

@)#! ;fnlt/ d}n] æs] lsg elgof] <Æ gfds ljZn]if0ffTds ;f+:s[lts lstfa k|sfzgfy{ Ps]8]dLnfO{ lbPF t/ d]/f] pd]/sf] lx;fadf To;nfO{ c:jLsf/ ul/of] . To; pd]/df n]lvPsf] To; lstfanfO{ lstfaleqsf j:t'nfO{ x]/]/ / d]/f] pd]/nfO{ bfFh]/ kTofPgg\ . ca ddf pd]/n] kl/kSjtf lbPsf] 5 . lzIff klg To:t} ljifodf 5 . ToxL lstfa d Ps]8]dLnfO{ k|sfzgfy{ k'gM k]z ug]{ qmddf 5' . cfzf 5, ca 5flkg]5 .


-h_ cGo ;flxlTos sfddf rfv


c:jLs[t dfGotfsf] jsfnt afx]s d}n] c¿ b'O{ vfn] sfd klg u/]F . Pp6f lyof]– æ;fdlos ;f/ ;ª\u|xÆ -g]kfnL 8fOh]i6_ sf] ;Dkfbg / k|sfzg . csf]{ ;flxlTosx¿sf] / k|a'4 n]vs a'l4hLjLx¿sf] ljrf/ ;Íng . 8fOh]i6 k|sfzg ;flxTonfO{ Joj;flos If]qdf 9fNg] k|oTg lyof] . n]vsx¿nfO{ kfl/>lds lbg] / cfˆgf] d"n Joj;fo ;d]t oxL ug{sf nflu d}n] sbd p7fPF t/ d o;df xf/]F . kf7sx¿ lyPgg\ / o:tf k|oTgnfO{ prfNg] ;+:yf jf lgsfo klg lyPgg\ .


 

k|a'4 n]vsx¿af6 ljrf/ lng] qmd @)@^ ;fnb]lv ;'efifn] yfn]sf lyP / kl5 #÷$ hgfsf ljrf/ ;Íngkl5 Tof] sfd d}n] ;Dxfn]F . @)#^ ;fndf !%) eGbf a];L a'l4hLjLaf6 ljrf/x¿ ;Íng ul/P . of] ljrf/ ;Íngsf] qmddf d a'l4hLjL n]vs ;dIf s'g} ;"rgf glbO k'Uy]F / ;do dfu]/ tTsfn} ;f]lr/x]sf ljifodf n]Vg nufpFy] . o;nfO{ d}n] æljrf/ sAhfÆ eGg] gfd /fv]sf] lyPF . o; ;ÍngnfO{ k|ult k|sfzgn] 5flklbg] ePsf] lyof] . kl5 s'g} sf/0fa; To;f] x'g ;s]g .Æ ;fdlos ;f/ ;ª\u|xÆ åf/f yf]/}yf]/} k|sflzt u/L lstfasf ¿kdf lbg] k|oTg u/]sf] lyPF . Tof] klg kl5 uP/ ;Dej ePg / kl5 jf;' l/dfn æofqLÆ / lzj clwsf/Lsf ;xof]uaf6 æljb]xÆ n] lstfaL ¿k klg lbPsf] lyof] t/ Tof] klg k|efjsf/L k|sfzg x'g ;s]g . k|];d} s'x]/ uof] . d]/f] cfˆgf] wf/0ff 5 o; ;Íngsf] kl5 lgs} 7"nf] dxTj x'g]5 . lsgeg] o;df tL s]xL dxfg >i6fx¿sf klg ljrf/ sAhf 5g\ . hf] xfn lbjËt eO;s]sf 5g\ . tLdWo] afa'/fd cfrfo{, lrQw/ x[bo, zÍ/ nfld5fg], ljZj]Zj/ k|;fb sf]O/fnf, eLdlglw lTTjf/L, o1/fh zdf{, tfl/0fL k|;fb sf]O/fnf, e}/j cof{n, afns[i0f ;d, xl/eQm s6\jfn, xl/x/ zf:qL, e"lk z]/rg, dxfgGb ;fksf]6f cflb klg 5g\ .

-em_ d]/f] ;'if'Kt sfn


@)@^ ;fn;Dd d;Fu w]/} o:tf syfx¿ lyP hf] k|ltli7t / :yflkt kqklqsfx¿n] 5fKg ;s]sf lyPgg\ . o;nfO{ æsfnf] syfÆ gfdfs/0f u/L cfkm}Fn] 5kfPF . ;Fu;Fu} s]xL g/d syfx¿sf] ;Ëfnf] ;femf k|sfzgnfO{ lbPF @)#* ;fndf 5flklbof] .

@)#^ ;fnkl5 d}n] em08} ;fyLx¿sf ;d"xaf6 u'Ktaf; g} lnPF . ;f+:s[lts n]vx¿ 5fKy]F . slxn]sfxLF syf sljtf klg 5flkGYof] . o; a]nf d :yfkgfsf] sfndf lyPF . 3/ rflxPsf] lyof] . s]6fs]6L x'sf{pg', k9fpg' lyof] / ;flxTon] nf]Kkfdfq v'jfPsf] lyof] . o;f]eGbf d k"0f{tM ;flxTo;[hgfaf6 ljrlng eg] lyOgF . )#& ;fnsf] cGTolt/ ætk:jL kfOnfx¿Æ gfds pkGof; tof/ lyof] / ;femf k|sfzgnfO{ k|sfzgfy{ k]z u/]sf] lyPF t/ o;df k|o'Qm ePsf efiffsf sf/0f o;df )#* df c:jLs[t ul/of] . clxn] )$^ ;fndf ToxL pkGof; æaskqÆ gfdn] ;f/ ;ª\u|x k|sfzgaf6 k|sflzt eO;s]sf] 5 .

@)#^ ;fndf ;fsf/ / ejfgL l3ld/] cflb ;8s sljtf qmflGtdf plqP . ljz]if of] /fhgLlts qmd lyof] . ToxL tfsf d æs;}sf] uwf x'g rfxGg . s;}sf] em08f af]lSbg . d ;8sdf pleP/ ;a}sf] /ldtf x]5'{ . d]/f] of] c;xof]u cfGbf]ng xf] .Æ eGg] vfnsf sljtf n]Vy]F / d of] wf/0ffdf lgi7fjfg lyPF . h;/L d]/f] s'g} klg r'gfjdf ;xefu lyPg . To;/L g} o; qmflGtdf klg ;xefu ePg t/ d]/f ;xefuL ;fyLx¿sf] ;xefudf s'g} l6Kk0fL ul/Fg . sndn] dfq s]xL x'g g;Sg] o; b]zdf /f]uL, c;Qm, n]vsx¿sf] ;xof]usf nflu sf]if v8f ug]{ lg/Lx n]vs ;fyLx¿sf] k|of;df d]/f] klg ;xefu ;+:yfkg ;b:osf] ¿kdf /Xof] . klxn] sfo{sfl/0fL ;b:o lyPF . bf];|f] jif{ dxf;lrj klg ePF . To;}a]nf rGbf ;Íngsf nflu d]/f] ;+of]hsTjdf b]p;Lsf] cfof]hgf eof] . h;df s]bf/dfg Jolyt, sLlt{lglw lji6, /fh]Zj/ b]jsf]6f, bf}ntljqmd lji6, jf;'b]j lqkf7L, r"8fdl0f aGw', O{Zj/ jNne, jf;' l/dfn æofqLÆ, bof/fd ;Dej, ceL ;'j]bL, s[i0frGb| l;+x k|wfg cflb ljlzi6 JolQmx¿n] wd{/fh yfkfsf] gfosTjdf b]p;L ufP .


-`_ d]/f] k'ghf{u/0f


@)$% ;fnsf] dWolt/ cfP/ d]/f] ;'if'Ktfj:yfsf] cGTo ePsf] 5 . k/z' k|wfgHo"n] æcleJolQmÆ sf nflu cGtjf{tf{{ lng'eP/ dnfO{ g]kfnL ;flxlTos ultljlwdf tfGg'ePsf] 5 . cGtjf{tf{{ dfly l6sfl6Kk0fL ePkl5 dnfO{ hjfkm lbg jf d}bfgdf pqg s/ nfUof] . d v';L 5' . d k'gM tkfO{+x¿sf ;fd' hf]zsf ;fy pq]sf] 5' .



-6_ clxn]sf] l:yltdf eGg' kg]{ s'/f


olb cfTdk|;+;f dflgb}g eg] d of] eGg rfxG5' ls d h] n]V5' d]/f] JolQmut l;4fGtaf6 lgb]{lzt eP/ n]V5' . s'g} klg s'/f n]Vgsf nflu dfq jf ;fyLx¿aLr xflh/L lbgsf nflu dfq jf dgf]/~hgsf nflu dfq n]v]sf] 5'Og . To;}n] Pp6f ;dodf dnfO{ nfUof] æd'lQm k|;ËÆ d]/f] clGtd /rgf xf] . of] syfdf d]/f ;Dk"0f{ bz{g cfPsf lyP . kl5 uP/ h] hlt n]v] klg ToxL bf]xf]l/g] ;Defjgf lyof] . cfh cfP/ of] dfGotf n]Vb}5' . y'k|} k[i7df n]v]sf] of] ædfGotfÆ ToxL *÷!) k]hsf] syfd} ;Lldt 5 / nfU5 d}n] n]Vg] ;a};a} n]v syf, sljtf eljiodf klg To;}leq ;Lldt x'g]5g\ . /; km/s xf]nf . tfn km/s xf]nf . JofVofg km/s xf]nf . cg'xf/ km/s xf]nf t/ oL ;anfO{ h]g]/]6 ug]{ d"n tTj -hLg_ ;w}F Pp6} x'g]5— æ:jefjjfbÆ .

d}n] slxNo} dfg, kbjL, k'/:sf/ jf k|;+;fsf nflu n]v]sf] 5'OgF / n]Vg] klg 5}g . dnfO{ s;}nfO{ ;fy lbg' 5}g / lng' klg 5}g . s;}nfO{ lhTg' klg 5}g / s;}sf] kl5 nfUg' klg 5}g . d]/f] ofqfdf d k"0f{tM PSnf] 5' . To;}n] d]/f] /ª, ¿k / tfndfn k|rlnt ahf/efpaf6 k"0f{tM cnUu x'g ;S5 . PAgd{n b]lvg ;S5 t/ klg dnfO{ jf:tf 5}g . Pp6f l;4fGt;fy cufl8 a9]sf] 5' . hf] k"0f{tM :jefjjfbL 5 / dnfO{ nfU5 l9nf], rfF8f] ;a} ;flxlTosx¿nfO{ :jefjdf emg}{ kg]{ x'G5 . tkfO{+ ;f]Rg'xf]nf sljtf/fd wfs nfpFb}5 t/ d}n] d]/f] u'0fsf] avfg u/sf] xf]Og . æ:jefjÆ sf] avfg ub}{5' . æ:jefjÆ eg]sf] g t k'/fgf] x'G5 g t gofF g} . xhf/ jif{ klxn] h'g :jefj ljBdfg lyof] xhf/ jif{kl5 klg To;sf] :j¿k ToxL g} /xg] 5 . :jefjjfbsf] JofVofgdf d}n] t/ntfnfO{ @)@& b]lv l;4flGts[t u/]sf] lyPF / @)$) ;fndf cfP/ s]xL ;fyLx¿ æt/njfbÆ lgdf{0f -<_ ub}{5g\ .Æ :jefjÆ sf] zfZjttfsf] k|df0f oxL xf] ls ;a}sf cfFvfdf of] !@÷!% jif{kl5 klg k'/fgf] ePg .

lj8DagfrflxF oxL ePsf] 5 ls t/njfbL elgPsfx¿ dnfO{ To; 7fpFdf b]Vb}gg\ . dnfO{ a8} k"j{h eP/ >]o lng[' klg 5}g . d]/f] :jefjjfbL wd{df To:tf] t]/f], d]/f] jf tF, d s]f 3D;f3D;L 5}g . æ:jefjÆ ;a}sf] x'G5 . s;}sf] JolQmut x'Fb}g .

d]/f] ;flxlTos ofqf oxLF;Dd cfOk'u]sf] 5 / d b]Vb}5' s]xLjif{ æt/njfbLÆ x'g rfxg] ;fyLx¿;Fu lgs} lgDg:t/sf] emu8f æd]/f]Æ, æt]/f]Æ df x'g] jfnf 5 . ;[hgfTds kIfdf eGg] xf] eg] l5§} g} Pp6f lj1fg pkGof; æ;do h~hfnÆ k|sflzt x'Fb}5 . ;Fu;Fu} afnsx¿sf nflu æsldnfsf] syfÆ j}1flgs pkGof; cfpg] 5 / w]/} jif{b]lv ;f+:s[lts ;f]wsf] d]/f] 7]nL d;Fu 5 . k|sfzs kfOPsf] 5}g . Pp6f lkmNd sDkgLsf] ;fem]bf/ ag]sf] 5' . s]xL syfx¿ lkmNdflÍt x'g] ePsf 5g\ t/ tL syfx¿ k"0f{tM Jojf;flos x'g] 5g\ . æ:jefjjfbÆ ToxfF x'Fbfx'Fb} klg bfz{lgs kIf sd} k]z x'g]5 . nlIft ;d"xnfO{ ;f]Rg} k¥of] . o; nfOgdf k:bf Pp6f cK7\of/f] cg'ej of] ePsf] 5 ls– syf tkfO{+ h] lbg'xf];\ 8fO/]S6/ x'g] JolQmn] syfnfO{ cfˆgf] kf/fn] tf]8df]8 ul/lbG5 . n]vssf] s]jn gfd dfq /xG5 . d}n] o; lj8DagfnfO{ :jLsf/]sf] 5' . o;sf/0fn] ls pgLx¿af6 n]vsnfO{ zf]if0f jf ;f;g ug{ o;f] ul/Psf] x'Gg . rLh /fd|f] kfg]{ k|of;df o;f] ul//x]sf x'G5g\ . To;}n] pgLx¿;Fu d]/f] n8fOF 5}g . /xg] 5}g .

lkmNd agfpg] sfd ;Fu;Fu} uLtx¿ klg n]Vg nfu]F . uLtdf ædfofÆ, ælktL{Æ x'g' lgs} h?/L /x]5 . d o; ljifodf cln sdhf]/ /x]5' . tLgj6f uLtsf /]s8{ d]/f >f]tfx¿;fd' rfF8} k]z x'g]5g\ . dnfO{ sljtf n]VgeGbf uLt n]Vg ;lhnf] nfUof] . uLt d ljz]if kxf8L ufpF, 3/sf s'/fx¿nfO{ lnP/ n]Vg ;lhnf] dfGb5' . x]/f}F kl5 s] x'G5 <


-7_ cGTodf s[t1tf 1fkg / s]xL cfu|x


cfh;Ddsf] ;flxlTos ofqfx¿df h]–h:tf d]/f ;[hgf jf kl/>d, k|oTgx¿ eP– n]v]F . kl5 ug]{ jf ul/g] eGg] s'/f lgs} clglZrt x'G5 . w]/} jif{blv h] s'/fx¿ k"/f tof/ eO;s]sf 5g\ / 5fK5' eg]F– tL 5flkPsf 5}gg\ . of] …dfGotfÚ;DaGwL n]v eg] k|];df ptf 5flkb}5 / otf d n]Vb}5' . o:tf] klg x'Fbf] /x]5 . !@÷!% lbg cl3;Dd dnfO{ yfxf lyPg d]/f dfGotfx¿n] lstfasf] ¿k klg lng] 5g\ t/ of] ;Dej eof] . …cleJolQmÚ o;sf nflu ljz]if wGojfbsf] kfq 5 . cleJolQmn] o; …dfGotfÚ nfO{ Ps} cÍdf k|sflzt ul/lbP/ g} k':tsfsf/df lgsfNg ;Dej ePsf] 5 . ;Fu;Fu} k/z' k|wfg klg wGojfbsf kfq x'g'x'G5 . pxfFn] d]/f] cGtjf{tf{{ cleJolQmdf 5kfpg' ePkl5 d]/f j}rfl/s dfGotfx¿ plwlgPsf x'g\ / oxfF d}n] cfˆgf dfGotf jf l;4fGt eg]/ cfˆgf eGg'x¿ k]z ug{ ;Dej ePsf] 5 . yfxf 5}g tkfO{+sf cfFvfdf of] slt;Dd 7Ls b]lvG5 . d}n] cfˆgf] @)÷@@ jif{sf] ;fwgfdf h]–h:tf] xfl;n u/]F ToxL k]z u/]sf] 5' . s;}nfO{ clgi6 ug{ jf cfˆgf] ljåtf b]vfpg o;f] ul//x]sf] 5}g . of] klg 7flgof];\ ls d …c:jLs[t hdftÚ sf] k'gp{4f/ ug{ tD;]sf] x'F jf t/njfbLx¿nfO{ hjfkm lbg dfq cfPsf] x'F .

clxn];Dd d}n] slxNo} klg s;}sf] cfu|xnfO{ kv]{sf] lyOg . d}n] cfˆg} s'/fx¿ cfˆg} kf/fn] lgle{s eP/ eGb} cfPsf] lyPF . dnfO{ v;|f], 7f8f], p208, lgn{Hh cflb w]/} elgPsf] 5 . slxn] s;n] s] eg] < jf:tf /fv]sf] lyOg . of] o;sf/0fn] klg eof] ls To;a]nf tL s'/fx¿sf nflu kf7sx¿ tof/ lyPgg\ . cfh b]Vb}5'– kf7sx¿ tof/ 5g\ . s'g} klg s'/f]nfO{ /fd|f] jf g/fd|f] eGg'eGbf cufl8 j:t'ut ljZn]if0f u/]/ x]g]{ qmd z'? eO;s]sf] 5 . o:tf kf7sx¿sf] hdft al9;s]sf] 5 . To;}n] pg} ljåfg j}1flgs, ljZn]ifs kf7sx¿ ;dIf oL s'/fx¿ k]z 5g\ . d}n] pxfFx¿sf] cfu|xnfO{ kv]{sf] 5' .




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